Thomas Richardson

Thomas RICHARDSON (c. 1570  – 1634) was Alex’s 11th Great Grandfather, one of 4,096 in this generation of the Shaw line through his son Samuel. He was also Alex’s 12th Great Grandfather through his daughter Elizabeth.

Thomas Richardson Coat of Arms

Thomas Richardson of Standon, Hertford, England was born about 1570.  He married Katherine DUXFORD of Westmill, also in Herfordshire on 24 Aug 1590.  Unfortunately, the earliest surviving parish register of Standon does not begin until 1671, so that source of information regarding Thomas Richardson’s parentage is cut off.   Thomas was buried 8 Jan 1633/34 at Westmill, Herfordshire, England.

Katherine Duxford born about 1570.  Her parents were Thomas DUXFORD and Catherine [__?__] of London and Westmills.  Katherine was buried 10 Mar 1631/32 at Westmill.

Children of Thomas and Katherine:

Name Born Married Departed
1. Elizabeth RICHARDSON 1593, Westmill, Herts, England Francis WYMAN(t) Sr.
1 May 1617
 20 Jun 1630
Westmill, England
2. John Richardson 7 Nov 1596 Living in 1630/31
3. James Richardson 6 Apr 1600 Living in 1630/31
4. Samuel RICHARDSON 22 Dec 1602 in Westmill, Herts, England Joanna THAKE
18 Oct 1632 Great Mead Hertfordshire, England.
 23 Mar 1657/58 Woburn, Mass.
5. Ezekiel Richardson ca. 1604, Westmill, England Susanna Bradford
25 Feb 1629
Charlestown, Mass.
21 Oct 1647
Woburn, Mass.
6. Margaret Richardson 19 Apr 1607 Not in her father’s will
7 Thomas Richardson  3 Jul 1608 Mary Baldwin
c. 1634
England
28 Aug 1651
Woburn, Mass

Thomas’ will indicates that he was a farmer in moderate circumstances. The Puritan influence was very strong in several parishes not far from Westmill, where the Richardson lived after their marriage, and this as well as the prevailing hard times may have motivated the emigration of three sons of the family to New England, for of the many American families of whom it is said that “three brothers came over from England” (in the great majority of cases said falsely) the Richardsons area an exception in that the statement is true.

The will of Thoams Richardson of Westmill in the County of Herts, husbandman, was made 4 Mar 1630/31, and proved 31 Jul 1634, at Hitchin.

He left his wife Katherine for her life, “my littell close of pasture called little hunnymeade, cont[aining] half an acre” and after her death to his son Samuel and his heirs. To his son John 40s. to be paid within three years after his and his wife’s deaths. To his son James, 12d. To his son Thomas, 3 pounds to be paid within five years of his and his wife’s deaths. To his wife Katherine, all his movable goods for her life and thereafter to his son Samuel who was named executor. Witnesses: Richard Baker, Philip Baker.

Three of Thomas Richardson’s sons and his grandson immigrated to America.  Richardsons Row Woburn, Mass is named for them.

1647 – The three brothers lived near to each other, on the same street, which has ever since been known as “Richardson’s Row.” It was by the town laid out as a street in 1647, and the three Richardsons are in the town book represented as then living upon it.  Since Woburn was first settled near Horn Pond, this  Google Map Street View of Richardson Street in Woburn is probably the same place.

Children

1. Elizabeth RICHARDSON (See Francis WYMAN(t) Sr.‘s page)

4. Samuel RICHARDSON (See his page)

5. Ezekiel Richardson

Ezekiel’s wife Susanna Bradford was born 1610 in England. After Ezekiel died, she married 27 Mar 1651 in Woburn, Middlesex, Mass to Henry Brooks (b. 1592 in Norwich, Norfolk, England – d.12 Apr 1683 in Woburn, Middlesex, Mass.) Susannah died 15 Sep 1681 in Woburn, Middlesex, Mass.

There is no baptismal record of this son in the Westmill register and he may have been baptized in his father’s parish of Standon.  There is no doubt that Thomas Richardson was his father, however, in spite of the fact that he was not mentioned in Thomas’s will.

In Massachusetts Bay, first at Charlestown and later at Woburn, Ezekiel, Samuel and Thomas Richardson, and Francis and John Wyman, sons of the senior Thomas Richardson’s daughter Elizabeth, were living as close neighbors in the 1630-1640 decade, and Ezekiel in his will specifically calls Samuel and Thomas his brothers.

It is probable that Thomas, the father, gave Ezekiel his share of his estate to help pay for his passage to New England in 1630. ” Richardson was undoubtedly a passenger on one of the ships in the Winthrop fleet which left England in the spring of 1630.  Eleven of the vessels had arrived by July 6 of that year, and most of the voyagers settled with their govenor at Charlestown at the head of Boston harbor, where Exekiel Richardson and Susanna his wife became members of the First Church on August 27, 1630.

It was not long before Winthrop, and the church with him, moved to the neighboring peninsula which became Boston.  The Richardsons remained in Charlestown, however, and were dismissed with others to form a new Charlestown church on October 14, 1632.  On April 1, 1633, Ezekiel was appointed constable of “Charlton” by the General Court “for the year next ensuing & till a new be chosen,” and in 1635 he was himself a deputy from Charlestown to the Court, which met in New Town (Cambridge).  He was elected a member of the town’s first board of selectmen on February 10, 1634/5, and served also in 1637, 1638 and 1639.  On September 19, 1637, he was on a “Jury of Life and Death” when three persons were found guilty of adultry, one of murder, and one acquitted on the charge of murder.”

“Ezechiel Richardson and his wife” admitted to Boston church as members #80 and #81, which would be in the winter of 1630/31 [ BChR 13]; on 14 Oct 1632 “Ezechiell Richardson and Susan his wife” were dismissed to participate in the organization of Charlestown church [BChR 16]; on 2 Nov 1632

OFFICES: Deputy for Charlestown to General Court, 2 Sep 1635 [MBCR 1:156]. Petit jury, 19 Sep 1637 [MBCR 1:203]. Charlestown member of colony committee on valuation of livestock, 13 May 1640 [MBCR 1:295]. Commissioner for small causes at Woburn, 10 May 1643 [MBCR 2:35]. Committee to lay out highway between Cambridge and Woburn, 10 May 1643 [MBCR 2:36].
Charlestown selectman, 10 Feb  1634/35, 12 Feb 1637/38 [ ChTR 13, 34]. Constable, 3 April 1633 [MBCR 1:104]. Committee to lay out lots, 9 Jan 1633/34, 23 Nov 1635 [ChTR 10, 17]. Committee to lay out highways, 10 Feb 1634/35, 12 Feb 1637/38, 20 Dec 1638 [ChTR 12, 39, 40]. Committee to regulate wages, 28 Nov 1636 [ChTR 23]. Committee on stinting the common, 17 Feb 1636/37 [ChTR 25].

1632 – Phebe Richardson, Ezekiel and Susannah’s first born child is born. She is the tenth child born in the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Actually, the June, 1632 date is the date of her baptism. Some genealogies list her place of birth as “possibly England”. I think it more likely she was born on American soil sometime after the Winthrop Fleet arrived and then baptized in 1632.

1640 – The three Richardson brothers, with others, are commissioned by Governor John Winthrop to establish a colony at Woburn, Massachusetts.

1640 – The Richardson brothers build homes close together so that the road passing by becomes known as Richardson’s Row. The Richardson brothers are large landholders in the Woburn area. The area of Richardson’s Row is in what is now Winchester, Massachusetts.

1647 – Ezekiel Richardson dies in Woburn. He must have been a relatively young man, probably under 45, per estimate of Vinton. His oldest child, Phebe, had been baptized only 15 years earlier. His widow, left with seven children, remarried Henry Brooks four years later, in 1651.

In his will, dated 20 July 1647 and proved 1 June 1648,

“Ezekiell Richardson of Woebourne” appointed “my wife Susanna and my eldest son Theophilus joint executors”; and bequeathed to “Josias my son £30” at twenty-one years of age; to “James my son £30” at twenty-one years of age; to “Phebe my daughter £30” at “twenty years of age or within six months after the day of her marriage”; if any of these three should die before they come of age, the legacies be shared among the survivors; in case “my son Theophilus die before he shall accomplish one and twenty years of age, then his portion shall be equally divided to my other children”; discharged demands against “my brother Samuell Richardson”; to “my brother Thomas Richardson, his son Thomas, 10s.”; overseers Edward Converse and John Mousall of Woburn, if either of these die, then the survivor with the consent of Thomas Carter, pastor of the church in Woburn, to choose a replacement overseer; 30s. to each overseer; residue to my executors, “provided that my wife may peacably enjoy her habitation in the house so long as she shall live” [ SPR Case #72].

The inventory of the estate of Ezekiell Richardson was taken 18 Nov  1647 and totalled £190 6s. 6d., with no real estate included [SPR Case #72].
On 6 Mar  1649/50 Edward Converse confirmed to the heirs of Ezekiel Richardson an earlier sale of twelve acres of meadow & upland in Woburn [ MLR 2:71]. On 27 Mar 1651 Samuel Richeson of Woburn “having formerly sold unto Ezekill Richeson my brother (who is since deceased) forty acres of arable & meadow land” in Woburn, confirms the same to “my sister Susanna Brookes (who was the wife of my deceased brother Ezekill Richeson” [MLR 2:72]. On 23 Mar 1654/55 “Susanna Richeson now Brookes formerly the wife of Ezek: Richeson” confirmed a sale made eight years earlier by “Ezekill Richardson & Sussanna Richardson my wife” to Thomas Moulton and John Greenland of thirty-five acres of land in Woburn [MLR 2:36]. On 13 Dec 1659 “Henry Brookes & Susanna Brookes of Woburn,” in accordance with an award of the court, deeded to Theophilus Richardson the right and title they had in “the moiety or half part of the housing & land of Ezekiell Richardson of Woburn aforesaid, by executorship or otherwise” [MLR 2:154].

7. Thomas Richardson

Thomas’ wife Mary Baldwin was born 1612 in England. After Thomas died, she married 26 Oct 1655 in Wolburn, Mass to Michael Bacon (b. 16 Feb 1639 in Winston, Suffolk, England -d. 13 Aug 1707 in Bedford, Middlesex, Mass.) Mary died 19 May 1670 in Woburn, Mass

An Inventory of the Goods of Thomas Richardson, late of Woburn.
4 Working Oxen 24. 0. 0
5 Cows 22. 10. 0
3 Steers 8. 0. 0
2 Heffers 4. 10. 0
3 Calves 4. 0. 0
1 Mare 4. 0. 0
1 Ewe 1. 0. 0
8 Swine 5. 0. 0
Corne in the Barne 30. 0. 0
10 pieces of pewter 1. 0. 0
3 pieces of Brass 1. 5. 0
3 Iron pots 1. 0. 0
5 pairs of Sheets 1. 13. 4
1 table Cloth,
2 pillow beers 0. 5. 0
Bedding and the Furniture belonging to it 3. 0. 0
His wearing apparel 4. 5. 0
Two muskets and other arms 2. 4. 0
Tubs and other wooden vesells 0. 16. 0
1 Table, 1 Cupboard, 2 chares and other lumber 0. 16. 0
Iron tools 0. 17. 0 Carte, plows, chaines, and other instruments of husbandry 7. 13. 0
For his servant’s time, that he hath yet to serve 6. 0. 0 ——– £133. 14. 4

Further, the said Thomas Richardson died possed of one Dwelling House, Barn, and One hundred acres of Land, situate in the Town of Woburn, of which 25 acres are plowed land, and ten of meadow, Real Estate valued at 80 pounds. He is indebted the sum of ten pounds, ten shillings. The two steers formerly forgotten, 4 pounds ten shillings. Following the inventory, and it would seem a part of it is this statement: ‘He hath left a wife, three sons, and four daughters. The eldest son is 8 years old; the second, 6 years; and the third, three-quarters [of a year]. The eldest daughter is 13 years old; the second, 11 years; the third, 4 years; the fourth, 2 years.’

Samuel and Thomas were on a committee to lay out lots (of land) for hayfields 1 July 1636.

Children of Thomas and Mary

i. Nathaniel Richardson was wounded in the “Great Swamp Fight,” Dec. 19, 1675.

Sources:

From Sarah Hildreth, 1958 by Walter Goodwin Davis

12

http://trees.ancestry.com/owt/person.aspx?pid=13421649

http://www.genealogyofnewengland.com/f_22.htm#61

http://worldconnect.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=AHN&db=redfish&id=I30972

http://www.ida.net/users/lamar/WEB/challiskd/pafg38.htm

http://familytreemaker.genealogy.com/users/k/a/h/John-B-Kaherl/GENE19-0001.html

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Posted in 13th Generation, 14th Generation, Line - Shaw | Tagged , | 7 Comments

Cuthbert Forster

Cuthbert FORSTER (c. 1544 – 1589) was Alex’s 12th Great Grandfather; one of 8,192 in this generation of the Miller line.

Cuthbert Foster was born about 1544 in Brunton Hall, Northumberland, England. His parents were Sir Thomas FORSTER (4)  and Feorina (Frances) WHARTON.  Cuthbert descended from Sir Richard Forester of Flanders and even further back from ANARCHER Great Forester, of Flanders. He died in 1589 in England. He was married to Elizabeth BRADFORD about 1562 in England.

Elizabeth Bradford was born about 1554 in Brunton Hall, Northumberland, England.  Her parents were William BRADFORD and Alice MORTON.   Alternatively, her father was Thomas Bradford, [Mayor of Berwick].

She was baptized at the age of 17 on  16 Jul 1571 in Austerfield, Yorkshire.  After Cutbert died, she married at the age of 41 on 25 Jun 1595 to James Hall  at Austerfield on June 25, 1595 and had four children surnamed Hall, three of whom were living in 1609.

Children of Cuthbert and Elizabeth:

Name Born Married Departed
1. Jane Forster Laurence Forster
2. Grace Forster John Forster of Tuggall Hall
3. Samuel Forster 1612
4. Thomas FORSTER (5) c. 1555 in Gisburne, Yorkshire, England and was christened in  Brunton, Northumb. Margaret Forster on 22 Jan 1580 in Gisburne, Yorkshire, England
.
Elizabeth CARR 
19 Jun 1648 in Brunton, Northumb.
5. Nathan Forster
6. Matthew Forster 1574

Elizabeth’s father William Bradford (1533-1595) a prosperous Yeoman farmer, was apparently the first Bradford to settle in Austerfield.  He was the grandfather of William Bradford III (19 Mar 1590 – May 9, 1657) who served as governor of the Plymouth Colony for over 30 years and is credited as the first civil authority to designate what popular American culture now views as Thanksgiving in the United States.

In 1577 he had purchased from Anthony Morton; land and houses in Austerfield and Bawtry (in Yorkshire); and land in Mission (in Nottinghamshire). He already owned lands in Tickhill and Bentley from his parents and grandparents. Even before this purchase, in 1575, he and John Hanson were the only taxed inhabitants of Austerfield. Bradford was assessed 20s on his land, whereas John Hanson was assessed 60s on “goods”.

The accepted genealogy has him as the son of Peter Bradfourth (1475-1542).

William Bradford’s first wife was very probably Alice Morton, a sister of the Anthony Morton from whom he bought land and houses. According to the Browne Reference, William Bradford (1533-1595) won these properties in a “fine” where Bradford was a “plaintiff” and Anthony Morton and his wife, Mary are “deforciants”.

The same article asserts that William Bradford’s 1st. wife was Alice Morton, sister of Anthony Morton, and that Anthony Morton was the grandfather of  George MORTON, the Plymouth Colonist. George was also our ancestor also in the Miller tree, these lines  joined again in 1770 when Ruth Morton married Enoch Dow in Maugerville,  New Brunswick, Canada.

One of Anthony Morton’s two sons was George Morton (the elder) who married Catherine Boun and had a son, the George Morton of Leyden and Plymouth, a member of the Seperatists, many of whom sailed to Plymouth on the Mayflower.

William Bradford (1533-1595) married his second wife, Margaret Fox, in Nottingham on Oct. 19, 1567. Margaret was the daughter of William Fox of Harworth , Nottingham County, by whom William Bradford (1533-1595) had one child (a daughter), Elizabeth Bradford (bap. July 16, 1571). Elizabeth married James Hall at Austerfield on June 25, 1595 and had four children surnamed Hall, three of whom were living in 1609.

George Morton was therefore, a second cousin to Gov. William Bradford. George sailed originally on the Speedwell which developed leaks and had to return to England, so he came later on the Anne in 1623. He married Juliane Carpenter, a sister of Alice Carpenter, the 2nd wife of Governor Bradford. Thus he was also a brother-in-law to Gov. William Bradford of Plymouth.

Sources:

New England families, genealogical and memorial: a record of the …, Volume 4 edited by William Richard Cutter 1908 Pearce, Frederick Clifton (1899). Foster Genealogy Being the Record of the Posterity of Reginald Foster. Chicago: W. B. Conkey. pp. 11–12. OCLC 3354831

http://www.sallysfamilyplace.com/Wheeler/bamburgh_castle.htm

http://www.geni.com/people/Cuthbert-Forster/4131515218690040149

http://www.concentric.net/~pvb/GEN/wbrad3.html

Posted in 14th Generation, Line - Miller, Wikipedia Famous | Tagged | 2 Comments

Thomas Forster 1555

Thomas FORSTER (c. 1555 – 1648) was Alex’s 11th Great Grandfather; one of 4,096 in this generation of the Miller line.

Reginald Foster - Coat of Arms

Thomas  Forster (5) Esquire was born about 1555 in Gisburne, Yorkshire, England and was christened in  Brunton, Northumberland. His parents were Cuthbert FORSTER and Elizabeth BRADFORD.  Many sources say he was born in 1570, but that would mean he married at the age of ten.  He married first Margaret Forster on 22 Jan 1580 in Gisburne, Yorkshire, England.  He married second  Elizabeth CARR.   Thomas died 19 Jun 1648 in Brunton, Northumberland.  Many sources say Thomas died in Braunton, Devon, England.   The Forsters always lived in Northumberland, it not likely that Thomas would have moved to a similar sounding village on the other side of the country.

Margaret Forester was the daughter of Richard Forester of Tuggall,  Esq.  Thomas and Margaret had one daughter Elizabeth.

Elizabeth Carr  was born about 1570 in Gisburne, Yorkshire, England, she was too young to marry in 1580.   Her parents were  William CARR (Carre) Esq.  and Ursula BRANDLING.  Elizabeth died in  20 Sep 1594 in Gisburne, Yorkshire, England.  Some sources show children born later, maybe Thomas remarried.

Children of Thomas and Elizabeth:

Name Born Married Departed
1. Ephraim Forster 1591
Brunton Hall, Northumberland, England
2. John Forster c. 1593
Brunton Hall
 Scotland
3. Reginald FOSTER 1594/1595
Bruxton Hall
Judith WIGNOL
28 Sep 1619 Theydon Garnon, Essex, England
.
Sarah Larriford Martin Foster White
30 May 1681 in Ipswich, Essex, Mass.
4. Matthew Foster c. 1596 or 1581
Brunton Hall
5. Edmund Forster c. 1600
Brunton Hall

:Sources source state the Thomas was a Reverend.

Brunton is a village in Northumberland, England. It is about 7 miles north of Alnwick, a short distance inland from the North Sea coast. Brunton is in the parliamentary constituency of Berwick-upon-Tweed.

Elizabeth’s father William Carr  was born 11 Nov 1551 in Ford, Northumberland.    His parents were Thomas CARR (1521 in Ford, Northumberland or Esholt, West Yorkshire- 26 Jan 1558 in Stackhouse, Yorkshire) and Elizabeth HERON.(1530 – after 1554)  He married Ursula Brandling on 22 Jan 1580 in of Gisburne, Yorkshire, England.  William died 1589 in England.

Elizabeth’s mother Ursula Brandling was born about 1551 in Parish of  St. Nicholas, Northumberland, England.  Ursula’s parents were Henry BRANDLING (1515 in North Gosforth, Northumberland -) and Ursula BUCKTON. (1526 in Yorkshire – 9 Sep 1593)

Elizabeth had two brothers and one sister Anne BrandlingWilliam Buckton, and Richard Brandling.

Gosforth is an area of Newcastle upon Tyne, Tyne and Wear, England, United Kingdom, to the north of the city centre.    The origin of the area’s name is thought to have come from the title Gese Ford meaning “the ford over the Ouse”, referring to a crossing over the local River Ouse or Ouseburn, however others think that it comes from the Old English Gosaford meaning a ford where the geese dwell, and it is first recorded as Goseford in 1166. Richard Welford notes that the names of North and South Gosforth come from the north and south of the River Ouse.

Children

2. John Foster  immigrated to Scotland about 1640.  John had a son who went to Ireland and grandsons to Lancaster Co PA in 1728.

Sources:

New England families, genealogical and memorial: a record of the …, Volume 4 edited by William Richard Cutter 1908 Pearce, Frederick Clifton (1899). Foster Genealogy Being the Record of the Posterity of Reginald Foster. Chicago: W. B. Conkey. pp. 11–12. OCLC 3354831

http://www.geni.com/people/Thomas-Forster/6000000001056290479

http://nybirds.net/jsbailey/d49.htm#P11920

http://www.sallysfamilyplace.com/Wheeler/bamburgh_castle.htm

http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~smithhouse/andergen/hardyfam/aqwg280.htm

Posted in 13th Generation, Line - Miller | 3 Comments

Sir Richard Forester of Flanders

28th Gen. –  Sir Richard FORESTER (1) (wiki) of Flanders, (1050 – )  was knighted after the battle of Hastings. He was sixteen years old in 1066 when he joined  William the Conqueror, passing from Flanders to England after the decisive Battle of Hastings.

Sir Richard is popularly known as the son of BALDWIN V Count of Flanders, descended from the first Forester,  Anarcher Great Forester, of Flanders, died A. D. 837.  [See ANARCHER’s page for details of his life and the Counts of Flanders in the 9th – 11th Centuries]

However, histories of Baldwin V don’t show a child named Richard.  While it is possible that a Richard Forster was knighted by William the Conqueror at age 16, he was probably not a son of Baldwin V,  or a brother to Baldwin’s daughter Matilda who married William. My guess is his royal parentage was the invention of Frederick Clifton Pierce in his 1899 tome Foster genealogy, Part 1.

Perhaps Richard did come to England as a yeoman soldier or possibly a squire to one of William’s knights and was knighted for bravery after the battle of Hastings. However, his origins are obscure.  Richard might have been from one of the Germanic provinces with Forster (with an umlaut over the ‘o’) as his place of origin,  probably a well-known forest. Not many had true surnames in this time period and were known by occupational or place names. He may even have been the son of a forester.

It was after they had reached England that Richard was knighted for his service to William in the Battle of Hastings, and became Sir Richard.  William gave him land on the Anglo-Scottish border in Nothumberland and Berwick Counties.  Being on the border of England and Scotland, Northumberland has been the site of many battles. Our Forester ancestors participated in nine major battles between 1066 and 1415.   Here’s a fun review of Medieval English Knights from a Forester (Foster) point of view.  Characters from Shakespeare,  the Lion in Winter, The Pillars of the Earth  and Sharon Kay Penman‘s novels come alive.

Harold Godwinson falls at Hastings. Harold was struck in the eye with an arrow (left), slain by a mounted Norman knight – Bayeux Tapestry –  suspected to be commissioned by Matilda of Flanders, Odo of Bayeux or Edith of Wessex

In 1072, Sir Richard married and had one son, Sir Hugo. Sir Richard may have had other children, but they are unknown to history. Sir Richard stayed as a tried and true friend of the monarchy of England, and was a leader of men, usually into battle. Sir Richard’s heirs went on to become a large part of the history of England, whose lands resided mainly in Northumberland, England, and owned the castles in Etherstone, Bamborough, and several abbeys.

27th Gen.  Sir HUGO  Foresturious or Forster (1), (1071 England – 1121) Governor of Etherstone He married a DAUGHTER of BARDULF Bishop of Whitern.   Some sources identify this man and Sir Richard as the same person.

Pierce says “He marched against Magnus of Norway. A. D. 1101, defeated and slew him”, but Magnus III was killed by an axe wielding Irishman in 1103.  Methinks Pierce had a bit of romance in his genealogist heart.

The army of King Magnus Berrføtt of Norway in Scotland, ca 1100

Magnus III sought to re-establish Norwegian influence around the Irish Sea. In 1098 Magnus left with a fleet of 60 ships and 5,000 men to Orkney, where the strength of the fleet led to a reinforcement of the Norwegian king’s dominion. Magnus Barefoot then led his fleet from Mann to Ynys Môn, Gwynedd,  and appeared off of the coast at Ynys Seiriol (Puffin Island), interrupting a Norman victory celebration after they had recently defeated the Welsh of Gwynedd.

In the battle that followed between the Norman occupiers and the Norse, known as the Battle of Anglesey Sound, Magnus shot dead the earl of Shrewsbury with an arrow to the eye. The Norse left as suddenly as they had arrived, leaving the Norman army weakened and demoralized. Magnus conquered the Orkney Islands, the Hebrides and the Isle of Man. Edgar, King of Scotland signed a treaty with Magnus setting the boundary between Scots and Norwegian claims in the west. By ceding claims to the Hebrides and Kintyre to Magnus, Edgar acknowledged the practical realities of the existing situation. Magnus returned to Norway in early 1099.

According to the sagas, in 1103 Magnus set out again to raid in Ireland. He made an alliance with the powerful Munster king and self-proclaimed High King of Ireland, Muirchertach Ua Briain,, whose young daughter married Magnus’s young son, Sigurd I Magnusson. Muirchertach had controlled Dublin since 1093, and at this stage in his career seems to have regarded Magnus as an ally with the necessary seapower in his ongoing war with the Mac Lochlainn dynasty of the north-west.

In 1103 they made a joint assault in the north, where Muirchertach’s forces were routed. Magnus then decided to return to Norway. He sent a message with a small group of his men to Muirchertach Ua Briain, who had returned to Connaught, requesting provisions for the sea journey ahead of them. According to the sagas, while awaiting these supplies, they went on land through a marshy area and saw a large dust cloud on the horizon. It was discovered that it was indeed the men with the supplies they were awaiting.

It was at this point that a large force of the Ulaid came out from their hiding places in the marsh and copses, putting into action an ambush. The Norse forces were taken by surprise and were not in battle order.  Magnus attempted to assert control over his disordered army, ordering a portion of his force to seize the more secure ground and provide archer fire to slow down the Irish. In the ensuing melee, King Magnus received wounds to his legs, being pierced by a spear through both thighs above the knees but he fought on, attempting to get his men back to the level ground of the camp site. An axe wielding Irishman charged the King and struck him in the neck, before he was himself killed by Magnus’s personal guard. King Magnus died where he fell on St Bartholomew’s day 24th Aug 1103, aged 29 years. He was the last Norwegian king to fall in battle abroad. The Norse who escaped the ambush sailed back to Norway. One of Magnus’ men who survived the attack took Magnus’ famous sword Legbiter back to Norway

It is also said that Sir Hugo helped King Henry I  defeat his eldest brother, Robert Curthose, to become Duke of Normandy in 1106.   He had two sons, Hugo and Reginald.

Sir Hugo helped Henry I win the Battle of Tinchebray – Late medieval picture from the 15th century

The Battle of Tinchebray  was fought 28 Sep 1106, in the town of Tinchebray , Normandy, between an invading force led by Henry I of England, and his older brother Robert Curthose, the Duke of Normandy. Henry’s knights won a decisive victory, capturing Robert and imprisoning him in England and then Wales until Robert’s death in Cardiff Castle. England and Normandy remained under a single ruler until 1204.

According to Pierce and many copied sources, Hugo was Governor of Etherstone.  It took some searching, but I’ve confirmed that Etherstone  is known today Adderstone.

On this 1610 map of Northumberland,  Edderston is located between Bradford and Lucker 

Adderstone with Lucker is a civil parish in Northumberland, England. The parish includes the village of Adderstone, Lucker, Warenford, Rosebrough, Newstead,Bellshill and Bradford, and has a population of 195.

A Topographical Dictionary of England by Samuel Lewis Fifth Edition Published London; by S. Lewis and Co.,  1845

 Adderstone, a township, in the parish of Bambrough, union of Belford, N. division of Bambrough ward and of Northumberland, 3 miles (S. E. by S.) from Belford; containing 302 inhabitants. The manor was possessed by the ancient family of Forster, from whom it came, in 1763, to John William Bacon, Esq., by whom the present handsome mansion, which stands near the site of the old hall, on the west bank of the Warn, was erected, and whose successor sold the estate to J. Pratt, Esq. Twizell House is also situated in the township.

Adderstone Hall (grid reference NU141303) is a privately owned Georgian Grecian mansion situated on the bank of the River Warn near Lucker, Northumberland. It is a Grade II listed building from which the present owners operate a holiday park. Click here to see the stone cottages rentals.

The historical Forester castle was torn down wihen this Adderstone Hall was built in  1819

Adderstone was held by the Forster family, Governors of Bamburgh Castle from the 12th century. A pele tower of which no trace now remains existed on or close to the site in 1415. Thomas Forster (1659–1725), High Sheriff of Northumberland, built a new manor house in the early 18th century. The Forsters lived on the estate for over 600 years until they were ruined by the financial excesses of Sir William Forster (d 1700) and the involvement of Thomas Forster (1683–1738) in the Jacobite uprising of 1715.

The property, already leased and subsequently acquired by the Watson family, passed briefly to John W Bacon of Staward Hall in 1763. The present hall was built in 1819 to a design by architect William Burn The first Watson to be born at Adderstone was Captain John Watson whose son Sir William Watson, an MP and a baron of the Exchequer (1856) married Anne the sister of the great industrialist 1st Lord Armstrong of Cragside. Their son John William (born at Adderstone Hall 1827) had one son, Willam Henry Watson, who inherited Cragside and the Armstrong fortune from his great uncle, Lord Armstrong of Cragside who had bought Bamburgh castle in the 1894 after the death of his wife, Margaret Ramshaw, and began restoring the building with the intention of providing a convalescent home, but died (in 1900) before the work was completed. Adderstone was left to his sister Dorothy who married Noel Villiers in 1903 and lived at Adderstone Hall until she died in 1961, when the property was sold for the benefit of her many nephews and nieces.

26th Gen.  Sir Reginald FORESTER  (1) (born about 1100 Bansborough, Northumberland, England – 1156), knighted by King Stephen 22 Aug 1138 for valiant service at the Battle of the Standard, 1138. He had two sons, Hugo and Reginald.   Like his father and grandfather, was the governor of Etherstone.

Battle of the Standard Reinactment

The Battle of the Standard, sometimes called the Battle of Northallerton, in which English forces repelled a Scottish army, took place on 22 August 1138 on Cowton Moor near Northallerton in Yorkshire. The Scottish forces were led by King David I of Scotland. The English were commanded by William of Aumale.

Battle of the Standard

The Battle of the Standard, one of the bloodiest battles of The Anarchy took place three miles north of York and involved the Archbishop.  ‘The Anarchy’ is the name given to a time of conflict between the death of King Henry I in 1135 and the succession of his grandson Henry II in 1154. Henry I’s son Prince William had died in a shipwreck so the succession passed to his daughter Matilda.  But Matilda’s cousin Stephen, Count of Blois, quickly sailed across the Channel and was crowned king.

Uncertain times then followed as Matilda’s followers fought Stephen’s for the crown. Yorkshire was an important stronghold for Stephen because King David of Scotland was an ally to Matilda.

In 1138 David’s Scottish Army headed south.  When they had arrived about 30 miles to the north of York an English army of local militia and Yorkshire nobles was gathered.  The force was led by the Archbishop of York, Thurstan. The two armies met near Northallerton, on August 22, 1138.

The Battle of the Standard got its name because the holy standard of St Cuthbert was carried into battle on a cart.  The Scots were comprehensively defeated by the relatively well-organised English King Stephen of England (fighting rebel barons in the south) had sent a small force (largely mercenaries), but the English army was mainly local militia and baronial retinues from Yorkshire and the north Midlands.

David’s forces had already taken much of Northumberland apart from castles at Wark and Bamburgh.  Advancing beyond the Tees towards York, early on 22 Aug 1138 the Scots found the English army drawn up on open fields two miles north of Northallerton; they formed up in four ‘lines’ to attack it. The first attack, by unarmoured spearmen against armoured men (including dismounted knights) supported by telling fire from archers failed. Within three hours, the Scots army disintegrated, apart from small bodies of knights and men-at-arms around David and his son Henry.

At this point, Henry led a spirited attack with mounted knights; he and David then withdrew separately with their immediate companions in relatively good order. Heavy Scots losses werebclaimed, in battle and in flight.

25a. Sir Hugo FORSTER (2) born about 1121 England Not in all lineages, may be William’s brother

25th Gen. – Sir William FORESTER (1) (c. 1146 England – 1176)  Governor of Etherstone. He was the General in command against the Welsh rebellion in 1163 and 1165. He fought against Louis VII of France 1168-1169, and died at Etherstone in 1176.

In 1164 all the Welsh princes united in an uprising. When Rhys and Owain were obliged to do homage to Henry II in 1163 they were forced to accept a status of dependent vassalage instead of their previous client status, and that this led to the revolt. 

Welch Kingdoms 1093 when Rhys ap when Tewdwr died.

Rhys had other reasons for rebellion, for he had returned to Deheubarth from England to find that the neighbouring Norman lords were threatening Cantref Mawr. His nephew, Einion ab Anarawd, who was the captain of his bodyguard, had been murdered at the instigation of Roger de Clare, Earl of Hertford. The murderer had been given the protection of the Clares in Ceredigion.  Rhys first appealed to the king to intercede, then when this failed invaded Ceredigion and recaptured all of it apart from the town and castle of Cardigan. The Welsh revolt led to another invasion of Wales by King Henry in 1165.

The story of Henry II, Eleanor of Aquitane, and Louis VII has been told in many novels and films including the Lion in Winter,  Becket, and Sharon Kay Penman‘s novels, When Christ And His Saints SleptTime and Chance, and Devil’s Brood.

24th Gen.  – Sir John FORESTER (1), (before  1176 – 1220) 1st  Governor of Bamborough  During the 3rd Crusade, in  1191, Sir John Forster rode with King Richard I  the Lion Heart to Palestine.   He saved the life of English King Richard at Acre.   He was knighted and made Governor of Bamburgh Castle. on Farm Island, off the rugged coast Northumberland.    Pierce reports he was one of the nobles who compelled King John to sign the Magna Carta in 1215, but I don’t his name on the list.   I don’t think he was quite of Baron stature.

There is reported to be a monument to his memory in Bamburgh Abbey bearing his effigy in full armor. [The only reference I can find to Bamburgh Abbey is a reference in the British National Archives  to a rental in the time of  Henry VIII]

Bamburgh Castle is built on a basalt outcrop, the location was previously home to a fort of the native Britons known as Din Guarie and may have been the capital of the British kingdom of the region (see GododdinBryneich and Hen Ogledd)  from the realm’s foundation around 420 until 547, the year of the first written reference to the castle. In that year the citadel was captured by the Anglo-Saxon ruler Ida of Bernicia (Beornice) and became Ida’s seat. It was briefly retaken by the Britons from his son Hussa during the war of 590 before being relieved later the same year.

Bamburgh Castle from the beach

His grandson Æðelfriþ passed it on to his wife Bebba, from whom the early name Bebanburgh was derived. The Vikings destroyed the original fortification in 993. The Normans built a new castle on the site, which forms the core of the present one. William II unsuccessfully besieged it in 1095 during a revolt supported by its owner, Robert de Mowbray, Earl of Northumbria. After Robert was captured, his wife continued the defence until coerced to surrender by the king’s threat to blind her husband.

Bamburgh then became the property of the reigning English monarch. Henry II probably built the keep. As an important English outpost, the castle was the target of occasional raids from Scotland. In 1464 during the Wars of the Roses, it became the first castle in England to be defeated by artillery, at the end of a nine-month siege by Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick.

The Forster family of Northumberland provided the Crown with twelve successive governors of the castle for some 400 years until the Crown granted ownership to Sir John Forster. The family retained ownership until Sir William Forster (d. 1700) was posthumously declared bankrupt, and his estates, including the castle, were sold to Lord Crew, Bishop of Durham (husband of his sister Dorothy) under an Act of Parliament to settle the debts.

Bamburgh Castle at Night

The castle deteriorated but was restored by various owners during the 18th and 19th centuries. It was finally bought by the Victorian industrialist William Armstrong, who completed the restoration.  During the Second World War, the Royal Navy corvette HMS Bamborough Castle was named after it.

The castle still belongs to the Armstrong family, and is opened to the public. It also hosts weddings and corporate events. It has been used as a film location since the 1920s, featuring in films such as Ivanhoe (1952), El Cid (1961), Mary, Queen of Scots (1972), Elizabeth (1998) and  Robin Hood (2010 film)

The Siege of Acre was one of the first confrontations of the Third Crusade, lasting from August 28, 1189 until July 12, 1191, and the first time in history that the King of Jerusalem was compelled to personally see to the defence of the Holy Land. It was also the deadliest event of the whole period of the Crusades for the Christian ruling class of the east.

Siege of Acre

At the siege of Acre,  1191, a party of Sarcens having sallied forth and surround King Richard [1189 – 1199], he would have been overpowered and made prisoner had not Sir John Forster, who seeing from a distance the danger in which the King was placed, pushed forward with couched lance followed by his retainers shouting,  “To the rescue! A Forester!  A Forester!.” Sir John who for his bravery and timely assistance received from King Richard a  grant to bear a Chevron Vert on his shield.

23rd Gen.  Sir Randolph FORESTER (1) , (1220 England – 1256) 2nd Governor of Bamborough    He accompanied Prince Richard, 1st Earl of Cornwall, brother of Henry III [1207 – 1272], to France in 1225, the Prince being sent by the King for the purpose of regaining his French provinces.    After a year’s fighting an armistice was agreed upon, but the French King Louis VIII (1187-1226) dying before its expiration, the hostilities were again renewed, but ended in a very little result.  1225 was the year Richard became Count of Poitou  at the age of sixteen.  Though he campaigned on King Henry’s behalf in Poitou and Brittany, and served as Regent three times, relations were often strained between the brothers in the early years of Henry’s reign. Richard rebelled against him three times, and had to be bought off with lavish gifts.

Richard’s active career began in 1225, when he was sixteen years old. The pacification of England had now so far advanced that a great effort was resolved upon to win back the Aquitanian heritage of the English kings which had been almost altogether lost under King John. Richard was chosen as the nominal leader of the expedition destined for France. On 2 Feb. 1225 Henry III girt him with the knightly sword  On 13 Feb. Richard was granted the wealthy earldom of Cornwall, then in the king’s hands  , to which were added in November the Cornish tin mines in possession of his mother, Queen Isabella . It is probable that he was invested at the same time with the county of Poitou, so that he might call upon the allegiance of the Poitevins as their lawful lord against the aggressions of Louis VIII . His uncle, the veteran William Longsword, earl of Salisbury , and Philip of Albigny were appointed his chief counsellors.

On 23 March Count Richard sailed with a considerable army. He landed at Bordeaux, where he was enthusiastically received. Richard easily captured St. Macaire and Bazas, the outposts of French influence, and on 2 May he wrote a brief letter to Henry III, boasting that all Gascony, save one town and one noble, was reduced to his obedience . The one resisting town, La Réole, was now subdued, after a long, fierce, and often interrupted struggle, while the winning over of Bergerac, through the timely defection of its lord to the English, opened up the road over the Dordogne towards Poitou. Richard’s position was made more difficult by the disunion of his advisers , by the sickness and return home of William Longsword, and by the depredations of Savary de Mauléon and the corsairs of La Rochelle, who intercepted his convoys and straitened his resources. Richard, who sought to keep on good terms with the ecclesiastical authorities, was further embarrassed by the necessity of forming an alliance with Raymond of Toulouse, who supported the Albigensians.

22nd Gen. – Sir Alfred FORESTER (1), “The Generous” (c. 1250 –  1284 Etherstone, Bamburg Castle, Northumberland) 3rd Governor of Bamborough knighted on the battlefield of Evesham, 1265, and died 1284, and was succeeded by his son. He assisted Prince Edward I after his escape from the rebel barons in raising an army for this purpose of releasing his father Henry III and Prince Richard from their confinement, and was appointed one of the Kings’ officers.  Having collected his army, Prince Edward fought the battle of Evesham Aug 4, 1265, in which he was victorious.

The Royalists were led by Prince Edward, Henry’s eldest son. A civil war, known as the Second Barons’ War, ensued.  The charismatic de Montfort and his forces had captured most of southeastern England by 1263, and at the Battle of Lewes on 14 May 1264, Henry was defeated and taken prisoner by de Montfort’s army. While Henry was reduced to being a figurehead king, de Montfort broadened representation to include each county of England and many important towns—that is, to groups beyond the nobility. Henry and Edward remained under house arrest. The short period that followed was the closest England was to come to complete abolition of the monarchy until the Commonwealth period of 1649–60 and many of the barons who had initially supported de Montfort began to suspect that he had gone too far with his reforming zeal.

Fifteen months later Prince Edward had escaped captivity (having been freed by his cousin Roger Mortimer) and led the royalists into battle, turning the tables on de Montfort at the Battle of Evesham in 1265. Following this victory, savage retribution was exacted on the rebels. The Battle of Evesham was one of the two main battles of 13th century England’s Second Barons’ War. It marked the defeat of Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester, and the rebellious barons by Prince Edward – later King Edward I – who led the forces of his father, King Henry III. It took place on 4 August 1265, near the town of Evesham, Worcestershire.

Death and mutilation of Montfort at the Battle of Evesham.

With the Battle of Lewes Montfort had won control of royal government, but after the defection of several close allies and the escape from captivity of Prince Edward, he found himself on the defensive. Forced to engage the royalists at Evesham, he faced an army twice the size of his own. The battle soon turned into a massacre; Montfort himself was killed and his body mutilated. Though the battle effectively restored royal autonomy, scattered resistance remained until the Dictum of Kenilworth was signed in 1267.

21st Gen.  Sir Reginald FORESTER (2), (born before 1285 England – 1328) 4th Governor of Bamborough who fought at Bannockburn, 1314, and died in 1328, leaving descendants who were great chieftains and closely allied to royalty in Scotland, Ireland, Wales and England. The Battle of Bannockburn (24 June 1314) was a significant Scottish victory in the Wars of Scottish Independence. It was the decisive battle in the First War of Scottish Independence.

In the spring of 1314, Edward Bruce, brother of King Robert Bruce, laid siege to English-held Stirling Castle. Unable to make any significant progress, he struck a deal with the castle’s commander, Sir Philip Moubray, that if the castle was not relieved by Midsummer Day (June 24) it would be surrendered to the Scots. By the terms of the deal a large English force was required to arrive within three miles of the castle by the specified date. This arrangement displeased both King Robert, who wished to avoid pitched battles, and Edward IIwho viewed the potential loss of the castle as a blow to his prestige.

Seeing an opportunity to regain the Scottish lands lost since his father’s death in 1307, Edward prepared to march north that summer. Assembling a force numbering around 20,000 men, the army included seasoned veterans of the Scottish campaigns such as the Earl of Pembroke, Henry de Beaumont, and Robert Clifford. Departing Berwick-upon-Tweed  on June 17, it moved north through Edinburgh and arrived south of Stirling on the 23rd. Long aware of Edward’s intentions, Bruce was able to assemble 6,000-7,000 skilled troops as well as 500 cavalry, under Sir Robert Keith, and approximately 2,000 “small folk.”

With the advantage of time, Bruce was able train his soldiers and better prepare them for the coming battle. The basic Scottish unit, the schiltron (shield-troop) consisted of around 500 spearmen fighting as a cohesive unit. As the immobility of schiltron had been fatal at the Battle of Falkirk [Remember Braveheart?] , Bruce instructed his soldiers in fighting on the move. As the English marched north, Bruce shifted his army to the New Park, a wooded area overlooking the Falkirk-Stirling road, a low-lying plain known as the Carse, as well as a small stream, the Bannock Burn, and its nearby marshes.

As the road offered some of the only firm ground on which the English heavy cavalry could operate, it was Bruce’s goal to force Edward to move right, over the Carse, in order to reach Stirling. To accomplish this, camouflaged pits, three feet deep and containing caltrops, were dug on both sides of the road. Once Edward’s army was on the Carse, it would be constricted by the Bannock Burn and its wetlands and forced to fight on a narrow front, thus negating its superior numbers. Despite this commanding position, Bruce debated giving battle until the last minute but was swayed by reports that English morale was low.

On June 23, Moubray arrived in Edward’s camp and told the king that battle was not necessary as the terms of the bargain had been met. This advice was ignored, as part of the English army, led by the Earls of Gloucester and Hereford, moved to attack Bruce’s division at the south end of the New Park. As the English approached, Sir Henry de Bohun, nephew of the Earl of Hereford, spotted Bruce riding in front of his troops and charged. The Scottish king, unarmored and armed with only a battle axe, turned and met Bohun’s charge. Evading the knight’s lance, Bruce cleaved Bohun’s head in two with his axe.

Battle of Bannockburn Death Of de Bohun

Chastised by his commanders for taking such a risk, Bruce simply complained that he had broken his axe. The incident helped inspire the Scots and they, with aid of the pits, drove off Gloucester and Hereford’s attack. To the north, a small English force led by Henry de Beaumont and Robert Clifford was also beaten off by the Scottish division of the Earl of Moray. In both cases, the English cavalry was defeated by the solid wall of Scottish spears. Unable to move up the road, Edward’s army moved to the right, crossing the Bannock Burn, and camped for the night on the Carse.

At dawn on the 24th, with Edward’s army surrounded on three sides by the Bannock Burn, Bruce turned to the offensive. Advancing in four divisions, led by Edward Bruce, James Douglas, the Earl of Moray, and the king, the Scottish army moved towards the English. As they drew near, they paused and knelt in prayer. Seeing this, Edward reportedly exclaimed, “Ha! they kneel for mercy!” To which an aid replied, “Yea sire, they kneel for mercy, but not from you. These men will conqueror or die.” As the Scots resumed their advance, the English rushed to form up, which proved difficult in confined space between the waters. Almost immediately, the Earl of Gloucester charged forward with his men. Colliding with the spears of Edward Bruce’s division, Gloucester was killed and his charge broken. The Scottish army then reached the English, engaging them along the entire front. Trapped and pressed between the Scots and the waters, the English were unable to assume their battle formations and soon their army became a disorganized mass. Pushing forward, the Scots soon began to gain ground, with the English dead and wounded being trampled. Driving home their assault with cries of “Press on! Press on! the Scots’ attack forced many in the English rear to flee back across the Bannock Burn. Finally, the English were able to deploy their archers to attack the Scottish left. Seeing this new threat, Bruce ordered Sir Robert Keith to attack them with his light cavalry. Riding forward, Keith’s men struck the archers, driving them from the field. As the English lines began to waver, the call went up “On them, on them! They fail!” Surging with renewed strength, the Scots pressed home the attack. They were aided by the arrival of the “small folk” (those lacking training or weapons) who had been held in reserve. Their arrival, coupled with Edward fleeing the field, led to the English army’s collapse and a rout ensued.

The Battle of Bannockburn became the greatest victory in the history of Scotland. While full recognition of Scottish independence was still several years off, Bruce had driven the English from Scotland and secured his position as king. While exact numbers of Scottish casualties are not known, they are believed to have been light. English losses are not known with precision but may have ranged from 4,000-11,000 men. Following the battle, Edward raced south and finally found safety at Dunbar Castle. He never again returned to Scotland.

20st Gen. – Sir Richard FORESTER (2), (born England –  1371) 5th Governor of Bamborough who fought at Crecy, 1346; Poitiers, 1356; was knighted for valor; died in 1371 ; and was succeeded by his son, The Battle of Crécy  took place on 26 August 1346 near Crécy in northern France, and was one of the most important battles of the Hundred Years’ War. The combination of new weapons and tactics has caused many historians to consider this battle the beginning of the end of classic chivalry.

Crécy was a battle in which an Anglo-Welsh army of 9,000 to 15,000, commanded by Edward III of England and heavily outnumbered by Philip VI of France‘s force of 35,000 to 100,000 was victorious as a result of superior weaponry and tactics, demonstrating the importance of the modern military concept of fire power. The effectiveness of the English longbow, used en masse, was proven against armoured knights, contrary to the conventional wisdom of the day which held that archers would be ineffective and be butchered when the armoured units closed in. In the battle, the French knights, protected by mail reinforced with plate, nearly exhausted by charging several miles into the fray (against their king’s wishes) and having to walk through a quagmire of mud to charge up a shallow hill into English and Welsh arrow storms, were cut down. The result was that much of the French nobility died, perhaps even a third.

Battle of Crecy by  Froissart

Knights’ armour had not yet evolved to the stage where longbows could not penetrate, and the knights’ horses were barely protected at all. The storm of arrows killed or disabled the knights’ mounts, and left the knights floundering in the mud on foot beneath an unavoidable hail of arrows The Battle of Poitiers was fought between the Kingdoms of England and France on 19 September 1356 near Poitiers, resulting in the second of the three great English victories of the Hundred Years’ War: Crécy, Poitiers, and Agincourt.

Richard became a general in the Black Prince’s army at the Battle of Poictiers in 1356 and was knighted for his part in the battle.

Battle of Poitiers (1356)

19th Gen –  Sir William FORESTER (2), (born about 1372 Buckton, Durham, England – 1397) 6th Governor of Bamborough He married Edith of Orde. He fought with Henry V  (1386–1422) against the French, was knighted by his sovereign, and was succeeded by his son,

18th Gen. –  Sir Thomas FORSTER (1), (1397  Buckton, Parish of Holy Island, Durham, England – 1465 in England) 7th Governor of Bamborough,  Lord of Etherstone  married Joan de Elwerden (c.1405 – 1425), co-heiress to the earldom of Angus,

Thomas was severely wounded fighting in the Battle of Otterburn, 1388. Precise date of his death is not certain, though 1425 seems reasonable.

Her parents were Sir William Lord of ELMEDEN  [ today’s Embleton], (c. 1381 Elmeden, Northumberland – 25 May 1447 England) and Elizabeth of UMFREVILLE (wiki)    (c. 1388 – 23 Nov 1424).  Her parents married 23 Nov  1404 in at Elizabeth’s parents’ Harbottle Castle, Yorkshire, England.

Ruins of Harbottle Castle

The UMFRAVILLES forfeited the Earldom of Angus in 1327 when they fought on the wrong side at the battle of Battle of Bannockburn, though the family continued to use the title in England.  The Mormaer  or Earl of Angus was the ruler of the medieval Scottish province of Angus.

Robert de UMFRAVILLE, 8th Earl of Angus (c. 1277-1325) was an Anglo-Norman baron in Northumberland and the eighth Earl of Angus.   He adhered to Edward II both against Scots and barons, and was regularly summoned to the English parliaments as Earl of Angus. He fought at the Battle of Bannockburn, and was taken prisoner after the battle by Robert Bruce, but soon released. Though formerly in opposition to the Despensers, he sat in judgment on Thomas of Lancaster. Bruce deprived him of his Scottish estates and title, and before 1329 the real earldom had been vested in the House of Stuart, from whom it passed in 1389 to a bastard branch of the Douglases. Robert married twice. His first wife was Lucy, sister and heiress of William of Kyme, whose considerable estates in Yorkshire and Lincolnshire, including the castle of Kyme, passed thus to the Umfravilles. By her he had a son Gilbert and a daughter Elizabeth. By his second wife, Eleanor, he had two sons, Robert and Thomas

This Sir Thomas is considered to be the first of the Adderstone–Bamburgh line, and so he ranks highly in family records dating back to that time. For all intents and purposes he was the first of the Bamburgh Forsters. History shows that he owned a Pele Tower in Adderstone in 1415. Later that year, as a youth of 18 or 19 he accompanied Henry V to France, where he is said to have fought valiantly at the Battle of Agincourt under the Percy family banner. (The young Earl of Northumberland, a lad of 17, was not present, having been charged by Henry V with the task of holding the Scots at bay along the Border during the King’s absence in France). He returned to Northumbria with a well-earned knighthood for his deeds in the field at Agincourt and his name on the Subsidy Roll as holding one quarter of a knight’s fee in Adderstone.

He had earlier married Elizabeth Featherstonhaugh and the Arms of her family were now added to Thomas’s new Arms marking the start of a real dynasty. (The fee related to land granted in exchange for his outstanding military service.) Elizabeth bore him 22 children, 19 boys and three daughters. Thomas, as the elder, inherited his father’s title.

A Vanished 15th C. tower said to be close to present 18th C. Adderstone Hall. Dodds writes thick woods inhibit visual confirmation.  A medieval tower at Adderstone is mentioned in a document of 1415.  The tower was home of Sir Thomas Forster who fought at the Battle of Flodden, the tower having been built before 1415. The tower was incorporated into a mansion in the late 16th C. or early 17th C., but both were pulled down when a later Thomas Forster built a new house (Adderstone Hall) in 18th C.

17th Gen. –  Sir Thomas FORSTER (2) (c.  1448 Etherstone, Durham, England – ) 8th Governor of Bamborough baronet, Lord Etherstone.  He married Elizabeth FETHERSTONEHAUGH of Stanhope Hall the daughter of Featherstonhaugh, of Stanhope Hall, Durham, chief of the clan Featherston.

Within a little distance of the town of Stanhope, towards the west is a large ancient building, called Stanhope Hall situated on an eminence and guarded with a curtain wall to which you ascend by a large flight of many steps.  This is one of the possessions of the Earl of Carlisle.  It was the ancient family house of the Fetherstonhaughs, the last male of which race fell in the (wars) field in the civil wars, soon after which the estate was sold.   There is a considerable demesne appertaining to this house in which are valuable lead mines. Mike Salter’s ‘The Castles and Tower Houses of Northumbland’

Featherstone Castle – 673609 – Much of this mansion in parkland by the South Tyne was built in 1812-20 by Thomas Wallace but there is a 14th century L-plan tower at the SW corner and the west range which it adjoins has a 13th century doorway towards the court with one order of colonettes and may incorporate some walling from a hall-house of that period. The tower house has a main block 12.2m long from east to west by 9.1 m wide and has a wing projecting from the eastern half of the south side, a turret at the west end of that side, a turret containing a spiral stair at the west end of the north side, and a square turret set diagonally on the NE corner. The tower is much altered but still has a vaulted basement and original battlements with round bartizans on three courses of corbelling. The 14th century windows in the west range may have come from the tower. The manor was held by the Featherstonehaugh family from at least John’s reign until it was confiscated by Parliament after Sir Timothy was executed at Bolton in 1651 following his capture at the battle of Worcester. The castle was sold to the Earl of Carlisle but the Featherstonhaugh family repurchased it in 1711, only to dispose of it in 1779 to James Wallace, Attorney General. The tower house and former moat are thought to have been added c. 1330-5 by Thomas Featherstonehaugh but the place does not appear in the 1415 list of strongholds. At the time of the 1541 survey it was held by Alexander Featherstonehaugh and was in good repair.

16th Gen. –  Sir Thomas FORSTER (3) was born before 1500 in England.  He died in England.  He was married to Dorothy OGLE about 1520 in England.  third son, high sheriff of Northumberland, 1564 and 1572, married Dorothy, daughter of Ralph, Lord Ogle of Ogle (a family of very great antiquity),

Dorothy Ogle was born about 1500 in Eglingham, Northumberland, England. Her parents were Baron Ralph OGLE   (7 Nov 1468 in Bothal, Northumberland – 16 Jan 1513 in Morpeth, Northumberland) and Baroness Margaret GASCOIGNE (1473 in Gawthorpe, Yorkshire – after 6 Jul 1515) Children of Thomas and Dorothy:

i. Eleanor Forster  born about 1520 in Alderstone, Northumberland, England.
ii. John Forster  [Sir Knight] born before 1520 in Barnborough, Northumberland, England.
iii. Regionald Forster  born about 1522 in England
iv. Rowland Forster  born about 1524 in England
v. Dorothy Forster  born about 1524 in Berwick, Northumberland, England
vi. Thomas FORSTER 
vii. Elizabeth Forster  born about 1526 in England
viii. Angus Forster  born about 1528 in England.
ix. Robert Forster  born about 1530 in England.
x. Margaret Forster  born about 1530 in Berwick, Northumberland, England.  She married William Heron who was born about 1526 in Berwick, Northumberland, England.

Not sure whether it was this Sir. Thomas Forester or his father who fought in the Battle of Flodden.  He was the leader of a troop of sixty horsemen.

Battle of Flodden –  It is difficult to imagine the carnage on that day but after a matter of just a few hours, an estimated 14,000 men lie dead or dying, amongst them the Scottish king and many of his nobles. The rate of slaughter exceeds that of some of the most horrific battles on the Somme in the First World War.

This battle some times called the Battle of Branxton was fought in the county of Northumberland in northern England on 9 September 1513, between an invading Scots army under King James IV  and an English army commanded by the Earl of Surrey. It ended in victory for the English army, and was the largest battle (in terms of numbers) fought between the two nations.

James was killed within a spear length from Surrey and his body taken to Berwick. The ‘rent surcoat of the King of Scots stained with blood’ was sent to Henry VIII at Tournai. The biggest error the Scots made was placing their officers in the front line, medieval style.   The English generals stayed behind the lines in the Renaissance style.

15th Gen. – Sir Thomas FORSTER (4)  was born about 1526 in Adderstone, Northumberland, England. He died on 4 Apr 1589.   He married Feorina (Frances) WHARTON.  He was Sheriff of Northumberland. Feorina (Frances) Wharton was born about 1528 in England,  Her father was  Lord Wharton, of Wharton, and was of Adderstone Children of Thomas and Feorina

i.  Cuthbert FORSTER, 
ii. James Thomas Forster [Sir]. was born about 1552 in Brunton Hall, Northumberland, England.  He married Margaret Servington.   Thomas and Margaret are the parents of Christopher Foster who married Frances Stevens about 1610. Christopher and Frances along with three children sailed for America in 1635 aboard the Abigail. Christopher is the first of the “Long Island Fosters”

14th Gen. –  Cuthbert FORSTER (1) –  was born about 1544 in Brunton Hall, Northumberland, England. He died in 1589 in England.  He married  Elizabeth BRADFORD about 1562 in England.

13th Gen. –  Thomas FORSTER (5), of Brunton,, Northumberland Esquire, (1570 in Gisburne, Yorkshire, England –  19 Jun 1648).  He married  Elizabeth CARR on 22 Jan 1580 in Gisburne, Yorkshire, England.

12th Gen. Reginald FOSTER (3) was born 1594/1595 in Exeter, Devonshire, England. He married Judith WIGNOL on 28 Sep 1619 in Theydon Garnon, Essex, England.   He immigrated in 1638 with his five sons, Abraham, Reginald, William, Isaac, and Jacob, and settled at Ipswich, Mass.  After Judith died, he married again, Sep  1665 to  Sarah Larriford, widow of John Martin, of Ipswich.  Reginald died 30 May 1681 in Ipswich, Essex, Mas

11th Gen. – Sarah FOSTER was born 15 Oct 1620 in Exeter, Dervonshire, England, England and was christened 15 Oct 1620 in Theydon Garnon, Essex, England. She married William STORY on 1640 in Ipswich, Essex, Mass.  Sarah  died in 1681 in Ipswich, Essex, Mass.

10th Gen. – Ann Story was born ca. 1646 Ipswich.  Ann married Stephen DOW I  16 Sep 1663.  Although this marriag is recorded at the Haverhill First Church, it is improbable that it took place there.   Ann died 3 Feb 1714/15 in Haverhill Mass.

9th. Gen. – Stephen DOW II was born 10 Sep 1670 in Haverhill, Essex Co, Mass.   He was with his father in the Haverhill garrison 15 Mar 1697 when two of his sisters and twenty-five others were slain by Indians. He married Mary HUTCHINS on 14 Dec 1697 in Haverhill, Essex Co., Mass.  Mary became his step-sister many years later in 1715 when his father married Mary’s mother.  Stephen died 17 Jun 1743. in Haverhill, Essex Co. Mass

8th Gen. – David DOW was born 25 Dec 1714 in Haverhill, Essex Mass.   He married his first wife Abigail Kelly 28 Jan 1736/37 in Salem, Rockingham, New Hampshire.   Alterntively, he married Abigail a few miles away in Methuen, Mass.  After Abigail died, he married his second wife  Mary BROWN 10 Apr 1744 in Salem NH.   David died 1794 in Oromoeto, New Brunswick, Canada,  killed by a falling tree that he was cutting.  Note that he was 80 years old at the time.  Ten years later, David’s grandson and namesake David Dow was also killed by a falling tree, while he was clearing the Sullivan Creek hill road near Dow Settlement, Canterbury, NB.

“Lumbering in New Brunswick – Lumbermen at work in the forest”. Engraving by Johannes Oertel, published in the Illustrated London News, 23 August 1858. Credit: Rob Fisher.

7th Gen. – Enoch DOW was born 7 Dec 1744, Methuen, Essex County, Massachusetts.   He moved from New Hampshire to Orocmocto New Brunswick in 1753 with his his parents and brothers so the Dows aren’t Torries who escaped after the Revolution.  He married Ruth MORTON about 1770 in Maugerville,  New Brunswick, Canada.   Enoch died 23 Dec 1813, in Dow Settlement, (Dumfries Parish) York County, New Brunswick.

Enoch Dow – Monument

6th Gen.Ruth DOW was born   1 Dec 1787 in Woodstock Parish, York, New Brunswick.  She married Abraham ESTEY 17 Nov 1812 in Frederickton, New Brunswick.  Ruth died 2 Jan 1864.

Abraham Estey was born in Kingsclear along St. Johns River, New Brunswick

5th G. Mary ESTEY  was born 15 Jan 1820 in New Brunswick .  She  married George MILLER on 23 Aug 1838 in Dumfries, York Co [New Brunswick Royal Gazette] or 22 Oct 1837.  Mary died 7 Mar 1889 in Pickett, Winnebago County Wisconsin.

Mary Estey Miller

4th G. – Frank Nelson MILLER  was born on 18 June 1858 in Utica Wisconsin.   He married on 4 Jan 1896 in Fresno, Calif.  to  Agnes Genevieve HENRY (1863 – 1931).   Frank died on 29 Dec 1903 in Willows, California.

Miller Family: Genevieve, Frank, Henry, and Agnes

Miller Family: Genevieve, Frank, Henry, and Agnes

3rd G. Genevieve MILLER  was born 23 Mar 1899 in San Diego.  She married on 4 Apr 1925 in Los Angeles to Horace Horton BLAIR (1894 – 1965)

Genevieve Miller 1921

2nd G. Nancy BLAIR m. Everton Harvey MINER  1st G.  Mark MINER m. Guadalupe VILLA VELAZQUEZ

ALEX!

Sources:

New England families, genealogical and memorial: a record of the …, Volume 4 edited by William Richard Cutter 1908 Pearce, Frederick Clifton (1899). Foster Genealogy Being the Record of the Posterity of Reginald Foster. Chicago: W. B. Conkey. pp. 11–12. OCLC 3354831

http://www.sallysfamilyplace.com/Wheeler/bamburgh_castle.htm#Sir Randolph Forster died 1256

http://www.bamburghcastle.com/castle.php

http://www.rootschat.com/forum/index.php/topic,546354.msg3999737.html

http://www.users.globalnet.co.uk/~bluebel/Adderstonehall/NewFiles/Cottages.html

http://www.mathematical.com/forsterthomas1474.html

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Anarcher Great Forester of Flanders

36th Gen. – ANARCHER Great Forester, of Flanders, died A. D. 837, leaving a son, About 800 A.D. the King of Denmark became oppressive, exacting high taxes from the nobles and their subjects. The Roman Empire about this time was crumbling and could not defend its provinces. The coast of Northern Europe including England and Scotland fell an easy prey to these Danish nobles. Much of Germany, France, Spain, Switzerland and Italy were conquered by these Norsemen. One of these Danish nobles, Anacher, organized the conquered territory into a state, and called it Flanders. ‘He was the ancestor of all the Fosters that ever lived.’ Says Pierce, the noted Chicago genealogist.

Anacher procured large estates near Bruges,  and also near Sluys, now in Holland. He made Arras, now in France, his capital of Flanders. Charlemagne, with the assistance of Anacher and his army, became the successful defender of Christianity and the Roman Empire from the attacks of the new swarms of Norsemen, elevated Anacher to a cabinet position which Charlemagne called the Great Forester; because Anacher was to have charge of all the wild animals and government lands of France.  Anacher died in 837 and his son took his place. Charlemagne died in 814.

35th Gen. –  BALDWIN I (wiki), (probably born 830’s, died 879), also known as Baldwin Iron Arm  on account of his great strength, (the epithet is first recorded in the 12th century), was the First Count of Flanders.

Coat of Arms of the Count of Flanders from the 9th century until the abolition of the position by the French revolutionaries in 1790.

At the time Baldwin first appears in the records he was already a count, presumably in the area of Flanders, but this is not known. Count Baldwin rose to prominence when he eloped with princess JUDITH, daughter of CHARLES the Bald, king of West Francia. Princess

Judith  first married in Oct 856 at Verberie sur Oise, France to  Æthelwulf , King of England who abdicated on October 1, 856 and died in 858.  Judith was only about 12 years old at the time, and the marriage was really nothing more than a demonstration of alliance between her father Charles “the Bald” and Æthelwulf. Judith then married to Æthelwulf’s son (from a previous marrage) and heir, Æthelbald,, King of England in 860. This marriage was considered to be “against God’s prohibition and Christian dignity” and they had an annulment the same year.

Around Christmas 861, at the instigation of Baldwin and with her brother Louis’ consent Judith escaped the custody she had been put under in the city of Senlis, Oise near Paris after her return from England. She fled north with Count Baldwin. Charles had given no permission for a marriage and tried to capture Baldwin, sending letters to Rorik of Dorestad and Bishop Hungar, forbidding them to shelter the fugitive. After Baldwin and Judith had evaded his attempts to capture them, Charles had his bishops excommunicate the couple. Judith and Baldwin responded by traveling to Rome to plead their case with Pope Nicholas I. Their plea was successful and Charles was forced to accept. The marriage took place on 13 Dec 863 in Auxerre.

Institution of Baldwin I ‘Bras de Fer’, the first count of Flanders by Charles the Bald, the Frankish king.

By 870 Baldwin had acquired the lay-abbacy of St. Pieter in Ghent and is assumed to have also acquired the counties of Flanders and Waas, or parts thereof by this time. Baldwin developed himself as a very faithful and stout supporter of Charles and played an important role in the continuing wars against the Vikings. He is named in 877 as one of those willing to support the emperor’s son, Louis the Stammerer. During his life Baldwin expanded his territory into one of the major principalities of Western Francia, he died in 879 and was buried in the Abbey of St-Bertin, near Saint-Omer.

The ruins of Abbey of Saint Bertin in 1850. The abbey had its greatest flourishing from its inception in the 7th  century until the 13th century, though it survived until it was shut down at the French Revolution.

34th Gen. – BALDWIN II (wiki), of Flanders, (c. 865 – 10 Sep  918), nicknamed Calvus (the Bald) was the Second Count of Flanders. He was also hereditary abbot of St. Bertin from 892 till his death.  Through his mother Judith, a daughter of Charles the Bald, Baldwin was a descendant of  CHARLEMAGNE. [our ancestor another way down the Miner line]

The early years of Baldwin’s rule were marked by a series of devastating Viking raids. Little north of the Somme was untouched. Baldwin recovered, building new fortresses and improving city walls, and taking over abandoned property, so that in the end he held far more territory, and held it more strongly, than had his father. He also took advantage of the conflicts between Charles the Simple and Odo, Count of Paris to take over the Ternois and the Boulonnias.

In 884 Baldwin married ÆLFTHRYTH (wiki) (Ælfthryth, Elftrude, Elfrida), a daughter of King ALFRED the Great (wiki) of England. The marriage was motivated by the common Flemish-English opposition to the Vikings, and was the start of an alliance that was a mainstay of Flemish policy for centuries to come.

In 900, he tried to curb the power of Archbishop Fulk of Rheims by assassinating him, but he was excommunicated by Pope Benedict IV. He died at Blandinberg (near Ghent) and was succeeded by his eldest son Arnulf I of Flanders. His younger son Adalulf was (the first) count of Boulogne.

Baldwin II Count of Flanders

33th Gen. – ARNULF I (wiki), of Flanders, the Forester, (c. 890 – March 28, 965), called the Great, was the third Count of Flanders, who ruled the County of Flanders, an area that is now northwestern Belgium and southwestern Holland. Arnulf  was named after his distant ancestor, Saint Arnulf of Metz; this was intended to emphasize his family’s descent from the Carolingian dynasty.

Arnulf I greatly expanded Flemish rule to the south, taking all or part of ArtoisPonthieuAmiens, and Ostravent. He exploited the conflicts between Charles the Simple and Robert I of France, and later those between Louis IV and his barons. In his southern expansion Arnulf inevitably had conflict with the Normans, who were trying to secure their northern frontier. This led to the 943 murder of the Duke of Normandy  William Longsword, at the hands of Arnulf’s men. The Viking threat was receding during the later years of Arnulf’s life, and he turned his attentions to the reform of the Flemish government.

Arnulf I, Count of Flanders

In 934 he married ADELE of Vermandois, daughter of HERBERT  II of Vermandois.

Adele de Vermandois

Their children were:

  • Liutgard, married Wichmann IV, Count of Hamaland
  • Egbert, died 953
  • BALDWIN III of Flanders
  • Elftrude, married Siegfried, Count of Guînes
  • Hildegarde (d.990); married Dirk II, Count of Holland

He also had a previous daughter, Hildegard. Arnulf made his eldest son and heir BALDWIN III of Flanders co-ruler in 958, but Baldwin died untimely in 962, so Arnulf was succeeded by Baldwin’s infant son, ARNULF II of Flanders.

32nd Gen. –  BALDWIN III (wiki), (940 – 1 Jan 962) Count of Flanders, who briefly ruled the County of Flanders  , together with his father Arnulf I. Arnulf I had made Baldwin co-ruler in 958, but Baldwin died before his father and was succeeded by his infant son Arnulf II, with his father acting as regent until his own death.

In 961 Baldwin had married MATHILDE Billung of Saxony, daughter of HERMAN, Duke of Saxony, by whom he had a son, his heir Arnulf II. Mathilde married second Gottfried der Gefangene (died on 3/4 April after 995) in 963/982, Count of Verdun (Wigeriche), buried in St. Peter’s in Ghent

Ghent

31st Gen. –  ARNULF II (wiki)  (960 or 961 – March 30, 987) Count of Flanders from 965 until his death.  He married ROZALA of Lombardy, daughter of BERENGAR II of Italy, and was succeeded by their son,

On her husband’s death, Rozala acted as regent for her young son. In 988 or 989, despite being over fifty years old, she married Robert the Pious, the Rex Filius of France; he was not particularly enthusiastic about the marriage, which had been arranged by his father, King Hugh of France. She brought her husband Montreuil and Ponthieu as a dowry. Upon her marriage, she took the name of Susannah. When her father-in-law died, however, Robert repudiated her, desiring to marry Bertha of Burgundy in her place. Rozala then retired to Flanders, where she died and was buried.

Robert retained control of her dowry Baldwin III died in 962, when Arnulf was just an infant, while Arnulf’s grandfather, Arnulf I, was still alive. When Arnulf I died three years later (965), the regency was held by his kinsman Baldwin Balso.  By the time Arnulf attained his majority in 976, Flanders had lost some of the southern territory acquired by Arnulf I. The latter had given some parts of Picardy to King Lothar of France to help assure his grandson’s succession, and gave Boulogne as a fief to another relative. Then early in Arnulf’s minority Lothar had taken Ponthieu and given it to Hugh Capet, and the first counts of Guînes had established themselves

30th Gen. – BALDWIN IV (wiki).   (980  Ghent – 30 May  1035 Ghent)  Count of Flanders from 988 until his death called “of the handsome beard,”  Baldwin first married OGIVE of Luxembourg, daughter of FREDERICK of Luxembourg, by whom he had a son and heir Baldwin V. He later married Eleanor of Normandy, daughter of Richard II of Normandy, by whom he had at least one daughter Judith who married Tostig Godwinson and Welf I, Duke of Bavaria.

A famous warrior who defended his country against the combined forces of Emperor Henry, King Robert of France and the Duke of Normandy.   In contrast to his predecessors Baldwin turned his attention to the east and north, leaving the southern part of his territory in the hands of his vassals the counts of GuînesHesdin, and St. Pol. To the north of the county Baldwin was given Zeeland as a fief by the Holy Roman Emperor Henry II, while on the right bank of the Scheldt river he  received Valenciennes (1013) and parts of the Cambresis and Hainaut.

Valenciennes, France today –  In 1008, a terrible famine brought the Plague. According to the local tradition, the Virgin Mary held a cordon around the city which, miraculously, has since protected its people from the disease. Since then, every year at that time, the Valenciennois  walk around the 14 km road round the town, in what is called the tour of the Holy Cordon.

In the French territories of the count of Flanders, the supremacy of the Baldwin remained unchallenged. They organized a great deal of colonization of marshland along the coastline of Flanders and enlarged the harbour and city of Brugge.

29th Gen. –  BALDWIN V (wiki), (19 Aug 1012 – 1 Sep 1067) Count of Flanders from 1035 until his death.  called “Le Debonaire,” In 1028 Baldwin married ADELE of France in Amiens, daughter of King ROBERT II of France; at her instigation he rebelled against his father but in 1030 peace was sworn and the old count continued to rule until his death.

Baldwin V of Flanders

Adela Capet, Adèle of France or Adela of Flanders, known also as Adela the Holy or Adela of Messines; (1009 – 8 Jan 1079, Messines) was the second daughter of Robert II (the Pious), and CONSTANCE of Arles.  She married first 1027 Richard III Duke of Normandy (997 † 1027). They never had children.

As dowry to her future husband, she received from her father the title of Countess of Corbie. Adèle’s influence lay mainly in her family connections. On the death of her brother, Henry I of France, the guardianship of his seven-year-old son Philip I fell jointly on his widow, Ann of Kiev, and on his brother-in-law, Adela’s husband, so that from 1060 to 1067, they were Regents of France.

Battle of Cassel (1071)

When Adela’s third son, Robert the Frisian, was to invade Flanders in 1071 to become the new count (at that time the count was Adela’s grandson, Arnulf III), she asked Philip I to stop him. Philip sent troops in order to aid Arnulf, being among the forces sent by the king a contingent of ten Norman knights led by William FitzOsborn. Robert’s forces attacked Arnulf’s numerically superior army at Cassel before it could organize, and Arnulf himself was killed along with William FitzOsborn. The overwhelming triumph of Robert made Philip invest him with Flanders, making the peace. A year later, Philip married Robert’s stepdaughter, Bertha of Holland, and in 1074, Philip restored the seigneurie of Corbie to the crown.

Adèle had an especially great interest in Baldwin V’s church-reform politics and was behind her husband’s founding of several collegiate churches. Directly or indirectly, she was responsible for establishing the Colleges of Aire (1049), Lille (1050) and Harelbeke (1064) as well as the abbeys of Messines (1057) and Ename (1063).

After Baldwin’s death in 1067, she went to Rome, took the nun’s veil from the hands of Pope Alexander II and retreated to the Benedictine convent of Messines, near Ypres. There she died, being buried at the same monastery. Honored as a saint in the Roman Catholic Church, her commemoration day is 8 September. Baldwin and Adèle had five children:

  • Baldwin VI, 1030-1070
  • Matilda, c.1031-1083 who married William the Conqueror
  • Robert I of Flandersc.1033–1093 the Frisian, was count of Flanders from 1071 to 1092.
  • Henry of Flanders c.1035
  • Sir RICHARD of Flanders  [ Click his link for the second half of this Royal post]   (c. 1050 – )  Many sources don’t show a child Richard son of Baldwin V.  While it is possible that a Richard Forster was knighted by William the Conqueror at age 16, he may not have been a son of Baldwin V,  or a brother to Baldwin’s daughter Matilda who married William.  Perhaps Richard did come to England as a yeoman soldier or possibly a squire to one of William’s knights and was knighted for bravery after the battle of Hastings. However, his origins are obscure.  Richard might have been from one of the Germanic provinces with Forster (with an umlaut over the ‘o’) as his place of origin,  probably a well-known forest. Not many had true surnames in this time period and were known by occupational or place names. He may even have been the son of a forester.

In 1028 Baldwin married Adèle of France in Amiens, daughter of King Robert II of France; at her instigation he rebelled against his father but in 1030 peace was sworn and the old count continued to rule until his death.

During a long war (1046–1056) as an ally of Godfrey the BeardedDuke of Lorraine, against the Holy Roman Emperor Henry III, he initially lost Valenciennes to Hermann of Hainaut. However, when the latter died in 1051 Baldwin married his son Baldwin VI to Herman’s widow Richildis and arranged that the sons of her first marriage were disinherited, thus de facto uniting the County of Hainaut with Flanders. Upon the death of Henry III this marriage was acknowledged by treaty by Agnes de Poitou, mother and regent of Henry IV.

Baldwin V played host to a grateful dowager queen Emma of England, during her enforced exile, at Bruges. He supplied armed security guards, entertainment, comprising a band of minstrels. Bruges was a bustling commercial centre, and Emma fittingly grateful to the citizens. She dispensed generously to the poor, making contact with the monastery of Saint Bertin at St Omer, and received her son, King Harthacnut of England at Bruges in 1039.

From 1060 to 1067 Baldwin was the co-Regent with Anne of Kiev for his nephew-by-marriage Philip I of France, indicating the importance he had acquired in international politics. As Count of Maine, Baldwin supported the King of France in most affairs. But he was also father-in-law to William of Normandy, who had married his daughter Matilda.

Flanders played a pivotal role in Edward the Confessor‘s foreign policy. As the King of England was struggling to find an heir: historians have argued that he may have sent Harold Godwinsson to negotiate the return of Edward the Atheling from Hungary, and passed through Flanders, on his way to Germany.

Baldwin’s half-sister had married scheming Earl Godwin‘s third son, Tostig. The half-Viking Godwinsons had spent their exile in Dublin, at a time William of Normandy was fiercely defending his duchy. It is unlikely however that Baldwin intervened to prevent the duke’s invasion plans of England, after the Count had lost the conquered province of Ponthieu. By 1066, Baldwin was an old man, and died the following year.

Sources:

New England families, genealogical and memorial: a record of the …, Volume 4 edited by William Richard Cutter 1908 Pearce, Frederick Clifton (1899). Foster Genealogy Being the Record of the Posterity of Reginald Foster. Chicago: W. B. Conkey. pp. 11–12. OCLC 3354831

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Reginald Foster

Reginald FOSTER (1595 – 1681) was Alex’s 10th Great Grandfather; one of 2,048 in this generation of the Miller line.

The Fostersw were exceptional among our ancestors having a coat of arms at the time of their immigration

Reginald Forster was born 1594/1595 in Brunton Hall, Northumberland, England.  His parents were Thomas FORSTER (1555)  and Elizabeth CARR. His first English ancestor, Sir Richard FORESTER  of Flanders was knighted at the Battle of Hastings in 1066. However, it is more likely that he came from common stock (See analysis by Walter Goodwin Davis below.)  I acknowledge that my romanticism, but I’ll keep all Reginald’s supposed ancestor knights and medieval battles.  In reality, knights families were probably not dissenters and didn’t have much reason to leave everything behind as our real yeoman ancestors did.

Reginald married Judith WIGNOL on 28 Sep 1619 in Theydon Garnon, Essex, England.  Walter Goodwin Davis notes that “Theydon Garnon is a parish in the western part of the county of Essex.  About eight miles to the north lies the parish of Harlow, where at the beginning of the seventeen century lived a Foster family which commonly used the Christian name ‘Renald’ [a variation of Reginald’s name that also appears in the records of New England  to which it is highly probable that our Ipswich Reginald Foster belonged.  Two miles southeast of Harlow village there is a hamlet still called Foster Street.”

Reginald immigrated in 1638 with his five sons, Abraham, Reginald, William, Isaac, and Jacob, and settled at Ipswich, Mass.  After Judith died, he married  “He married again, Sep  1665 to Sarah Larriford, widow of John Martin, of Ipswich.  Reginald died 30 May 1681 in Ipswich, Essex, Mass.

Judith Wignol was born 1597/1602 in Essex, England. Her parents may have been Alexander WIGNALL (1578-1631) and Catherine [__?__]  (1580–1615).  Judith died 16 Oct 1664 in Ipswich, Essex, Mass.

Sarah Larriford first married John Martin in 1642 in Charlestown, Suffolk, Mass.   John was the son of Robert Martin and Joanne Upham and the grandson of  [our ancestors] Richard MARTIN Sr. and Richard UPHAM.  Sarah survived Reginald, and 21 Sept. 1682, she became the second wife of William White of Haverhill, Essex, Mass.  Sarah died 22 Feb 1682/83 in Haverhill, Mass.

Children of Reginald and Judith:

Name Born Married Departed
1. Mary Foster 1618
Exeter, Devon, England
Daniel Wood
1638
Exeter, England
.
Lt. Francis Peabody
18 May 1654 Framingham, Mass
9 Apr 1705
Topsfield, Mass
2. Sarah FOSTER 15 Oct 1620
Exeter
William STORY
1640
Ipswich, Mass
1681 in Ipswich, Essex, Mass.
3. Abraham Foster 1622
Exeter
Lydia Burkank
7 Feb 1644
Ipswich
15 Jan 1711
Ipswich, Mass.
4. Isaac Foster 1630
Exeter
Mary Jackson
5 May 1658
.
Hannah Downing
25 Nov 1668, in Ipswich
.
Martha Hale
16 Mar 1679
29 Mar 1692
Ipswich
5. William Foster 1633
Exeter
Mary Jackson
15 May 1661 Ipswich
17 May 1713
Boxford, Essex, Mass
6. Jacob Foster 1635
Exeter
Martha Cushman
.
Abigail Lord
26 Feb 1667 in Ipswich
9 Jul 1710
Ipswich, Mass
7. Reginald Foster 1636
Exeter
Elizabeth Dane
Ipswich
28 Dec 1707
Ipswich, Mass

When he signed his will, our Ipswich ancestor wrote his name as “Renold”. Of course, consistency of spelling, even of proper names, was not considered important in seventeenth century England or colonial America. In the eight volumes of Records and Files of the County Courts of Essex County Foster is mentioned forty-eight times. In nineteen instances his name is Renold, in four Reienalld, three Reienald, in two each Reinold, Reynold and Reinald, and in one each Reienold, Reonall, Reanalld, Rainold and Renall. In two instances each he is Regnald and Reg. and in one Regnell, but, needless to say, gn is commonly sounded as n. This leaves three cases of Reginall, two of Reginald and one of Reginold, and very possibly a re-examination of the manuscript record would eliminate the i in each of these readings.

Massachusetts and Maine Families in the Ancestry of Walter Goodwin Davis. Vol. I. Allanson-French

Reginald Foster was at Ipswich as early as 26 Sept. 1638 when he bought a house and lands of John Tuttell.”   He brought with him his wife, Judith, fives sons and two daughters, and was one of the earliest inhabitants of that town. He lived near the ‘East Bridge,’ which stood where the stone bridge now [1876] is. It is supposed that the remains of what is known as the ‘old Foster house, ‘ may have been the site of his residence. This seems probable, for 6 April, 1641, there was ‘granted Reginald Foster, eight acres of meadow in the west meadow, if any remain there ungranted, in consideration of a little hovel that stood at the new bridge, which was taken away for the accommodating of the passage there,’ and ‘4th 11 mo., 1646,’ he with others ‘promise carting voluntary toward the East Bridge beside the rate a day work a piece.’

“The danger from Indians in those early times was such that in the year 1645 a law was passed requiring the ‘youth from ten to sixteen years to be exercised with small guns, half pikes, bows and arrows,’ and also that ‘every town is to have a guard set a half hour after sunset, to consist of a pikeman and musketeer, and to prepare for any sudden attack from the Indians.’  Reginald on the 19 December, 1745, subscribed with others his proportin of 3 sh. towards the sum of £24. 7sh. ‘to pay their leader Major Dennison,’ who then commanded the military forces of Essex and Norfolk Counties.

He had charge of the town herd of cattle on the south side of the river in 1643: the work to be done, by permission of the authorities, by his son Abraham; in 1661 he was highway surveyor. He owned shares in both Plum and Hog Islands

“Reginald bought of Ralph Dix, of Ipswich, 8 March, 1647-8, ‘all his six acre lott he’ (Dix) ‘bought of William White, lying in the common field on the north side of the river, bounded on land of Thomas Smyth, [our ancestor] Humphrey BROADSTREET and Robert Lord.’

“We find no mention of him again until 1652, when it was ‘Granted Thomas Clark and Reginal Foster, that when they shall have cut through a passage from this river into Chebacco River o ten feet wide and soe deepe as a lighter may pass through laden, and to make a ford and footebridge over, that then the town have given unto them £10 towards said passage’

“On 3 Jun of the same year he was a witness to the will of William Averill, of Ipswich.

“He bought of Roger Preston, 11 Mar 1657/58, for £50, his dwelling house, house lot, barn and other buildings, also another house lot, with gardens, orchards, &c., which Preston bought of Robert Wallis, situated on the north side of the river, and one planting lot of three acres, on the north side of Town Hill, bounded on land of widow Rose Whipple, Andrew Hodges, John Morse and Thomas Treadwell. The houses were on ‘the High Street,’ probably at the east end—and in the vicinity of the ancient dwelling house of Rev. Mr. Norton, which yet stands. He had also a house lot near the ‘meeting-house green.’ On 29 September, 1663, he was an appraiser of the estate of Robert Roberts. Reginald Fo[r]ster

The Inventory of his estate taken May 30, 1681: the house and barne with homestead with all previoledges £150;  the house Jacob foster liveth in with ye homestead & previledges £160; ten acres of land at Muddy River, £35; 4 acres and a halfe in the common field £20 ; 29 acres of salt marsh £84; 8 acres of fresh meadow, £16; 12 acres of pasture lands, £40; 20 acres of land in the common fild £76; 50 acres of upland and marsh £150; one ox, 4 cowes 2 steers 2 years old £21; one calfe 10 sheepe, three lambes £5; three swine £1 10s; a bed in the chamber with bedding…..etc.

Probate Records of Essex County, Massachusetts 1635-1681″, The Essex Institute, Salem, Massachusetts, 1916

The Last Will and Testament of Renold Foster, Sr. of Ipswich in the County of Essex in New England, made the last day of April A.D. 1680, being this day by God’s good providence of perfect understanding, though, through infirmities of body, daily mindful of my mortality.  Therefore, for the setting of my house in order I make and appoint this my Last Will and Testament as follows:

In the name of God, Amen.  My soul I commit into the hand of Jesus Christ, my blessed Redeemer, in hope of a joyful resurrection at the last day, my body to a decent comely burial, and for my outward estate which the Lord has graciously given me, I thus dispose of it, in manner following:

To my beloved wife Sarah, I give the use of the house I now dwell in, and the orchards and gardens, and five pounds yearly during her natural life, and two cows which she shall choose out of my stock, and the keeping of them both summer and winter yearly.  Also I give her the bedstead with bedding in the parlor, and the rest of the linen and woolen yarn that she has made and provided into the house.  Also the use of a brass pot, cheese press and kneading trough, with the utensils in the lean-to, and the great kettle, and two skillets, during her natural life.  Also I give her three sheep to be kept winter and summer; also two pigs and what provisions shall be in the house at my decease; also the table and forme, for her natural life.  Further, my will is that the household stuff, or things, that my wife brought into the house when I married her be at her disposal, in life and at death.

I give and bequeath to my son Abraham Foster my now-dwelling house, orchard, and ground about it, three acres more or less, and half the barn, and half that land in the field lying between the land of John Denison and Philip Fowlers, and ten acres on this side of the river called Muddy River by Major Denison’s and John Edward’s land, and six acres of salt marsh, all of which I give him after my wife’s decease.  I give him four acres of marsh at Plumb Island and six acres at Hogs Island.

I give to and bequeath unto my son Renold Foster all the land which he possesses of mine at the Falls that he has built a house upon, both upland and marsh, be it 50 acres more or less, only to pay out of it within a year after my decease to Sarah Storey, my daughter, the sum that I have given her, except what the sheets and pillows amount to.

I give and bequeath unto my son Isaac Foster my eight acres of fresh meadow at the west meadows, joining to meadows of his, and four acres of salt marsh at Hog Island – Jacob to have the use of the salt until the decease of my wife.

I give and bequeath unto my son William Foster my six acres of land I had of Thomas Smith, and six acres of marsh at Hog Island – the marsh to Jacob until my wife’s decease.

I give and bequeath unto my son Jacob Foster the house he lives in and ground about it, and my two lots beyond Muddy River, ten acres more or less, and the remainder of salt marsh at Hog Island.  Further, my will is that my son Jacob has my land at home and barn during my wife’s natural life.  Further, I give him my pasture on the south side of the river, by Simon Thomson’s, and the pasture by Caleb Kimball’s.  Also I give him a feather bed, only my will is that he pays what I have given my wife and keep in repairs for her yearly, what I have allowed her and given her in my will.

I give and bequeath to my daughter Sarah, William Storey’s wife, the sum of ten pounds, a pair of sheets and a pair of pillows and what they amount to, not of the sum.  The rest in the hands of my son Renold which I have willed him to pay as appears above.

I give and bequeath unto my daughter Mary, wife of Francis Peabody, the sum of ten pounds, part of it to be paid in a pair of sheets, a pair of pillows and a feather bed, the bed after my wife’s decease.

I give my grandchild Hannah Storey the sum of six pounds, a bed bolster pillow and a pair of sheets and blankets, which are of my now-wife’s making, the rest to be paid by my executors, if she carries it well to my wife while she lives with her as she has done to us hitherto.

My will is that my son Jacob have the Implements of Husbandry.

My will which I desire and appoint my two sons Abraham Foster and Jacob Foster to be my executors of this, my Last Will and Testament, and request and desire my beloved friends Simon Stace and Nehemiah Jewett to be my overseers to this, my Will, fulfilled by my executors, and if any difference arise amongst my wife and children, or amongst them, about any particular in my Will, my will is that my two overseers shall end it, and they rest satisfied as they two shall agree, and if they two differ, then a third man, whom they shall choose, joining with either of them.

In witness whereof I have set my hand and seal; read, signed, sealed, and declared to be the Last Will and Testament of me, Renold Foster Sr., the day and year above written 1680, as witness my hand and seal.

Renold Foster (seal)

Witnesses:
John Starkweather
Nehemiah Jewett

Memorandum:
The things given my wife for her natural life be so except she marry again, and what debts she shall have due for labor and work shall be for her proper use and sole benefit, and that the repairs of the house be out of her estate and during her abode in it, and that my wife shall have liberty to cut and procure what wood she needs from my land at Muddy River.

This declared the fifth of March 1680/81, to be his last will.

Renold Foster

In presence of witnesses:
John Starkweather
Nehemiah Jewett
Proved June 9, 1681, by the witnesses

Reginald Foster Bio

Reginald Foster’s Ancestors:

36. Anarcher Great Forester, of Flanders, died A. D. 837, leaving a son, 35. Baldwin I (wiki), Count of Flanders, called “Iron Arm,” on account of his great strength, who married Princess Judith, daughter of Charles the Bald, and died at Arras, A. D. 877. and was succeeded by his son 34. Baldwin II (wiki), of Flanders, who married Princess Ælfthryth (Ælfthryth, Elftrude, Elfrida), daughter of Alfred the Great (wiki), king of England.  The marriage was motivated by the common Flemish-English opposition to the Vikings, and was the start of an alliance that was a mainstay of Flemish policy for centuries to come.  He died 919, leaving a son 33. Arnulf I (wiki), of Flanders, the Forester, who succeeded him and who in 988 was succeeded by his son, 32. Baldwin III (wiki), who briefly ruled the County of Flanders  together with his father Arnulf I. In 961 Baldwin married Mathilde Billung of Saxony, daughter of Herman, Duke of Saxony.  Arnulf I had made Baldwin co-ruler in 958, but Baldwin died before his father and was succeeded by his infant son 31. Arnulf II, with his father acting as regent until his own death.  During his short rule, Baldwin established the weaving and fulling industry in Ghent, thus laying the basis for the economical importance of the county in the centuries to come.  Baldwin III died in 962, when Arnulf was just an infant, while Arnulf’s grandfather, Arnulf I, was still alive. When Arnulf I died three years later (965), the regency was held by his kinsman Baldwin Balso.  By the time Arnulf attained his majority in 976, Flanders had lost some of the southern territory acquired by Arnulf I. The latter had given some parts of Picardy to King Lothar of France to help assure his grandson’s succession, and gave Boulogne as a fief to another relative. Then early in Arnulf’s minority Lothar had taken Ponthieu and given it to Hugh Capet, and the first counts of Guînes had established themselves. He married Rozala of Lombardy, daughter of Berengar II of Italy, and was succeeded by their son, 30. Baldwin IV. of Flanders, called “of the handsome beard,” a famous warrior who defended his country against the combined forces of Emperor Henry, King Robert of France and the Duke of Normandy. He married the daughter of Count Luxemborg, and died in 1034, leaving a son who succeeded him, 29. Baldwin V (wiki), called “Le Debonaire,” who married Princess Adella, daughter of King Robert, of France, and had 28. Sir Richard Forester (wiki) of Flanders, who with his father and William the Conqueror, his brother-in-law (who had married his sister Matilda, or Maud) passed over into England and was knighted after the battle of Hastings.

Sir Richard Forester was succeeded by his son. 27. Sir Hugo Foresturious or Forster, who marched against Magnus of Norway. A. D. 1101, defeated and slew him, and died in 1121, leaving a son 26. Sir Reginald, knighted by King Stephen for valiant service at the battle of the Standard, 1138, and died in 1156, leaving as successor his son, 25. Sir William Forester, who fought with great valor in Wales in 1163 and 1165, departed to France in 1166, returned to England, and died in 1176, being then succeeded by his son, 24. Sir John Forester, who accompanied Richard I to Palestine and was knighted there. He died in 1220 and was succeeded by his son, 23.  Sir Randolph Forester, who died in 1256 and was succeeded by his son, 22. Sir Alfred Forester, knighted on the battlefield of Eversham, 1265, and died 1284, and was succeeded by his son. 21. Sir Reginald Forester, who fought at Bannockburn, 1314, and died in 1328, leaving descendants who were great chieftains and closely allied to royalty in Scotland, Ireland, Wales and England.

Sir Reginald’s successor was 20. Sir Richard Forester, who fought at Crecy, 1346; Poitiers, 1356; was knighted for valor; died in 1371 ; and was succeeded by his son, 19. Sir William Forster, who fought with Henry V against the French, was knighted by his sovereign, and was succeeded by his son, 18. Sir Thomas Forster, of Etherton Castle, baronet, born 1397, married Joan Elwerden, co-heiress to the earldom of Angus, and by her had 17. Sir Thomas Forster, baronet, married the daughter of Featherstonbaugh, of Stanhope Hall, Durham, chief of the clan Featherston, and by her had 16. Sir Thomas Forster, third son, high sheriff of Northumberland, 1564 and 1572, married Dorothy, daughter of Ralph, Lord Ogle of Ogle (a family of very great antiquity), and had 15. Sir Thomas Forster, eldest son, of Etherston, baronet, married the daughter of Lord Wharton, of Wharton, and was of Adderstone, high sheriff of Northumberland, and had 14. Cuthbert Forster, who by wife Elizabeth Bradford had Sir Matthew Forster, baronet, his successor, and 13. Thomas Forster, of Brunton, Esquire, who married twice, and by second wife. Elizabeth (Carr) Forster, had three sons, the youngest of whom, 12. Reginald Forster, married Judith , and with her and their seven children came to America in 1638 and sat down at Ipswich in the colony of Massachusetts Bay.

The above list of nobles is fun, but Reginald was probably really of common stock.  The noble lineage came from   Frederick Clifton Pierce’s 1899 book Foster Geneology, being the record of the posterity of Reginald Foster, an early inhabitant of Ipswich, in New England, whose genealogy is traced back to Anacher, Great Forrester of Flanders, who died in 837 A.D., with wills, inventories, biographical sketches, etc., also the record of all other American Fosters (Chicago, Illinois: W.B. Conkey Company).

Regarding Pierce’s work, Walter Goodwin Davis concludes sarcastically:

“In dealing with the English origin of emigrants to America many genealogists have discarded all inhibitions and respect for evidence and have produced fantastic pedigrees. It must be said that the English practitioners of Victorian days were not behind our own in perpetuating this form of family fiction, some of which still remains to be corrected. The chapter of the English Fosters in the American Foster Genealogy is nothing short of ridiculous, so much so, in fact, that few, if any, others of its kind surpass it in this quality. Except for very few statements it can be discarded as of no value except as a horrible example.”

Children:

1. Mary Foster

Mary’s first husband Daniel Wood was born 1615 in Exeter, Devon, England.  Daniel died 27 Mar 1643 in Ipswich, Essex, Mass.

Mary’s second husband Francis Peabody was born in 1614 in St Albans, Hertfordshire, England and died 19 Feb 1698 in Topsfield, Essex, Mass.

2. Abraham Foster

Abraham’s wife Lydia Burbank was born 7 Apr 1644 in Rowley, Essex, Mass.  Her parents were Caleb Burbank and Martha [__?__].  Lydia died 29 Mar 1692 in Boxford, Essex, Mass.

Abraham  came with his father to New England, when his age was given as sixteen years. He lived at Ipswich and joined the church there in full communion April 12, 1674. He was called yeoman on the records. He left no will but distributed his property by deed December 21, 1698.

4. Isaac Foster

Isaac’s first wife Mary Jackson was born 8 Dec 1639.  Her parents were John Jackson and Katheryne [__?__].  Mary died  27 Nov 1677 at Ipswich.

Isaac’s second wife Hannah Downing was born 1656 in Ipswich, Essex, Mass. Hannah died 27 Nov 1677 in Ipswich.

Isaac’s third wife Martha Hale survived him.

Isaac lived in Ipswich, near Topsfield, at the east end of “Symond’s Farm,” the town line dividing the farm. He was sixty-two years old when he made his will; proved March 29, 1692. Isaac Foster had fourteen children; eleven by his first wife, and three by the second: Jonathan, Mehitable, Jacob, Benjamin, Elizabeth, Mary. Daniel, Martha, Ruth, Prudence, Hannah.—second wife—Hannah. Elcazer and Sarah. He d. March, 1692. Res., Ipswich, Mass.

Isaac signed the petition in support of John Proctor oldest son of our ancestor John PROCTOR  and his wife Elizabeth Proctor at the Salem Witch trials.

His undated will was proved on 29 Mar 1692.  To his wife Martha he left the bedding and other things she brought with her and £12 in corn (one-half in English corn and one-half in Indian corn), to be paid when she leaves his house or within four years.  If she were to die before payment, his sons Jacob and Daniel were to make payment to her children.  She was to have the use of the lower room at the east end of his house, a cow, firewood and £5 a year.  To his three sons Jacob, Daniel and Eleazer (under age), he left all of his lands.  To each of his seven daughters, he left £20 at the age of eighteen.  His three little children were to be brought up by his executors, sons Jacob and Daniel.  When he signed his will, he stated that the house where Jacob lived was his own, but that the house where he [the testator] lived was the one given to Daniel.

5. William Foster

William’s wife Mary Jackson was born 8 Feb 1639 in Exeter, Devon, England.  Her parents were William Jackson and Katheryne Chaplin.  Mary died 27 Nov 1677 in Ipswich, Essex, Mass.

6. Jacob Foster

Jacob’s wife Abigail Lord was born 1646 in Ipswich, Essex, Mass.  Her parents were Robert Lord and Mary Waite.  Abigail died 4 Jun 1729 in Ipswich, Essex, Mass.

7. Reginald Foster

Reginald’s wife Elizabeth Dane was born 1648 in Andover, Essex, Mass.  Her parents were John Dane and Eleanor Clark.  Elizabeth died 15 Apr 1722 in Andover, Essex, Mass.  She was the niece of Rev. Francis Dane, a minister at Andover, Mass. who boldly denounced the witchcraft delusion. Subsequently, nearly every member of his family was arrested on suspicion of being witches. One of his daughters and granddaughter were tried and condemned to death, as was his niece Elizabeth.

On 18 Oct 1692, Francis Dane wrote a petition to the governor and to the General Court, which was signed by twenty-four others, and it was the first public condemnation of the witch trials.  By being so outspoken, Dane put himself in danger.  Even his pulpit offered no protection: another minister, George Burroughs, had already been hanged.  Half a dozen of his relatives were ultimately accused as witches and arrested, including two daughters (Elizabeth Johnson and Abigail Faulkner) and his daughter-in-law (Deliverance Dane) were all arrested.  Abigail was convicted and condemned in September 1692, but given a temporary stay of execution because she was pregnant.  Although his extended family had the most accused of any other family, in the end, none of his family members were executed..

Reginald Foster and Isaac Foster (probably his son) both signed a petition in favor of John and Elizabeth Procter, stating that they did not believe them to be guilty of witchcraft. Sadly, it was to no avail – John Procter was executed anyway, and his wife’s life was spared only because she had a baby that was soon due. The signing of such a petition would have placed the signers and their families in danger of themselves being persecuted and tried.

The petition reads in part as follows:

…We must not Trouble y’r Honr’s by Being Tedious, Therefore we being Smitten with the Notice of what hath happened, we Recoon it w’thin the Duties of o’r Charitie, That Teacheth us to do, as we would be done by; to offer thus much for the Clearing of o’r Neighb’rs Inocencie; viz: That we never had the Least Knowledge of such a Nefarious wickedness in o’r said Neighbours, since they have been w’thin our acquaintance; Neither doe we remember — any such Thoughts in us Concerning them; or any Action by them or either of them Directly tending that way; no more than might be in the lives of any other p’rsons of the Clearest Reputation as to Any such Evills. What God may have Left them to, we Cannot Go into Gods pavillions Cloathed w’th Cloudes of Darknesse Round About.

But as to what we have ever seen, or heard of them — upon o’r Consciences we Judge them Innocent of the crime objected.

His Breading hath been Amongst us; and was of Religious Parents in o’r place; & by Reason of Relations, & Proprties w’thin o’r Towne hath had Constant Intercourse w’th us

We speak upon o’r p’rsonall acquaintance, & observations: & so Leave our Neighbours, & this our Testimonie on their Behalfe to the wise Thoughts of y’r Honours, & Subscribe &c….

Sources:

Foster Genealogy, Being the Record of the Posterity of Reginald Foster, an Early Inhabitant of Ipswich, New England, Whose Genealogy is Traced Back to Anacher, Great Forrester of Flanders, Who Died in 837 A.D., with Wills, Inventories, Biographical Sketches, Etc., Also the Record Of All Other American Fosters”, by Franklin C. Pearce of Chicago, Printed 1899, is self published, and has been the source text for most of the websites that provide genealogical data.

http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~dearbornboutwell/fam2375.html

Massachusetts and Maine Families in the Ancestry of Walter Goodwin Davis. Vol. III. Neal-Wright pg. 649

http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~smithhouse/andergen/hardyfam/aqwg278.htm#7042

http://hylbom.com/family/paternal-lines/paternal-dy-to-gi/foster-2576/

Posted in 12th Generation, Immigrant - England, Immigrant Coat of Arms, Line - Miller, Public Office | Tagged , | 18 Comments

Marcus Antonius

Almost everyone with European ancestors is related to everyone else within the last 2000 years.  Remember the king was was ruined by his promise to pay 1 grain of rice of the first chessboard square, 2 on the second, 3 on the third ….  2^62 possible ancestors =  4,611,686,018,427,390,000.  ( or 4.6 Quintillion)   While Genvissa, the daughter of Claudius who married a Silurian king, was invented by Geoffrey of Monmouth (c. 1100 – c. 1155), we are all kin.   We know these Romans from I Claudius and many other stories.  This line has Gaelic Kings of every variety, Welsh, Irish, and Scot and famous cameos including St. Patrick, St. Columba and Macbeth.

Geoffrey of Monmouth

How many generations do you think are between Marcus Antonius and the founding of Rome?  Plutarch says that Romulus was 53 in 717 BC. If true, then Romulus and Remus would have been born in the year 771 BC.  62 generations between 83 BC and 2011 AD = 33.7 years per generation.  At that rate, adding 18 or 19 more generations makes Romulus Alex’s 80th Great Grandfather!

62nd G – Marcus Antonius  (14 Jan  83 BC – 1 Aug 30 BC) (Wikipedia), Mark Antony was a friend, and cousin, of Gaius Julius Caesar, although after Caesar’s assassination he stopped praising Caesar. Mark Antony had a falling out with Octavian (Augustus) after the Second Triumvirate split up and he ended up in Egypt. The history is interesting but not very relevant.

We’re mostly concerned about Mark Antony’s genes. Near the end of his life he had three children by Cleopatra, Queen of Egypt; the twins Alexander Helios & Cleopatra Selene II and Ptolemy Philadelphus. This led to gene flow between the Italians and subpopulations in the Middle East.

Mark Antony

Bust of Mark Antony (Vatican Museums)

But before moving to Egypt, Mark had several wives in Rome. One of them was Octavia Minor. and they had a daughter, Antonia Minor.

Octavia Minor (69 BC Nola, Italy, Roman Republic -11 BC Rome)

Octavia, was the sister of the first Roman Emperor, Augustus (known also as Octavian), half-sister of Octavia the Elder, and fourth wife of Mark Antony. She was also the mother-in-law of the Emperor Tiberius, great-grandmother of the Emperor Caligula and Empress Agrippina the Younger, maternal grandmother of the Emperor Claudius, and paternal great-grandmother and maternal great-great grandmother of the Emperor Nero.

One of the most prominent women in Roman history, Octavia was respected and admired by contemporaries for her loyalty, nobility and humanity, and for maintaining traditional Roman feminine virtues.

61st G –ANTONIA Minor , (Wikipedia) Antonia married Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus and one of her sons was Claudius , Emperor of Rome. At the time Antonia and Drusus were living in Lugdunum (Lyon, France).

The Juno Ludovisi(a portrait of Antonia Minor

Antonia was the favorite niece of her mother’s younger brother, Rome’s first Emperor Augustus.  Antonia never had the chance to know her father, Mark Antony, who divorced her mother in 32 BC and committed suicide in 30 BC. She was raised by her mother, her uncle and her aunt, Livia Drusilla.  In 16 BC, she married the Roman general and consul Nero Claudius Drusus. Drusus was the stepson of her uncle Augustus, second son of Livia Drusilla and brother of future Emperor Tiberius. They had several children, but only three survived: the famous general GermanicusLivilla and the Roman Emperor Claudius.

60th G – CLAUDIUS Cæsar (Tiberius Claudius Nero Germanicus) (Wikipedia) ,

Claudius (1 Aug 10 BC  Lugdunum, Gaul – 13 Oct 54 ) Buried Mausoleum of Augustus

Claudia had four wives.  We descend from his third wife,

Claudius married (1) Plautia Urgulanilla. The marriage ended in divorce.Plautia was born in Etruria (Italy).

Claudius married (2) Ælia Paetina about 0038.

Claudius married (3)  Valeria Messalina, sometimes spelled Messallina, (c. 17/20 – 48). She was also a paternal cousin of the Emperor Nero, second cousin of the Emperor Caligula, and great-grandniece of the Emperor Augustus. A powerful and influential woman with a reputation for promiscuity, she conspired against her husband and was executed when the plot was discovered.

They had the following children:

i. Genvissa (Venus Julia)
ii Britannicus was born  in 41 AD. He died in 55 in Rome, poisoned, probably by his stepmother Agrippina.
iii. Octavia died  in Rome, executed by order of her husband and half brother, Nero.  Octavia married Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus (Nero) , Emperor of Rome in AD 53. Lucius was born on 15 Dec 0037 in Antium, Latium. He died on 9 Jun 0068 in Rome, commited suicide, he is attributed the last words “Qualis artifex pereo”, “What a showman the world .

Claudius married (4) Julia Agrippina (Agrippina Minor) daughter of Germanicus and Vipsania Agrippina (Agrippina the Elder) in 0049. Julia was born in 14 AD. She died in 59 in Italy, beside the Gulf of Cumæ (bay of Naples), executed by order of her son, Nero, after an attempt on her life failed.

59th G – Genvissa (Venus Julia) , Genvisa married Arviragus Gwenivyth (10 AD. – 74), King of Siluria, in 45 AD. Siluria was a kingdom in the south of Wales and at the time they were resisting Roman occupation. Arviragus became King of the Britons. Their son was Meric (Marius) , King of the Britons.

According to Tacitus’s biography of Agricola, the Silures usually had a dark complexion and curly hair. Due to their appearance, Tacitus hinted that they may have crossed over from Spain at an earlier date. Genetic studies carried out by University College London, Oxford University and the University of California have suggested that most Welsh and Irish Celts share in part (Y-chromosomes, mtDNA) with the Basque people who originated in northern Iberia during the Paleolithic.  But it is still unclear whether the link is specific to the Celts and the Basques, or whether they are both simply the closest surviving relatives of the early population of Europe.

Tribes of Wales at the time of the Roman invasion. The modern Anglo-Welsh border is also shown, for reference purposes.

The Silures made a fierce resistance to the Roman conquest about AD 48, with the assistance of Caratacus, a military leader and prince of the Catuvellauni, who had fled from further east after his own tribe was defeated.

The first attack on the Welsh tribes was made under the legate Publius Ostorius Scapula about 48 AD. Ostorius first attacked the Deceangli in the north-east of what is now Wales, who appear to have surrendered with little resistance. He then spent several years campaigning against the Silures and the Ordovices. Their resistance was led by Caratacus, who had fled from the south-east (of what is now England) when it was conquered by the Romans. He first led the Silures, then moved to the territory of the Ordovices, where he was defeated by Ostorius in 51 AD.

The Silures were not subdued, however, and waged effective guerilla warfare against the Roman forces. Ostorius had publicly said that they posed such a danger that they should be either exterminated or transplanted. His threats only increased the Silures’ determination to resist and a large legionary force occupied in building Roman forts in their territory was surrounded and attacked, and rescued only with difficulty and considerable loss. They also took Roman prisoners as hostages and distributed them amongst their neighbouring tribes in order to bind them together and encourage resistance.

Ostorius died with the Silures still unconquered and, after his death, they won a victory over the Second Legion. It remains unclear whether the Silures were actually militarily defeated or simply agreed to come to terms, but Roman sources suggest rather opaquely that they were eventually subdued by Sextus Julius Frontinus in a series of campaigns ending about 78 AD. The Roman Tacitus wrote of the Silures: non atrocitate, non clementia mutabatur– “changed neither by cruelty nor by clemency”.

To aid the Roman administration in keeping down local opposition, a legionary fortress (Isca Augusta, later Caerleon) was planted in the midst of tribal territory.

Remains of the amphitheatre at Isca.

The town of Venta Silurum (Caerwent, six miles west of Chepstow) was established in 75 AD. It became a Romanized town, not unlike Calleva Atrebatum (Silchester), but smaller. An inscription shows that under the Roman Empire it was the capital of the Silures, whose ordo or “county council” provided for the local government of the district. Its massive Roman walls still survive, and excavations have revealed a forum, a temple, baths, amphitheatre, shops, and many comfortable houses with mosaic floors, etc. In the late first and early second century, the Silures were given back some nominal independence and responsibility for local administration. As was standard practice, as revealed by inscriptions, the Romans matched their deities with local Silurian ones, and the local deity Ocelus was twinned with Mars, the Roman god of war.

CaerwentWall.jpg

The remains of the town wall of Venta Silurum

Geoffrey of Monmouth (c. 1100 – c. 1155) a cleric and one of the major figures in the development of British historiography and the popularity of tales of King Arthur. He is best known for his chronicle Historia Regum Britanniae (“History of the Kings of Britain”), which was widely popular in its day and was credited uncritically well into the 16th century, being translated into various other languages from its original Latin.

At the end of that winter (c. 45 AD) the messengers returned with Claudius’ daughter and handed her over to her father. The girls name was Genvissa. Her beauty was such that everyone who saw her filled with admiration. Once she had been united to him (Arvirargus) in lawful marriage, she inflamed the King with with such burning passion that he preferred her company to anything else in the world. As a result of this Arvirargus made up his mind to give some special mark of distinction to the place were he married her. He suggested to Claudius that the two of them should found there a city which should perpetuate in times to come the memory of so happy a marriage. Claudius agreed and ordered a town to be built wich should be called Kaerglou or Gloucester. Down to our own day (abt 1100) it retains its site on the bank of the Severn, between Wales and Loegria. Some, however, say that it took its name from Duke Gloius, whom Claudius fathered in that city and to whom he granted control of the duchy of the Welsh after Arvirargus.

Glevum  was a Roman fort in Roman Britain that become “colonia” of retired legionaries in AD 97. Today it is known as Gloucester, located in the English county of Gloucestershire.  Glevum was established around AD 48 as a market centre at an important crossing of the River Severn and near to the Fosse Way one of the important Roman roads in Britain. Initially, there was a Roman fort established at Kingsholm. Twenty years later, a larger replacement fortress was built on slightly higher ground nearby, centred on Gloucester Cross, and a civilian settlement grew around it. The Roman Legion based here was the Legio II Augusta as they prepared to invade Roman Wales between 66 and 74 AD, later being based at Burrium (Usk) and Isca Augusta (Caerleon) in South Wales.

Glevum Mosaic which once graced a villa on the edge of the woods just near a deep, trickling stream. It was damaged and filthy but a pretty incredible find, especially as it was once walked on by a Roman family

58th G – MERIC (Marius) was born in 74. He died in 125.  Meric married Penardun daughter of Bran “the Blessed Sovereign” , King of Siluria and Anna (Enygeus).  Meric (Marius) king of Britain married dau of Boadicia (Victoria) They had the following children:

i. COEL I “Old King Cole”,  King of Siluria
ii. Eurgen Father of Gladys m Lleuver Mawr Lucius the Great.

57th G – COEL I “Old King Cole , King of Siluria (125 – 170), (Wikipedia) – Coel Hen, whose epithet can be translated as “the Old” or “the Ancestor”, is noted in Welsh legend as a leader in the Hen Ogledd or “Old North”, the Brythonic-speaking parts of southern Scotland and northern England during or after the period of the Roman withdrawal. “The early tradition is that Coel ruled the whole of the north, south of Hadrian’s Wall, the territory that the Notitia assigned to the dux [Roman military leader]; but that in later generations it split into a number of independent kingdoms.  He had the following children:

i. Athildis of Camulod
ii. a child of King Cole
iii. Lleuver Mawr (Lucius the Great) , King of Siluria, 2nd “Blessed King”

It suggests that  he was the last Roman commander, who turned his command into a kingdom.   In his widely criticized book, The Age of Arthur, historian John Morris suggested that Coel may have been the last of the Roman Duces Brittanniarum (Dukes of the Britons) who commanded the Roman army in northern Britain. According to Morris he may have taken over the northern capital at Eburacum (York) to rule over what had been the northern province of Roman Britain. Upon Coel Hen’s death, his lands would have been split between his sons, Garmonion and Cunedda II,

Old King Cole by WW Denslow (an illustrator and caricaturist remembered for his illustrations of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz.)

He is credited with founding a number of kingly lines in the North and was regarded as an ancestor figure, suggesting that the territory he controlled must have been substantial. Later writers such as Henry of Huntington and Geoffrey of Monmouth associated Coel with the father of Saint Helena of Constantinople, the mother of Constantine the Great. Geoffrey’s Historia Regum Britanniae expands on the legend of Coel, including material about his rule as king of the Britons and his dealings with the Romans.

56th G – a child of King Cole ,

55th G – a grandchild of King Cole,

54th G – ALOFE (Aife) , married Fíacha Sroiptine  (Wikipedia), 120th Ard Righ of Ireland son of Cairbre Liffeachaire (Carbry of the Leffey) , Ard Righ of Ireland and a daughter of a Prince of the Hebrides. Fiachadh was born about 290. He died in 322.

On his father’s death, Fothad Cairpthech and Fothad Airgthech, sons of Lugaid mac Con, had taken the throne jointly, but within the year Fothad Airgthech killed his brother. Fíacha and the fianna then defeated and killed Fothad in the Battle of Ollarba.

Fíacha’s son, Muiredach Tirech, commanded his armies, as the king himself was not allowed to go into battle. Once, Muiredach led a victorious expedition to Munster. The three Collas — Colla Uais, Colla Fo Chri and Colla Menn, sons of Fíacha’s brother Eochaid Doimlén — gave battle to Fíacha while Muiredach and his army were still in Munster. Fíacha’s druid, Dubchomar, prophesied that if Fíacha was to defeat the Collas, none of his descendants would ever rule Ireland, and likewise, if the Collas won, none of their descendants would be king after them. Fíacha was defeated and killed in what became known as the Battle of Dubchomar.  Fíacha had ruled for over 30 years. The chronology of Geoffrey Keating’s Foras Feasa ar Éirinn dates his reign to 273–306, the Annals of the Four Masters to 285-322.

The Three Collas plotted against their uncle, the High King Fíacha Sroiptine. It was prophesied that whoever killed them, his descendants would never rule Ireland. While Fíacha’s son Muiredach Tirech was campaigning in Munster with his army, they defeated Fíacha in the Battle of Dubchomar, and Colla Uais took the throne. He ruled for four years, until Muiredach overthrew him, took the throne, and exiled him and his brothers, with three hundred men, to Alba (Scotland). Their mother, Ailech, was the daughter of Udaire, king of Alba, and they took service with their grandfather for three years. After that they returned to Ireland, hoping that Muiredach might kill them, and deprive his descendants of the throne. But Muiredach knew of the prophecy, and despite knowing they had killed his father, took them into his service.

After several years, Muiredach decided the Collas should have territory of their own, and sent them to conquer Ulster. With an army drawn from Connacht, they fought seven battles in a week against the Ulaid at Achaidh Leithdeircc, killing Fergus Foga, king of Ulster, in the seventh. Colla Menn also died in this battle. They burned Emain Macha, the Ulster capital, after which it was abandoned, and seized substantial territories in Ulster, thought to be the origin of the kingdom of Airgíalla.

53rd G – MUIRREADHACH Tireach King of Connought, 122nd Ard Righ of Ireland (Wikipedia) – son of Fiacha Sraibhtine, was a legendary High King of Ireland of the fourth century. He gained power by exiling the three Collas, who had killed his father. The Collas later returned and tried to provoke him into trying to kill them. When he didn’t, they entered his service and led his armies. He was overthrown by Cáelbad.

Story of the Irish Race, Seumus MacManus.

“In the beginning of the fourth century, Muiredeach Tireach, High King of Ireland, directed his nephews, the three Collas, to face north and win sword land for themselves. On the ruins of the old kingdom of Uladh they founded a new kingdom — of Oirghialla — which was henceforth for nearly a thousand years to play an important part in the history of Northern Ireland, and which was possessed afterwards by their descendants, the MacMahons, O’Hanlons, O’Carrolls, and Maguires.”

Ireland around 900

52nd G – EOCHAIDH Moihmeodhain (Echu Mugmedón) , (Wikipedia) – Eochaid Mugmedón (“slave-lord”), according to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition, was a High King of Ireland of the 4th century, best known as the father of Niall of the Nine Hostages and ancestor of the Uí Néill and Connachta dynasties. He is not mentioned in the list of kings of Tara in the Baile Chuind (The Ecstasy of Conn), but is included in the synthetic lists of High Kings in the Lebor Gabála Érenn, the Irish annals, Geoffrey Keating’s history, and the Laud Synchronisms.

According to the Lebor Gabála Érenn and its derivative works, Eochaid was the son of the former High King Muiredach Tírech, a descendant of Conn Cétchathach. Muiredach was overthrown and killed by Cáelbad son of Cronn Bradruí, an Ulster king, but Cálbad only ruled one year before Eochaid killed him and took the throne. The Lebor Gabála says he extracted the bórama or cow-tribute from Leinster without a battle. However, Keating records that he was defeated in the Battle of Cruachan Claonta by the Leinster king Énnae Cennsalach.

According to the saga “The Adventures of the Sons of Eochaid Mugmedon”, he is said to have had two wives: Mongfind, daughter of Fidach, who bore him four sons,

i. Brion
ii.  Ailill
iii. Fiachrae
iv. Fergus

and Cairenn Chasdub, daughter of Sachell Balb, king of the Saxons, who bore him his most famous son,

v. Niall.   Mongfind is said to have hated Cairenn, and forced her to expose her child, but the baby was rescued and raised by a poet called Torna.

When Niall grew up he returned to Tara and rescued his mother from the servitude Mongfind had placed her under. Mongfind appears to have originally been a supernatural personage: the saga “The Death of Crimthann mac Fidaig” says the festival of Samhain was commonly called the “Festival of Mongfind”, and prayers were offered to her on Samhain eve. Although it is probably anachronistic for Eochaid to have had a Saxon wife, T. F. O’Rahilly argues that the name Cairenn is derived from the Latin name Carina, and that it is plausible that she might have been a Romano-Briton. Indeed, Keating describes her not as a Saxon but as the “daughter of the king of Britain”.

After ruling for seven or eight years, Eochaid died of an illness at Tara, and was succeeded by Mongfind’s brother Crimthann mac Fidaig, king of Munster. Keating dates his reign to 344-351, the Annals of the Four Masters to 357-365. Daniel P. McCarthy, based on the Irish annals, dates his death to 362

51st G –NIALL NÓIGIALLACH  (Nóigiallach is Gaelic for “having Nine Hostages”), (Wikipedia)  is a very famous man . He was an Irish King who lived from about 350 to 405 AD. The “nine hostages” refers to hostages that he kept from each of the places that owed him allegiance.Keating credits Niall with two wives: Inne, daughter of Lugaid, who bore him one son

i. Fiachu

Rignach, who bore him seven sons
ii.Lóegaire
iii. Éndae
iv. Maine
v. EÓGAN
vi. Conall Gulban
vii. Conall Cremthainne
vii. Coirpre.

Niall was fond of raiding the coast of Roman Britain and on one of those raids he captured a man named Maewyn Succat, who became a slave in Ireland. Succat eventually escaped, returned to Britain, and became a Christian missionary. He then went back to Ireland to convert the Irish heathens to Christianity. We know Maewyn Succat by his Christian name, Patrick, or Saint Patrick.

There are various versions of how Niall gained his epithet Noígíallach. The saga “The Death of Niall of the Nine Hostages” says that he received five hostages from the five provinces of Ireland (Ulster, Connacht, Leinster, Munster and Meath), and one each from Scotland, the Saxons, the Britons and the Franks. Keating says that he received five from the five provinces of Ireland, and four from Scotland.   O’Rahilly suggests that the nine hostages were from the kingdom of the Airgialla (literally “hostage-givers”), a satellite state founded by the Ui Néill’s conquests in Ulster, noting that the early Irish legal text Lebor na gCeart (“The Book of Rights”) says that the only duty of the Airgialla to the King of Ireland was to give him nine hostages.

The reason Niall Nóigiallach is famous is because he is associated with the List of High Kings of Ireland, one of the oldest well-established genealogies in all of Europe. Anybody who connects to the lineage can trace ancestors back to about 100 AD.

In January 2006, geneticists at Trinity College, Dublin suggested that Niall may have been the most fecund male in Irish history. The findings of the study showed that within the north-west of Ireland as many as 21% of men (8% in the general male population) were concluded to have a common male-line ancestor who lived roughly 1,700 years ago. The geneticists estimated that there are about 2-3 million males alive today who descend in the male-line from Niall. However, more recently some reservations have been expressed, as the subclade, which is defined by the presence of the marker R-M222, is found in a belt from Northern Ireland across southern Scotland and is not exclusively associated with the Uí Néill. It is now more commonly referred to as the Northwest Irish/Lowland Scots variety.

Descendents of King Niall

Families that trace their ancestry back to Niall of the Nine Hostages include: (O’)Neill, (O’)Gallagher, (O’)Boyle, (O’)Doherty, O’Donnell, Connor, Cannon, BRADLEY, O’Reilly, Flynn, (Mc)Kee, Campbell, Devlin, Donnelly, Egan, Gormley, Hynes, McCaul, McGovern, McLoughlin, McManus, McMenamin, Molloy, O’Kane, O’Rourke and Quinn.

50th G – EÓGHAN (Owen) macNéill  Irish king who founded the kingdom of Ailech, later Tír Eoghain (modern County Tyrone) in the 5th century (Wikipedia) died in 465 in Ireland.  Eóghan married Indorbra the Fair.   Eoghan’s children include:

i. MUIREDACH mac Eógain, his successor in Ailech
ii. Fergus, founder of the Cenél Fergusa
iii. Echach Binnich, founder of the Cenél mBinnig.

Eogan was a close friend of Saint Patrick and received Patricks blessing.  With his brother the high king Lóegaire mac Néill (d.462), he was one of the judges in a dispute over the succession to Amalgaid (d.440), king of Connacht among his sons competing to rule their territory of Tir Amalgaidh in northwest Connacht.

The old graveyard and the ruined church in Iskaheen – the resting place of Eógan mac Néill

Eoghan, King of Tír Eoghain, and Prince of Inis Eoghain is buried at St. Patrick’s Church in Iskaheen, Innishowen, Donegal. A plaque there states “Eoghan Prince of Iniseoghain, Son of Niall of the Nine Hostages. Died 465 of grief for his brother Conall. Baptised by Patrick and buried in Uisce Chaoin”

The plaque marking the burial place of Eógan mac Néill

49th G – MUIREADHACH  died about 489. (Wikipedia) King of Ailech and head of the Cenél nEógain branch of the northern Uí Néill.  Married Erra (Earca) daughter of Loarn mac Eirc   of Dál Riata .  They had the following children:

 i. Feredach macMuirdeach O’Neill founder of the Cenél Feradaig branch;
ii. Muirchertach mac Muiredaig (died 532), high king of Ireland, also known as Muirchertach mac Ercae and founder of the Cenél maic Ercae branch
iii. FERGUS Mor macEarca , King of the Dalriada
iv. Moen, founder of the Cenél Moen branch
v. Tigernach, founder of the Cenel Tigernaig branch.

There is no mention of him in the Irish annals but the Laud Synchronisms give him a reign of 24 years as King of Ailech giving him an approximate reign of 465–489.

48th G – FERGUS Mór mac Eirc (Scottish Gaelic: Fergus Mòr Mac Earca) , King of of Dál Riata (Wikipedia) died in 501 in killed. A legendary king of Dál Riata.   While little is known of his acutal historical record, his posthumous importance as the founder of Scotland in the national myth of Medieval and Renaissance Scotland is not in doubt. Rulers of Scotland from Cináed mac Ailpín until the present time claim descent from Fergus Mór (Fergus the Great).

The historical record, such as it is, consists of an entry in the Annals of Tigernach, for the year 501, which states: Feargus Mor mac Earca cum gente Dal Riada partem Britaniae tenuit, et ibi mortuus est. (Fergus Mór mac Eirc, with the people of Dál Riata, held part of Britain, and he died there.)  The record in the Annals has given rise to theories of invasions of Argyll from Ireland, but these are not considered authentic.

Fergus is also found in the king lists of Dál Riata, and later of Scotland, of which the Senchus Fer n-Alban and the Duan Albanach can be taken as examples. The Senchus states that Fergus Mór was also known as Mac Nisse Mór. These sources probably date from the 10th and 11th centuries respectively, many generations after Fergus may have lived.

The Senchus and the Duan name Fergus’s father as Erc son of Eochaid Muinremuir. A Middle Irish genealogy of the kings of Alba gives an extensive genealogy for Fergus: [Fergus] m. h-Eircc m. Echdach Muinremuir m. Óengusa Fir m. Feideilmid m. Óengusa m. Feideilmid m. Cormaicc, and a further forty-six generations here omitted.  While it was suggested some believe Fergus claimed lineage to Arthur, the historian John Morris has suggested, instead, that Fergus was allowed to settle in Scotland as a federate of Arthur, as a bulwark against the Picts.

Andrew of Wyntoun’s early 15th century Orygynale Cronykil of Scotland says that Fergus was the first Scot to rule in Scotland, and that Cináed mac Ailpín was his descendant. In addition, he writes that Fergus brought the Stone of Scone  with him from Ireland, that he was succeeded by a son named Dúngal.

If Wyntoun’s account adds little to earlier ones, at the end of the 16th century George Buchanan in his Rerum Scoticarum Historia added much, generally following John of Fordun. In this version, the Scots had been expelled from Scotland when the Romans under one Maximus conquered all of Britain. His father Eugenius had been killed by the Romans, and Fergus, Fergusius II according to Buchanan’s count, was raised in exile in Scandinavia. He later fought with the Franks, before eventually returning to Scotland and reconquering the Scottish lands. He was killed in battle against Durstus, king of the Picts, and was succeeded by his son Eugenius.

Buchanan’s king, James VI, shared the scholar’s view of the origins of his line, describing himself in one of many verses written to his wife Anne of Denmark, as the “happie Monarch sprung of Ferguse race”. Nor was James VI the last ruler to share this belief. The Great Gallery of the Palace of Holyroodhouse in Edinburgh was decorated with eighty-nine of Jacob de Wet’s portraits of Scottish monarchs, from Fergus to Charles II, produced to the order of James’s grandson.

47th G –DOMANGART Réti macFergusson, King of Dál Riata (Wikipedia) died about 506. Domangart married Fedelmia daughter of Eochy Mogmedon , King of Ireland. They had at least two children

i. Comgall  Succeeded his father  around 507
ii. GABRÁN 

The Tripartite Life of St. Patrick states that he was present at the death of the saint, circa 493. Domangart died around 507 and was succeeded by Comgall.

His byname, Réti, appears in Adomnán’s Life of Saint Columba, in the form Corcu Réti, perhaps a synonym for Dál Riata. Corcu, a Primitive Irish language term for a kin group, usually combined with the name of a divine or mythical ancestor, is apparently similar to the term Dál. Alternatively, rather that representing an alternative name for all of Dál Riata, it has been suggested Corcu Réti was the name given to the kin group which later divided to form the Cenél nGabráin of Kintyre and the Cenél Comgaill of Cowal, thus excluding the Cenél nÓengusa of Islay and the Cenél Loairn of middle and northern Argyll.

46th G –GABRÁN mac Domangairt (Goramus) King of the Scots (Wikipedia) was born about 500. He died about 559.  Gabhran married Ingenach (Lleian) daughter of Brychan , Prince of Manau and Ingenach. The historical evidence for Gabrán is limited to the notice of his death in the Irish annals. It is possible that his death should be linked to a migration or flight from Bridei mac Maelchon, but this may be no more than coincidence.

The domain of the Cenél nGabraín appears to have been centerd in Kintyre and Knapdale and may have included ArranJura and Gigha. The title king of Kintyre is used of a number of presumed kings of the Cenél nGabrain. Two probable royal sites are known,Dunadd, which lies at the northern edge of their presumed lands, and Aberte (or Dún Aberte), which is very likely the later Dunaverty on the headland beside Southend, Kintyre.

45th G – AIDAN macGabhran  King of the Scots (Wikipedia) was born about 555. He died about 608.  Aidan married Ygerna del Acqs daughter of Taliesin “the Great Bard” and Viviane of Avallon del Acqs. They had the following children:

 i Eochaidh Buidhe macAidan , King of the Scots
ii Arthur macAidan of Dál Riata , Pendragon
iii Morgaine d’Avallon (Margawse)

Alternatively, Áedán’s other sons are named by the Senchus fer n-Alban as

i. Eochaid Find
ii. Tuathal
iii. Bran
iv. Baithéne
v. Conaing  – Adomnán also names Artúr, called a son of Conaing in the Senchus.  The main line of Cenél nGabráin kings were the descendants of Eochaid Buide through his son Domnall Brecc, but the descendants of Conaing successfully contested for the throne throughout the 7th century and into the 8th.
vi.Gartnait.
vii. EOCHAID Buide.

Áedán mac Gabráin (pronounced [ˈaiðaːn mak ˈɡavraːnʲ] in Old Irish) was a king of Dál Riata from circa 574 until his death, perhaps on 17 April 609. The kingdom of Dál Riata was situated in modern Argyll and Bute, Scotland, and parts of County Antrim, Ireland. Genealogies record that Áedán was a son of Gabrán mac Domangairt.

He was a contemporary of Saint Columba,, and much that is recorded of his life and career comes from hagiography such as Adomnán of Iona’s Life of Saint Columba. Áedán appears as a character in Old Irish and Middle Irish language works of prose and verse, some now lost.

The Irish annals record Áedán’s campaigns against his neighbours, in Ireland, and in northern Britain, including expeditions to the Orkney Islands, the Isle of Man, and the east coast of Scotland. As recorded by Bede, Áedán was decisively defeated by Æthelfrith of Bernicia at the Battle of Degsastan. Áedán may have been deposed, or have abdicated, following this defeat.

44th G – EOCHAID Buide macAidan King of the Scots (Wikipedia) was king of Dál Riata from around 608 until 629. “Buide” refers to the colour yellow, as in the color of his hair.  He was a younger son of Áedán mac Gabráin and became his father’s chosen heir upon the death of his elder brothers. ”

Eochaid Buide (“The Yellow-Haired”), King of Picts and Dalriada, Eochu Buide, Eochaid mac Aidan,  Celtic Art from The Book of Kells (9th Century)

According to Admonan’s Life of Columba, Columba identified Eochaid as the successor to Aedan mac Gabhran, even though he was one of Aedan’s younger sons, recognizing that the elder sons would be killed in battle. This prophecy happened before the battle against the Maetae in around 590, at which time Eochaid was still young enough to sit on Columba’s lap, which suggests he was probably born around the year 583 or 584.”

St Columba

In the last two years of his reign, 627–629, Eochaid was apparently co-ruler with Connad Cerr, who predeceased him.

Children of Eochaid Buide:

i. Domnall Brecc followed his father as King
ii. Conall Crandomna
iii. Failbe (who died at the Battle of Fid Eoin)
iv. Cú-cen-máthair (whose death is reported in the Annals of Ulster for 604)
v. Conall Bec, Connad or Conall Cerr (who may be the same person as Connad Cerr who died at Fid Eoin)
vi. Failbe
vii. Domangart
viii. Domnall Donn

43rd G – DOMNALL I “the Speckled” of Argyll , Domnall Brecc (Welsh: Dyfnwal Frych; English: Donald the Freckled) King of Scotland (Wikipedia) was king of Dál Riata, in modern Scotland, from about 629 until 642 when he was killed in the battle of Straith-Cairnaic.  He first appears in 622, when the Annals of Tigernach report his presence at the battle of Cend Delgthen (probably in the east midlands of Ireland) as an ally of Conall Guthbinn of Clann Cholmáin. This is the only battle known where Domnall Brecc fought on the winning side.

Domnall suffered four defeats after he broke Dál Riata’s alliance with the Cenél Conaill clan of the Uí Néill. In Ireland, Domnall and his ally Congal Cáech of the Dál nAraidi were defeated by Domnall mac Áedo of the Cenél Conaill, the High King of Ireland, at the Battle of Moira, County Down in 637. He also lost to the Picts in 635 and 638 and lastly to Eugein I of Alt Clut at Strathcarron in 642, where he was killed.

A stanza interpolated into the early 9th Century Welsh poem Y Gododdin refers to these events:

I saw an array that came from Pentir,
And bore themselves splendidly around the conflagration.
I saw a second one, rapidly descending from their township,
Who had risen at the word of the grandson of Nwython.|
I saw great sturdy men who came with the dawn,
And the head of Dyfnwal Frych, ravens gnawed it.

42nd G – DOMANGART II macDonnaill King of Scots (Wikipedia) (killed 673) was a king in Dál Riata (modern western Scotland) and the son of Domnall Brecc. It is not clear whether he was over-king of Dál Riata or king of the Cenél nGabráin.

Domangart is not listed by the Duan Albanach but is included in other sources, such as genealogies of William the Lion, and that of Causantín mac Cuilén found with the Senchus fer n-Alban. In these genealogies he is noted as the father of Eochaid mac Domangairt.

The Annals of Ulster for 673 report: “The killing of Domangart, son of Domnall Brecc, the king of Dál Riata.” Some king-lists state that in his time the Cenél Comgaill separated from the Cenél nGabráin.

41st G – EOCHAIDH II “Crook-Nose” King of Scots was born before 675 in Scotland. He died in 698 in killed.

40th G –  EOCHAID III macEchdach – was born about 695 in Scotland. He died in 733 in Scotland.  Eochaid married Spondana daughter of Garnard , King of the Picts.

39th G –  Áed Find (Áed the White of Argyll) or Áed mac Echdach – King of Scots (Wikipedia) was born about 725 in Scotland. He died in 778 in Scotland.  He had the following children:

i. Eochaidh IV Rinnamail “the venomous” of Argyll , King of the Dalriada
ii. Fergus was born about 733 in Scotland.

Áed Find (Áed the White) or Áed mac Echdach (before 736–778) was king of Dál Riata (modern western Scotland).  According to later genealogies, Áed was the great-grandfather of Kenneth MacAlpin (Cináed mac Ailpín) who is traditionally counted as the first king of Scots. This descent ran through Áed’s son Eochaid mac Áeda Find and Eochaid’s son Alpín mac Echdach. The evidence for the existence of Eochaid and Alpín   shows signs of fabrication in the High Middle Ages.

The Annals of Ulster in 768 report “Bellum i Fortrinn iter Aedh & Cinaedh”: a battle in Fortriu between Áed and Cináed. This is usually read as meaning Áed Find and the Pictish king Ciniod I, who is called “Cinadhon” in the notice of his death in 775.

Áed’s death in 778 is noted by the Annals of Ulster. He appears to have been followed as king by his brother Fergus mac Echdach.

38th G – EOCHAIDH IV Rinnamail “the venomous” of Argyll King of the Dál Riata (ca. 755 – 805), r. King of Dalriada ca. 781 – 805?  (Wikipedia) was born about 750 in Scotland. He died in 819 in Scotland.   In about 781 Eochaidh married Unnuistic (Urgusia, Fergise)  Princess of the Picts daughter of Ungust , King of the Picts.  Unnuistic was born about 770 in Scotland.  He ruled Dalriada (sub-king of Kintyre) 781 – 805?

37th G –  ALPIN of Kintyre  King of All Scotland (Wikipedia) was born about 790 in Scotland. He died on 20 Jul 834 in Galloway, Scotland; slain fighting the Picts. His place of burial is not recorded.  Alpin married a Scottish Princess in Scotland.  They had the following children:

i. Kenneth I MacAlpin , King of All Scotland
ii Donald I MacAlpin , King of Scotland was born about 812 in Scotland. He died in 863 in Scone, Perthshire, Scotland, killed in battle, or died that year at his palace at Kinn Belachoir. He died unmarried.

Alpín mac Eochaid may refer to two persons. The first person is a presumed king of Dál Riata in the late 730s. The second is the father of Kenneth MacAlpin (Cináed mac Ailpín). The name Alpín is taken to be a Pictish one, derived from the Anglo-Saxon name Ælfwine; Alpín’s patronymic means son of Eochaid or son of Eochu.

Irish annals such as the Annals of Ulster and the Annals of Innisfallen name Kenneth’s father as one Alpín. This much is reasonably certain.

The Chronicle of the Kings of Alba usually begins with Kenneth, but some variants include a reference to Kenneth’s father: “[Alpín] was killed in Galloway, after he had entirely destroyed and devastated it. And then the kingdom of the Scots was transferred to the kingdom of the Picts.”  John of Fordun calls Kenneth’s father “Alpin son of Achay” (Alpín son of Eochu) and has him killed in war with the Picts in 836; Andrew of Wyntoun’s version mixes Fordun’s war with the Picts with the Chronicle version which has him killed in Galloway

36th G –  KENNETH I MacAlpin was born about 810 in Scotland. He died on 13 Feb 859/860 in Fortevoit, not far from Scone, Perthshire, Scotland. He was buried in Isle of Iona, Scotland.  He had the following children:

i. Constantine I of Alba , King of the Picts and Scots, King of Alba
ii. a daughter of Kenneth MacAlpin
iii. Aedh (Ethus) Swift-Foot , King of Scotland
iv. a daughter of Kenneth MacAlpin
v. a daughter of Kenneth MacAlpin was born about 841.
vi. a daughter of Kenneth MacAlpin married Olaf the White , King of Dublin son of Ingiald. Olaf died in 873.

The first king of te united Scots of teh Dalriada and the Picts, and so of Scotland north of a line between the Forth and the Clyde Rivers.
Of his father Alpin little is known, though tradition credits him with a signal victory over the Picts by whom he was killed three months later (c.834). Kenneth succeeded in the Dalriada and ruled in Pictavia also, ruling for sisteen years. The period is obscure. The gradual union of the two kingdoms from 843 doubtless owes much to intermarriage. By the Pictish marriage custom, inheritance passed through the female. Nevertheless, Kenneth probably made some conquests among the eastern Picts and possibly invaded Lothian and burned Dunbar and Melrose. After attacks on Iona by Vikings he removed the relics of St. Columba, probably in 849 or 850 to Dunkeld, which became headquarters of the Scottish Columban church. He was buried in the Island of Iona.

Cináed mac Ailpín (Modern Gaelic: Coinneach mac Ailpein),commonly Anglicized as Kenneth MacAlpin and known in most modern regnal lists as Kenneth I (died 13 February 858) was king of the Picts and, according to national myth, first king of Scots, earning him the posthumous nickname of An Ferbasach, “The Conqueror”. Kenneth’s undisputed legacy was to produce a dynasty of rulers who claimed descent from him and was the founder of the dynasty which ruled Scotland for much of the medieval period.

Kenneth MacAlpin King of the Picts Reign 843–858

The Kenneth of myth, conqueror of the Picts and founder of the Kingdom of Alba, was born in the centuries after the real Kenneth died. In the reign of Kenneth II (Cináed mac Maíl Coluim), when the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba was compiled, the annalist wrote:

So Kinadius son of Alpinus, first of the Scots, ruled this Pictland prosperously for 16 years. Pictland was named after the Picts, whom, as we have said, Kinadius destroyed. … Two years before he came to Pictland, he had received the kingdom of Dál Riata..

When humanist scholar George Buchanan wrote his history Rerum Scoticarum Historia in the 1570s, a great deal of lurid detail had been added to the story. Buchanan included an account of how Kenneth’s father had been murdered by the Picts, and a detailed, and entirely unsupported, account of how Kenneth avenged him and conquered the Picts. Buchanan was not as credulous as many, and he did not include the tale of MacAlpin’s treason, a story from Giraldus Cambrensis, who reused a tale of Saxon treachery at a feast in Geoffrey of Monmouth’s inventive Historia Regum Britanniae.

Later 19th century historians such as William Forbes Skene brought new standards of accuracy to early Scottish history, while Celticists such as Whitley Stokes and Kuno Meyer cast a critical eye over Welsh and Irish sources. As a result, much of the misleading and vivid detail was removed from the scholarly series of events, even if it remained in the popular accounts. Rather than a conquest of the Picts, instead the idea of Pictish matrilineal succession, mentioned by Bede and apparently the only way to make sense of the list of Kings of the Picts found in the Pictish Chronicle, advanced the idea that Kenneth was a Gael, and a king of Dál Riata, who had inherited the throne of Pictland through a Pictish mother. Other Gaels, such as Caustantín and Óengus, the sons of Fergus, were identified among the Pictish king lists, as were Angles such as Talorcen son of Eanfrith, and Britons such as Bridei son of Beli.

Modern historians would reject parts of the Kenneth produced by Skene and subsequent historians, while accepting others. Medievalist Alex Woolf, interviewed by The Scotsman in 2004, is quoted as saying:

The myth of Kenneth conquering the Picts – it’s about 1210, 1220 that that’s first talked about. There’s actually no hint at all that he was a Scot. … If you look at contemporary sources there are four other Pictish kings after him. So he’s the fifth last of the Pictish kings rather than the first Scottish king.

35th G –  CONSTANTINE I of Alba  King of the Picts and Scots, King of Alba (Wikipedia) was born about 836 in Scotland. He died in 877 in Inverdorat (Black Cove, Angus), Forgan, Fifeshire, Scotland, beheaded in battle against the Danes. He was buried in Isle of Iona, Scotland.

King of Scotland or Alba, the united kingdom of the Picts and Scots, succeeded his uncle Donald I.

Constantine’s reign was occupied with conflicts with the Norsemen. Olaf the White, the Danish king of Dublin, laid waste the country of the Picts and Britons year after year; in the south the Danish leader halfdan devastated Northumberland and Galloway. Constantine was slain at a battle at Inverdovat in Fife, at the hands of another band of northern marauders. His heir was his brother Aed, who was killed by the Scots after a year and was succeeded by a nephew Eochaid.

18th century depiction of Causantín, son of Kenneth MacAlpin. The depiction is highly anachronistic. King of the Picts Reign 862–877

Causantín or Constantín mac Cináeda (in Modern Gaelic, Còiseam mac Choinnich; died 877) was a king of the Picts. He is often known as Constantine I, in reference to his place in modern lists of kings of Scots, though contemporary sources described Causantín only as a Pictish king. A son of Cináed mac Ailpín (“Kenneth MacAlpin”), he succeeded his uncle Domnall mac Ailpín as Pictish king following the latter’s death on 13 April 862. It is likely that Causantín’s (Constantine I) reign witnessed increased activity by Vikings, based in Ireland and Northumbria, in northern Britain and he died fighting one such invasion.

Very few records of ninth century events in northern Britain survive. The main local source from the period is the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba, a list of kings from Cináed mac Ailpín (died 858) to Cináed mac Maíl Coluim (died 995). The list survives in the Poppleton Manuscript,, a thirteenth century compilation. Originally simply a list of kings with reign lengths, the other details contained in the Poppleton Manuscript version were added from the tenth century onwards.  In addition to this, later king lists survive.  The earliest genealogical records of the descendants of Cináed mac Ailpín may date from the end of the tenth century, but their value lies more in their context, and the information they provide about the interests of those for whom they were compiled, than in the unreliable claims they contain.  The Pictish king-lists originally ended with this Causantín, who was reckoned the seventieth and last king of the Picts.

For narrative history the principal sources are the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle and the Irish annals.    If the sources for north-eastern Britain, the lands of the kingdom of Northumbria and the former Pictland, are limited and late, those for the areas on the Irish Sea and Atlantic coasts—the modern regions of north-west England and all of northern and western Scotland—are non-existent, and archaeology and toponymy are of primary importance.

34th G – DONALD II of Alba, King of Scotland (wikipedia) was born about 862 in Scotland. He died in 900 in Dun-Fother, Morayshire, Scotland, killed in battle. He was buried in Isle of Iona, Scotland.  He had the following children:

i. Malcolm I , King of the Scots and Picts, King of Alba
ii Eugene , Prince of Cumberland was born about 899 in Scotland.

Domnall mac Causantín (Modern Gaelic: Dòmhnall mac Chòiseim), anglicised as Donald II (died 900) was King of the Picts or King of Scotland (Alba) in the late 9th century.  Donald is given the epithet Dásachtach, “the Madman”, by the Prophecy of Berchán.

Donald II King of the Picts or of Alba 18th century drawing — There is absolutely no evidence that suggests he actually looked like this

Donald became king on the death or deposition of Giric (Giric mac Dúngail), the date of which is not certainly known but usually placed in 889. The Chronicle of the Kings of Alba reports:

“Doniualdus son of Constantini held the kingdom for 11 years [889–900]. The Northmen wasted Pictland at this time. In his reign a battle occurred between Danes and Scots at Innisibsolian where the Scots had victory. He was killed at Opidum Fother [modern Dunnottar] by the Gentiles.

The change from king of the Picts to king of Alba is seen as indicating a step towards the kingdom of the Scots, but historians, while divided as to when this change should be placed, do not generally attribute it to Donald in view of his epithet.  The consensus view is that the key changes occurred in the reign of Constantine II (Causantín mac Áeda), but the reign of Giric has also been proposed.It has been suggested that the attack on Dunnottar, rather than being a small raid by a handful of pirates, may be associated with the ravaging of Scotland attributed to Harald Fairhair in the Heimskringla. The Prophecy of Berchán places Donald’s death at Dunnottar, but appears to attribute it to Gaels rather than Norsemen; other sources report he died at Forres. Donald’s death is dated to 900 by the Annals of Ulster and the Chronicon Scotorum, where he is called king of Alba, rather that king of the Picts. He was buried on Iona.

33rd G – MALCOLM I (Wikipedia) was born about 897 in Scotland. He died in 954 in Fordoun, Kincardineshire, Scotland, slained by the men of Moray. He was buried in Isle of Iona, Scotland.  He had the following children:

i Dubh (Duff) (Mogallus) , King of Scotland
ii. Kenneth II of Alba , King of Scotland

Máel Coluim mac Domnaill (anglicised Malcolm I) (c. 900–954) was king of Scots(before 943 – 954), becoming king when his cousin Causantín mac Áeda abdicated to become a monk.

Malcolm I King of Alba 943–954

Since his father was known to have died in the year 900, Malcolm must have been born no later than 901, by the 940s he was no longer a young man, and may have become impatient in awaiting the throne. Willingly or not—the 11th-century Prophecy of Berchán, a verse history in the form of a supposed prophecy, states that it was not a voluntary decision that Constantine II abdicated in 943 and entered a monastery, leaving the kingdom to Malcolm.

Seven years later the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba says:

[Malcolm I] plundered the English as far as the river Tees, and he seized a multitude of people and many herds of cattle: and the Scots called this the raid of Albidosorum, that is, Nainndisi. But others say that Constantine made this raid, asking of the king, Malcolm, that the kingship should be given to him for a week’s time, so that he could visit the English. In fact, it was Malcolm who made the raid, but Constantine incited him, as I have said

32nd G –  KENNETH II of Alba (wikipedia)was born about 934 in Scotland. He died in 995 in Fettercairn, Kincardineshire, Scotland, perhaps murdered on behalf of his successor. He was buried in Isle of Iona, Scotland.  Kenneth married a Princess of Leinster.  They had the following children:

i. Malcolm II of Alba , King of Scotland
ii. Dunclina of Scotland was born about 960 in Scotland. Dunclina married Kenneth , Thane of Lechaber. Kenneth was born about 958.
iii. Dungal died in 999 in Scotland, killed by his cousin Gillacomgain, son of Kenneth III.

Cináed mac Maíl Coluim (Modern Gaelic: Coinneach mac Mhaoil Chaluim[1] anglicised as Kenneth II, and nicknamed An Fionnghalach, “The Fratricide”;[2] before 954–995) was King of Scots (Alba). The son of Malcolm I (Máel Coluim mac Domnaill), he succeeded King Cuilén (Cuilén mac Iduilb) on the latter’s death at the hands of Amdarch of Strathclyde in 971.

Kenneth II – King of Alba 971–995

The Chronicle of the Kings of Alba was compiled in Kenneth’s reign, but many of the place names mentioned are entirely corrupt, if not fictitious. Whatever the reality, the Chronicle states that “he immediately plundered [Strathclyde] in part. Kenneth’s infantry were slain with very great slaughter in Moin Uacoruar.” The Chronicle further states that Kenneth plundered Northumbria three times, first as far as Stainmore, then to Cluiam and lastly to the River Dee by Chester. These raids may belong to around 980, when the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records attacks on Cheshire.

In 973, the Chronicle of Melrose reports that Kenneth, with Máel Coluim I , the King of Strathclyde, “Maccus, king of very many islands” (i.e. Magnus Haraldsson (Maccus mac Arailt), King of Mann and the Isles) and other kings, Welsh and Norse, came to Chester to acknowledge the overlordship of the English king Edgar the Peaceable. It may be that Edgar here regulated the frontier between the southern lands of the kingdom of Alba and the northern lands of his English kingdom. Cumbria was English, the western frontier lay on the Solway. In the east, the frontier lay somewhere in later Lothian, south of Edinburgh.

31st G – MALCOLM II of Alba  (Wikipedia) was born about 954 in Scotland. He died on 25 Nov 1034 in Glammys Castle, Angus, Scotland, killed by his kinsman. He was the last king of the house of MacAlpin. He was buried in Isle of Iona, Scotland.  Malcolm married a daughter of Sigurd , an Irishwoman from Ossory.   They had the following children:

i. Bethoc (Beatrice) , heiress of Scone
ii. Doda Olith of Thora , Princess of Scotland

King of Scotland from 1005 to 1034, the first to rule over an extent of land roughly corresponding to much of modern Scotland.  Malcolm succeeded to the throne after killing his predecessor, Kenneth III, and allegedly secured his territory by defeating a Northumbrian army at the battle of Carham (c. 1016); he not only confirmed the Scotish hold over the land between the rivers Forth and Tweed, but also secured Strathclyde about the same time. Eager to secure the royal succession for his daughter’s son Duncan, he tried to eliminmate possible royal claimants; but MacBeth, with royal connections to both Kenneth II and Kenneth III, survived to challenge the succession.

Malcolm II

Máel Coluim mac Cináeda (Modern Gaelic: Maol Chaluim mac Choinnich, known in modern anglicized regnal lists as Malcolm II; died 25 November 1034), was King of the Scots from 1005 until his death.  He was a son of Cináed mac Maíl Coluim; the Prophecy of Berchán says that his mother was a woman of Leinster and refers to him as Máel Coluim Forranach, “the destroyer”.

To the Irish annals which recorded his death, Máel Coluim was ard rí Alban, High King of Scotland. In the same way that Brian Bóruma, High King of Ireland, was not the only king in Ireland, Máel Coluim was one of several kings within the geographical boundaries of modern Scotland: his fellow kings included the king of Strathclyde, who ruled much of the southwest, various Norse-Gael kings of the western coasts and the Hebrides and, nearest and most dangerous rivals, the Kings or Mormaers of Moray. To the south, in the kingdom of England, the Earls of Bernicia and Northumbria, whose predecessors as kings of Northumbria had once ruled most of southern Scotland, still controlled large parts of the southeast.

30th G –  Doda OLITH of Thora was born about 986 in Scotland. She died on 25 Nov 1034. Doda married (1) Findleach MacRory of Moray “Synell” (Wikipedia), Lord of Glammis, Mórmaer of Moray in 1004. Findleach was born about 982 in Scotland. He died in 1004/1005 in Scotland.

They had the following children:

i MacBeth (Maelbeatha) , King of Scotland (Wikipedia) – Mac Bethad mac Findlaích (Modern Gaelic: MacBheatha mac Fhionnlaigh,anglicized as Macbeth, and nicknamed Rí Deircc, “the Red King”; died 15 August 1057) was King of the Scots (also known as the King of Alba, and earlier as King ofMoray and King of Fortriu) from 1040 until his death. He is best known as the subject of William Shakespeare’s tragedy Macbeth and the many works it has inspired, although the play presents a highly inaccurate, almost outright fabrication of his reign and personality.

Orson Wells as Macbeth

Doda married (2) Sigurd “Digri” “the Stout” HLODVERSSON, 7th Earl of Ornkey  in 1005/1008. Sigurd was born about 979 in Orkney Islands, Scotland. His parents were  Earl Hlodver Thorfinnsson 6th Earl of Orkney and s Audna Kjarvalssdatter.  He died on 23 Apr 1014 in Clontarf, Dublin, in battle with Brian Boru, King of Ireland, on Good Friday.

They had the following children:

ii. Thorfinn II Sigurdsson ,

29th G –  THORFINN II Sigurdsson  was born in 1009 in Orkney Islands, Scotland. He died in 1064 in Scotland.  He was Jarl of Ornkey and Earl of Caithness. He was buried in Christchurch, Birsay, Orkney Islands.  Thorfinn married Ingibriorg Finnsdottir of the Uplands (of Halland) , “Earl’s Mother” daughter of Finn Arnasson of Vrjar , Jarl of Halland and Bergliot (Thorbiorg) Halfdansdottir in 1038. Ingibriorg died about 1069. They had the following children:

i. DOLPHIN (Bodin) Thorfinnsson of Appletreewick
ii. Paul (Bardolf) , Earl of Ornkey and Caithness
iii. Erlend II Thorfinnsson , Earl of Ornkey

In Molsonby and Diddaston bailiwick of the Geld, 11 carucates and 10 ploughs. There TORFIN had one manor; now BODIN has there 1 carncate and 15 villans, and 3 borders, with 7 ploughs. There is a church there. The whole was 1 league in length, and 1 in breadth, temp. Edward the Confessor.”–(1041-1066.)

28th G –  Dolphin (Bodin) THORFINNSSON of Appletreewick  Lord of Bingley was born about 1040 in Ravelswath, York. He died before 1064.

27th G – a daughter of Dolphin THORFINNSSON  was born about 1055.   She married Gospatric , Lord of Bingley son of Archill , Earl of Lennox and Sigfrida (Sigrid). Gospatric was born about 1045.  They had the following children:

i. DOLPHIN de Bradelay
ii. Thurstan de Bradelay
iii. Uchtred of Allerston and Coyton was born 1 about 1070
iv. Thorfin de Bradelay was born about 1072
v. Gospatric de Bradelay

26th G – Dolphin de BRADELAY  was born about 1067 in Northumbria, during the reign of Edward the Confessor.  He had the following children:

i.  DOLPHIN de Bradelay
ii. Uchtred de Bradelay
iii. Hebden de Bradelay
iv. Swayne de Bradelay

25th G – Dolphin de BRADELAY was born about 1100 in Northumbria, during the reign of Henry I. He had the following children:

 i. RICHARD de Bradelay
ii. William de Bradelay
iii. Swain de Bradelay
iv. Torfin de Bradelay
v. Robert de Bradelay
vi. Henry de Bradelay
vii. Gila (Gale) de Bradelay.

24th G – Richard de BRADELAY was born about 1145.

23rd G – John de BRADELAY was born about 1180 in (near) Halifax, during the reign of Henry II.

22nd G – William de BRADELAY  was born about 1210 in (near) Halifax, during the reign of King John.

21st G – William de BRADELAY was born about 1240 in (near) Halifax, during the reign of Henry III. William married Ellota.

20th G – Henry de BRADELAY  was born about 1280.

19th G – John de BRADELAY was born about 1320 in (near) Halifax, during the reign of Richard II.  John was the Constable of Ovenden.  Ovenden is a village in the county of West Yorkshire, England, located next to Boothtown and Illingworth and about 1 mile from Halifax town centre.

18th G – John de BRODELEGH was born about 1380 in (near) Halifax, during the reign of Richard II. John married Alice.  They had the following children:

i. John de Brodelegh was born about 1415.
ii. William de BRODELEGH, Constable of Halifax
iii. Henry de Brodelegh was born about 1425.

17th G – William de BRODELEGH was born about 1420 in (near) Halifax, during the reign of Henry V.  He was constable of Halifax.  Halifax is a minster town, within the Metropolitan Borough of Calderdale in West Yorkshire, England.    It is well-known as a centre of England’s woollen manufacture from the 15th century onward, originally dealing through the Halifax Piece Hall. Halifax is internationally famous for its Mackintosh chocolate and toffee (now owned by Nestlé), the Halifax Bank (formerly Halifax Building Society), and the nearby Shibden Hall.

Halifax Piece Hall

The oldest written mentions of the town have the spelling as Haliflax, apparently meaning “holy flax” (Hair), the second “l” having been subsequently lost by dissimilation. Local legend has it that the head of John the Baptist was buried here after his execution. The legend is almost certainly medieval rather than ancient, though the town’s coat of arms still carries an image of the saint. An alternative explanation for the name of the town could come from a corruption of the Old English words Hay and Ley. Anecdotal evidence for this alternative and plausible explanation can be seen in the presence of Haley Hill, the nearby hamlet of Healey (another corruption). The fact that the surnames Hayley/Haley which are derived from Hay and Ley, for ‘hay’ and ‘clearing’ or ‘meadow’ respectively and are most abundant around the Halifax environs, also gives credibility for this explanation.

16th G – Thomas BROODELEY was born about 1450 in (near) Halifax, during the reign of Henry VI.  Halifax Minster in Halifax, West Yorkshire, England is dedicated to St John the Baptist. was completed by about 1438. It comprises a nave, chancel and full-length aisles, and is thought to be the third church on this site, but it includes stonework from earlier periods. There are a few carved chevron stones, which date from before 1150, and several 12th century tomb-covers in the porch. Windows of the Early English style in the north wall are replacements of originals dating from the 14th century. A portion of this north wall is much earlier, and may have originally been part of the Norman church.  After the completion of the present nave and chancel, several additions were made. The tower was erected between 1449 and 1482; and the Rokeby and Holdsworth Chapels – originally chantry chapels – were completed by about 1535.

Halifax Minster

Thomas had the following children:

 i. John BROODELEY
ii. William Broodeley was born about 1475.

15th G – John BROODELEY  was born about 1475 in (near) Halifax, during the reign of Edward IV. John married Agneta HYNSCLIFFE.  They had the following children:

 i. William BROODELEY
ii. Richardus Broodeley was born on 20 Mar 1538/1539 in Halifax, Yorkshire, England.

14th G – William BROODELEY was born about 1510 in Great Horton, Bradford, Yorkshire, England. He died on 22 Dec 1577 in Bradford, Yorkshire, England. William married Ann about 1540. Ann was born about 1515. She died after 1555.

13th G – William BRADLEY (1545 – 1600)  was born in 1545 in Bingley (Newclose), Yorkshire, England during the reign of Henry VIII.   Alternatively, he was born in Coventry, Warwick, England.   He married  Agnes Angeta MARGATES 1584 in Coventry, England, daughter of Thomas MARGATES. She was born Bet. 1565 – 1573 in Reseden, Northamptonshire, England, and died 1 Feb 1602/03 in Bradford, England.  William died in Newclose Farm, Shipley, Parish of Bradford, Yorkshire England.  William signed a will on 22 Dec 1598 which was probated 14 Aug 1600.

Bingley is a market town in the metropolitan borough of the City of Bradford, in West Yorkshire, England. It is situated on the River Aire and the Leeds and Liverpool Canal. The town has a population of 19,884 according to the 2001 Census. In 1592 Bingley was shown on a map by Yorkshire map-maker Christopher Saxton as a single street with about 20 houses on each side. The church sits at the west end of the street opposite a single large house, possibly a manor house. Since Bingley was a market town, the market stalls would have been set up on either side of the main street.

All Saints Parish Church, Bingley

The only building shown on Saxton’s map which now still survives is the parish church of All Saints. Although it has been much restored in later centuries, the overall aspect of the church is much the same as it would have appeared in Tudor times when it was undergoing major rebuilding. The tower was added in the late 15th or early 16th century and the chancel in 1518 by Richard Wylson, Prior of Drax. Drax was not the only ecclesiastical establishment to have an interest in the Bingley area before the Dissolution by Henry VIII. The Cistercian abbey of Rievaulx had mining rights on Ilkley Moor and held the manor of Harden. After the Dissolution the Harden estates were bought by Walter Paslew of Riddlesden for £274 13s 4d. In 1338 the monks had been getting a rent of just over £15 a year for the property. Paslew invested heavily in the estate, but the investment paid off. In 1570, the property was bringing in a rent of over £26 a year.

12th G – Major Danyell BROADLEY de West Morton (1589 –  1641) was Alex’s 10th Great Grandfather; one of 2,048 in this generation of the Shaw line through his son Samuell. Danyell  was also Alex’s 10th Great Grandfather; one of 2,048 in this generation of the Miller line through his son Daniel which didn’t come back together for over 300 years when I was born.

Danyell Broadley de West Morton – Coat of Arms

Danyell Broadley de West Morton was baptized on 26 Jan 1588/89 in Bingley, Yorkshire, England.    He married  Elsabeth ATKINSON on 1 Jul 1607 in Bingley.  After Elsabeth died, he married (2) Annis Holdroide Liaison.   After Annis died, he married (3) Elizabeth Sheaffe about 1631.   Danyell died in Ulster, Ireland and was buried on 27 Nov 1641 in Bingley, Yorkshire, England

11th G – Daniel BRADLEY  (1613 – 1689) Born 29 Aug 1613 in Bingley, Yorkshire, England.   He married Mary WILLIAMS on 21 May 1662 in Haverhill, Mass.   Daniel was killed by Indians on 13 Aug 1689 in Haverhill, Mass.  Many of his children and grandchildren were also killed or kidnapped and carried into Canada.

Daniel and his son were both killed in Indian attacks. His granddaughter Hannah Bradley testified in 1739 that about forty years past she with the widow Mary Neff were taken prisoners by the Indians & carried together into captivity, & above penny cook the Deponent was by the Indians forced to travel farther than the rest of the Captives, and the next night but one there came to us one Squaw who said that Hannah Dustan and the aforesaid Mary Neff assisted in killing the Indians of her wigwam except herself and a boy, herself escaping very narrowly, chewing to myself & others seven wounds as she said with a Hatched on her head which wounds were given her when the rest were killed, and further saith not her.

10th G – Mary BRADLEY was born 16 Apr 1671 in Haverhill, Essex, Mass.     She first married Bartholomew Heath son of John Heath and Sarah Partridge on 23 Jan 1691 in Haverhill, Mass. She married in  in 1705 in Haverhill, Mass. to  Lt. James HEATH  (1683 – 1744) Mary was killed by Indians on  3 Sep 1718 in Haverhill, Mass.

9th G – David HEATH was born 14 Apr 1706 in Haverhill, Essex, Mass.   He married Ann STAPLES 24 May 1732 in Bradford, Essex, Mass. David died 16 Apr 1770 in Haverhill, Mass.

8th G – Mary HEATH was born 16 Jan 1739 in Haverhill, Mass.  In our imaginations, Mary’s father might have been  Chief CROOKED KNIFE.  She married 21 Mar 1760 in Haverhill, Mass. to  John BRADLEY (1738 – bef. 1830).  Mary died before 1824 in New Brunswick.

Vermont legend says Mary Heath’s father was Abenaki Chief Crooked Knife

7th G – Sarah Hannah BRADLEY was born in 1771 in Woodstock, New Brunswick Canada. Woodstock was settled by Loyalists following the American War of Independence.  She married 17 Jul 1793 in Woodstock Anglican Church, Carleton County, New Brunswick to Jonathan PARKS (1767 – 1855)   Sarah died about 1861 in Caribou Maine.

Jonathan and Sarah petitioned for a lot on “Presqu’isle, St. John River” in 1803.  Blue, grey and black wash over pencil by George Heriot  20 July 1807, Credit: Library and Archives Canada/C-012724.

6th G – Harriet PARKS was born 15 Nov 1798 in Waterborough (Grand Lake area), Queens Co, New Brunswick, Canada.   She married on 31 Jul 1815 in Woodstock, New Brunswick Canada to Isaac MILLER Jr (bet 1767/1770 – 1837) . Harriet was more than 30 years younger than Isaac and there were 39 years between Isaac’s oldest and youngest children.   Harriet was a widow with 8 of her 10 children living, beside seven or eight of her 13 step children, when she married  Tristram Winslow Hillman in 1846.  He was referred to in family history as “that queer duck Hillman.”   Harriet died  29 Jan 1873 in Pickett, Winnebago County, Wisconsin.

Harriet Parks Miller Hillman

5th G. George MILLER   was born 21 Jun 1817 in Northampton, York County, New Brunswick, Canada.  George married Mary ESTEY on 23 Aug 1838 in Dumfries, York Co [New Brunswick Royal Gazette] or 22 Oct 1837.  George died on 7  Sep 1860 in Winnebago County, Wisconsin and is burried in Liberty Prairie Cemetery. Family legend says he died of apoplexy while arguing about the Civil War.

George Miller

4th G. – Frank Nelson MILLER  was born on 18 June 1858 in Utica Wisconsin.   He married on 4 Jan 1896 in Fresno, Calif.  to  Agnes Genevieve HENRY (1863 – 1931).   Frank died on 29 Dec 1903 in Willows, California.

Miller Family: Genevieve, Frank, Henry, and Agnes

Miller Family: Genevieve, Frank, Henry, and Agnes

3rd G. Genevieve MILLER  was born 23 Mar 1899 in San Diego.  She married on 4 Apr 1925 in Los Angeles to Horace Horton BLAIR (1894 – 1965)

Genevieve Miller 1921

2nd G. Nancy BLAIR m. Everton Harvey MINER 
1st G.  Mark MINER m. Guadalupe VILLA VELAZQUEZ

ALEX!

Sources:

http://www.bradleyfoundation.org/Maite/marcus/tobg202.htm#11136

http://sandwalk.blogspot.com/2008/10/what-does-marcus-antonius-tell-us-about.html

http://sandwalk.blogspot.com/2008/10/niall-nigiallach-niall-of-nine-hostages.html

http://keithblayney.com/Blayney/Coel.html

http://royalmiddletons.blogspot.com/2011/04/eochaid-i-fair-king-of-dalriada.html

http://boards.ancestry.com/surnames.bradley/2478/mb.ashx

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