Marcus Antonius

Almost everyone with European ancestors is related to everyone else within the last 2000 years.  Remember the king was was ruined by his promise to pay 1 grain of rice of the first chessboard square, 2 on the second, 3 on the third ….  2^62 possible ancestors =  4,611,686,018,427,390,000.  ( or 4.6 Quintillion)   While Genvissa, the daughter of Claudius who married a Silurian king, was invented by Geoffrey of Monmouth (c. 1100 – c. 1155), we are all kin.   We know these Romans from I Claudius and many other stories.  This line has Gaelic Kings of every variety, Welsh, Irish, and Scot and famous cameos including St. Patrick, St. Columba and Macbeth.

Geoffrey of Monmouth

How many generations do you think are between Marcus Antonius and the founding of Rome?  Plutarch says that Romulus was 53 in 717 BC. If true, then Romulus and Remus would have been born in the year 771 BC.  62 generations between 83 BC and 2011 AD = 33.7 years per generation.  At that rate, adding 18 or 19 more generations makes Romulus Alex’s 80th Great Grandfather!

62nd G – Marcus Antonius  (14 Jan  83 BC – 1 Aug 30 BC) (Wikipedia), Mark Antony was a friend, and cousin, of Gaius Julius Caesar, although after Caesar’s assassination he stopped praising Caesar. Mark Antony had a falling out with Octavian (Augustus) after the Second Triumvirate split up and he ended up in Egypt. The history is interesting but not very relevant.

We’re mostly concerned about Mark Antony’s genes. Near the end of his life he had three children by Cleopatra, Queen of Egypt; the twins Alexander Helios & Cleopatra Selene II and Ptolemy Philadelphus. This led to gene flow between the Italians and subpopulations in the Middle East.

Mark Antony

Bust of Mark Antony (Vatican Museums)

But before moving to Egypt, Mark had several wives in Rome. One of them was Octavia Minor. and they had a daughter, Antonia Minor.

Octavia Minor (69 BC Nola, Italy, Roman Republic -11 BC Rome)

Octavia, was the sister of the first Roman Emperor, Augustus (known also as Octavian), half-sister of Octavia the Elder, and fourth wife of Mark Antony. She was also the mother-in-law of the Emperor Tiberius, great-grandmother of the Emperor Caligula and Empress Agrippina the Younger, maternal grandmother of the Emperor Claudius, and paternal great-grandmother and maternal great-great grandmother of the Emperor Nero.

One of the most prominent women in Roman history, Octavia was respected and admired by contemporaries for her loyalty, nobility and humanity, and for maintaining traditional Roman feminine virtues.

61st G –ANTONIA Minor , (Wikipedia) Antonia married Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus and one of her sons was Claudius , Emperor of Rome. At the time Antonia and Drusus were living in Lugdunum (Lyon, France).

The Juno Ludovisi(a portrait of Antonia Minor

Antonia was the favorite niece of her mother’s younger brother, Rome’s first Emperor Augustus.  Antonia never had the chance to know her father, Mark Antony, who divorced her mother in 32 BC and committed suicide in 30 BC. She was raised by her mother, her uncle and her aunt, Livia Drusilla.  In 16 BC, she married the Roman general and consul Nero Claudius Drusus. Drusus was the stepson of her uncle Augustus, second son of Livia Drusilla and brother of future Emperor Tiberius. They had several children, but only three survived: the famous general GermanicusLivilla and the Roman Emperor Claudius.

60th G – CLAUDIUS Cæsar (Tiberius Claudius Nero Germanicus) (Wikipedia) ,

Claudius (1 Aug 10 BC  Lugdunum, Gaul – 13 Oct 54 ) Buried Mausoleum of Augustus

Claudia had four wives.  We descend from his third wife,

Claudius married (1) Plautia Urgulanilla. The marriage ended in divorce.Plautia was born in Etruria (Italy).

Claudius married (2) Ælia Paetina about 0038.

Claudius married (3)  Valeria Messalina, sometimes spelled Messallina, (c. 17/20 – 48). She was also a paternal cousin of the Emperor Nero, second cousin of the Emperor Caligula, and great-grandniece of the Emperor Augustus. A powerful and influential woman with a reputation for promiscuity, she conspired against her husband and was executed when the plot was discovered.

They had the following children:

i. Genvissa (Venus Julia)
ii Britannicus was born  in 41 AD. He died in 55 in Rome, poisoned, probably by his stepmother Agrippina.
iii. Octavia died  in Rome, executed by order of her husband and half brother, Nero.  Octavia married Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus (Nero) , Emperor of Rome in AD 53. Lucius was born on 15 Dec 0037 in Antium, Latium. He died on 9 Jun 0068 in Rome, commited suicide, he is attributed the last words “Qualis artifex pereo”, “What a showman the world .

Claudius married (4) Julia Agrippina (Agrippina Minor) daughter of Germanicus and Vipsania Agrippina (Agrippina the Elder) in 0049. Julia was born in 14 AD. She died in 59 in Italy, beside the Gulf of Cumæ (bay of Naples), executed by order of her son, Nero, after an attempt on her life failed.

59th G – Genvissa (Venus Julia) , Genvisa married Arviragus Gwenivyth (10 AD. – 74), King of Siluria, in 45 AD. Siluria was a kingdom in the south of Wales and at the time they were resisting Roman occupation. Arviragus became King of the Britons. Their son was Meric (Marius) , King of the Britons.

According to Tacitus’s biography of Agricola, the Silures usually had a dark complexion and curly hair. Due to their appearance, Tacitus hinted that they may have crossed over from Spain at an earlier date. Genetic studies carried out by University College London, Oxford University and the University of California have suggested that most Welsh and Irish Celts share in part (Y-chromosomes, mtDNA) with the Basque people who originated in northern Iberia during the Paleolithic.  But it is still unclear whether the link is specific to the Celts and the Basques, or whether they are both simply the closest surviving relatives of the early population of Europe.

Tribes of Wales at the time of the Roman invasion. The modern Anglo-Welsh border is also shown, for reference purposes.

The Silures made a fierce resistance to the Roman conquest about AD 48, with the assistance of Caratacus, a military leader and prince of the Catuvellauni, who had fled from further east after his own tribe was defeated.

The first attack on the Welsh tribes was made under the legate Publius Ostorius Scapula about 48 AD. Ostorius first attacked the Deceangli in the north-east of what is now Wales, who appear to have surrendered with little resistance. He then spent several years campaigning against the Silures and the Ordovices. Their resistance was led by Caratacus, who had fled from the south-east (of what is now England) when it was conquered by the Romans. He first led the Silures, then moved to the territory of the Ordovices, where he was defeated by Ostorius in 51 AD.

The Silures were not subdued, however, and waged effective guerilla warfare against the Roman forces. Ostorius had publicly said that they posed such a danger that they should be either exterminated or transplanted. His threats only increased the Silures’ determination to resist and a large legionary force occupied in building Roman forts in their territory was surrounded and attacked, and rescued only with difficulty and considerable loss. They also took Roman prisoners as hostages and distributed them amongst their neighbouring tribes in order to bind them together and encourage resistance.

Ostorius died with the Silures still unconquered and, after his death, they won a victory over the Second Legion. It remains unclear whether the Silures were actually militarily defeated or simply agreed to come to terms, but Roman sources suggest rather opaquely that they were eventually subdued by Sextus Julius Frontinus in a series of campaigns ending about 78 AD. The Roman Tacitus wrote of the Silures: non atrocitate, non clementia mutabatur– “changed neither by cruelty nor by clemency”.

To aid the Roman administration in keeping down local opposition, a legionary fortress (Isca Augusta, later Caerleon) was planted in the midst of tribal territory.

Remains of the amphitheatre at Isca.

The town of Venta Silurum (Caerwent, six miles west of Chepstow) was established in 75 AD. It became a Romanized town, not unlike Calleva Atrebatum (Silchester), but smaller. An inscription shows that under the Roman Empire it was the capital of the Silures, whose ordo or “county council” provided for the local government of the district. Its massive Roman walls still survive, and excavations have revealed a forum, a temple, baths, amphitheatre, shops, and many comfortable houses with mosaic floors, etc. In the late first and early second century, the Silures were given back some nominal independence and responsibility for local administration. As was standard practice, as revealed by inscriptions, the Romans matched their deities with local Silurian ones, and the local deity Ocelus was twinned with Mars, the Roman god of war.


The remains of the town wall of Venta Silurum

Geoffrey of Monmouth (c. 1100 – c. 1155) a cleric and one of the major figures in the development of British historiography and the popularity of tales of King Arthur. He is best known for his chronicle Historia Regum Britanniae (“History of the Kings of Britain”), which was widely popular in its day and was credited uncritically well into the 16th century, being translated into various other languages from its original Latin.

At the end of that winter (c. 45 AD) the messengers returned with Claudius’ daughter and handed her over to her father. The girls name was Genvissa. Her beauty was such that everyone who saw her filled with admiration. Once she had been united to him (Arvirargus) in lawful marriage, she inflamed the King with with such burning passion that he preferred her company to anything else in the world. As a result of this Arvirargus made up his mind to give some special mark of distinction to the place were he married her. He suggested to Claudius that the two of them should found there a city which should perpetuate in times to come the memory of so happy a marriage. Claudius agreed and ordered a town to be built wich should be called Kaerglou or Gloucester. Down to our own day (abt 1100) it retains its site on the bank of the Severn, between Wales and Loegria. Some, however, say that it took its name from Duke Gloius, whom Claudius fathered in that city and to whom he granted control of the duchy of the Welsh after Arvirargus.

Glevum  was a Roman fort in Roman Britain that become “colonia” of retired legionaries in AD 97. Today it is known as Gloucester, located in the English county of Gloucestershire.  Glevum was established around AD 48 as a market centre at an important crossing of the River Severn and near to the Fosse Way one of the important Roman roads in Britain. Initially, there was a Roman fort established at Kingsholm. Twenty years later, a larger replacement fortress was built on slightly higher ground nearby, centred on Gloucester Cross, and a civilian settlement grew around it. The Roman Legion based here was the Legio II Augusta as they prepared to invade Roman Wales between 66 and 74 AD, later being based at Burrium (Usk) and Isca Augusta (Caerleon) in South Wales.

Glevum Mosaic which once graced a villa on the edge of the woods just near a deep, trickling stream. It was damaged and filthy but a pretty incredible find, especially as it was once walked on by a Roman family

58th G – MERIC (Marius) was born in 74. He died in 125.  Meric married Penardun daughter of Bran “the Blessed Sovereign” , King of Siluria and Anna (Enygeus).  Meric (Marius) king of Britain married dau of Boadicia (Victoria) They had the following children:

i. COEL I “Old King Cole”,  King of Siluria
ii. Eurgen Father of Gladys m Lleuver Mawr Lucius the Great.

57th G – COEL I “Old King Cole , King of Siluria (125 – 170), (Wikipedia) – Coel Hen, whose epithet can be translated as “the Old” or “the Ancestor”, is noted in Welsh legend as a leader in the Hen Ogledd or “Old North”, the Brythonic-speaking parts of southern Scotland and northern England during or after the period of the Roman withdrawal. “The early tradition is that Coel ruled the whole of the north, south of Hadrian’s Wall, the territory that the Notitia assigned to the dux [Roman military leader]; but that in later generations it split into a number of independent kingdoms.  He had the following children:

i. Athildis of Camulod
ii. a child of King Cole
iii. Lleuver Mawr (Lucius the Great) , King of Siluria, 2nd “Blessed King”

It suggests that  he was the last Roman commander, who turned his command into a kingdom.   In his widely criticized book, The Age of Arthur, historian John Morris suggested that Coel may have been the last of the Roman Duces Brittanniarum (Dukes of the Britons) who commanded the Roman army in northern Britain. According to Morris he may have taken over the northern capital at Eburacum (York) to rule over what had been the northern province of Roman Britain. Upon Coel Hen’s death, his lands would have been split between his sons, Garmonion and Cunedda II,

Old King Cole by WW Denslow (an illustrator and caricaturist remembered for his illustrations of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz.)

He is credited with founding a number of kingly lines in the North and was regarded as an ancestor figure, suggesting that the territory he controlled must have been substantial. Later writers such as Henry of Huntington and Geoffrey of Monmouth associated Coel with the father of Saint Helena of Constantinople, the mother of Constantine the Great. Geoffrey’s Historia Regum Britanniae expands on the legend of Coel, including material about his rule as king of the Britons and his dealings with the Romans.

56th G – a child of King Cole ,

55th G – a grandchild of King Cole,

54th G – ALOFE (Aife) , married Fíacha Sroiptine  (Wikipedia), 120th Ard Righ of Ireland son of Cairbre Liffeachaire (Carbry of the Leffey) , Ard Righ of Ireland and a daughter of a Prince of the Hebrides. Fiachadh was born about 290. He died in 322.

On his father’s death, Fothad Cairpthech and Fothad Airgthech, sons of Lugaid mac Con, had taken the throne jointly, but within the year Fothad Airgthech killed his brother. Fíacha and the fianna then defeated and killed Fothad in the Battle of Ollarba.

Fíacha’s son, Muiredach Tirech, commanded his armies, as the king himself was not allowed to go into battle. Once, Muiredach led a victorious expedition to Munster. The three Collas — Colla Uais, Colla Fo Chri and Colla Menn, sons of Fíacha’s brother Eochaid Doimlén — gave battle to Fíacha while Muiredach and his army were still in Munster. Fíacha’s druid, Dubchomar, prophesied that if Fíacha was to defeat the Collas, none of his descendants would ever rule Ireland, and likewise, if the Collas won, none of their descendants would be king after them. Fíacha was defeated and killed in what became known as the Battle of Dubchomar.  Fíacha had ruled for over 30 years. The chronology of Geoffrey Keating’s Foras Feasa ar Éirinn dates his reign to 273–306, the Annals of the Four Masters to 285-322.

The Three Collas plotted against their uncle, the High King Fíacha Sroiptine. It was prophesied that whoever killed them, his descendants would never rule Ireland. While Fíacha’s son Muiredach Tirech was campaigning in Munster with his army, they defeated Fíacha in the Battle of Dubchomar, and Colla Uais took the throne. He ruled for four years, until Muiredach overthrew him, took the throne, and exiled him and his brothers, with three hundred men, to Alba (Scotland). Their mother, Ailech, was the daughter of Udaire, king of Alba, and they took service with their grandfather for three years. After that they returned to Ireland, hoping that Muiredach might kill them, and deprive his descendants of the throne. But Muiredach knew of the prophecy, and despite knowing they had killed his father, took them into his service.

After several years, Muiredach decided the Collas should have territory of their own, and sent them to conquer Ulster. With an army drawn from Connacht, they fought seven battles in a week against the Ulaid at Achaidh Leithdeircc, killing Fergus Foga, king of Ulster, in the seventh. Colla Menn also died in this battle. They burned Emain Macha, the Ulster capital, after which it was abandoned, and seized substantial territories in Ulster, thought to be the origin of the kingdom of Airgíalla.

53rd G – MUIRREADHACH Tireach King of Connought, 122nd Ard Righ of Ireland (Wikipedia) – son of Fiacha Sraibhtine, was a legendary High King of Ireland of the fourth century. He gained power by exiling the three Collas, who had killed his father. The Collas later returned and tried to provoke him into trying to kill them. When he didn’t, they entered his service and led his armies. He was overthrown by Cáelbad.

Story of the Irish Race, Seumus MacManus.

“In the beginning of the fourth century, Muiredeach Tireach, High King of Ireland, directed his nephews, the three Collas, to face north and win sword land for themselves. On the ruins of the old kingdom of Uladh they founded a new kingdom — of Oirghialla — which was henceforth for nearly a thousand years to play an important part in the history of Northern Ireland, and which was possessed afterwards by their descendants, the MacMahons, O’Hanlons, O’Carrolls, and Maguires.”

Ireland around 900

52nd G – EOCHAIDH Moihmeodhain (Echu Mugmedón) , (Wikipedia) – Eochaid Mugmedón (“slave-lord”), according to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition, was a High King of Ireland of the 4th century, best known as the father of Niall of the Nine Hostages and ancestor of the Uí Néill and Connachta dynasties. He is not mentioned in the list of kings of Tara in the Baile Chuind (The Ecstasy of Conn), but is included in the synthetic lists of High Kings in the Lebor Gabála Érenn, the Irish annals, Geoffrey Keating’s history, and the Laud Synchronisms.

According to the Lebor Gabála Érenn and its derivative works, Eochaid was the son of the former High King Muiredach Tírech, a descendant of Conn Cétchathach. Muiredach was overthrown and killed by Cáelbad son of Cronn Bradruí, an Ulster king, but Cálbad only ruled one year before Eochaid killed him and took the throne. The Lebor Gabála says he extracted the bórama or cow-tribute from Leinster without a battle. However, Keating records that he was defeated in the Battle of Cruachan Claonta by the Leinster king Énnae Cennsalach.

According to the saga “The Adventures of the Sons of Eochaid Mugmedon”, he is said to have had two wives: Mongfind, daughter of Fidach, who bore him four sons,

i. Brion
ii.  Ailill
iii. Fiachrae
iv. Fergus

and Cairenn Chasdub, daughter of Sachell Balb, king of the Saxons, who bore him his most famous son,

v. Niall.   Mongfind is said to have hated Cairenn, and forced her to expose her child, but the baby was rescued and raised by a poet called Torna.

When Niall grew up he returned to Tara and rescued his mother from the servitude Mongfind had placed her under. Mongfind appears to have originally been a supernatural personage: the saga “The Death of Crimthann mac Fidaig” says the festival of Samhain was commonly called the “Festival of Mongfind”, and prayers were offered to her on Samhain eve. Although it is probably anachronistic for Eochaid to have had a Saxon wife, T. F. O’Rahilly argues that the name Cairenn is derived from the Latin name Carina, and that it is plausible that she might have been a Romano-Briton. Indeed, Keating describes her not as a Saxon but as the “daughter of the king of Britain”.

After ruling for seven or eight years, Eochaid died of an illness at Tara, and was succeeded by Mongfind’s brother Crimthann mac Fidaig, king of Munster. Keating dates his reign to 344-351, the Annals of the Four Masters to 357-365. Daniel P. McCarthy, based on the Irish annals, dates his death to 362

51st G –NIALL NÓIGIALLACH  (Nóigiallach is Gaelic for “having Nine Hostages”), (Wikipedia)  is a very famous man . He was an Irish King who lived from about 350 to 405 AD. The “nine hostages” refers to hostages that he kept from each of the places that owed him allegiance.Keating credits Niall with two wives: Inne, daughter of Lugaid, who bore him one son

i. Fiachu

Rignach, who bore him seven sons
iii. Éndae
iv. Maine
vi. Conall Gulban
vii. Conall Cremthainne
vii. Coirpre.

Niall was fond of raiding the coast of Roman Britain and on one of those raids he captured a man named Maewyn Succat, who became a slave in Ireland. Succat eventually escaped, returned to Britain, and became a Christian missionary. He then went back to Ireland to convert the Irish heathens to Christianity. We know Maewyn Succat by his Christian name, Patrick, or Saint Patrick.

There are various versions of how Niall gained his epithet Noígíallach. The saga “The Death of Niall of the Nine Hostages” says that he received five hostages from the five provinces of Ireland (Ulster, Connacht, Leinster, Munster and Meath), and one each from Scotland, the Saxons, the Britons and the Franks. Keating says that he received five from the five provinces of Ireland, and four from Scotland.   O’Rahilly suggests that the nine hostages were from the kingdom of the Airgialla (literally “hostage-givers”), a satellite state founded by the Ui Néill’s conquests in Ulster, noting that the early Irish legal text Lebor na gCeart (“The Book of Rights”) says that the only duty of the Airgialla to the King of Ireland was to give him nine hostages.

The reason Niall Nóigiallach is famous is because he is associated with the List of High Kings of Ireland, one of the oldest well-established genealogies in all of Europe. Anybody who connects to the lineage can trace ancestors back to about 100 AD.

In January 2006, geneticists at Trinity College, Dublin suggested that Niall may have been the most fecund male in Irish history. The findings of the study showed that within the north-west of Ireland as many as 21% of men (8% in the general male population) were concluded to have a common male-line ancestor who lived roughly 1,700 years ago. The geneticists estimated that there are about 2-3 million males alive today who descend in the male-line from Niall. However, more recently some reservations have been expressed, as the subclade, which is defined by the presence of the marker R-M222, is found in a belt from Northern Ireland across southern Scotland and is not exclusively associated with the Uí Néill. It is now more commonly referred to as the Northwest Irish/Lowland Scots variety.

Descendents of King Niall

Families that trace their ancestry back to Niall of the Nine Hostages include: (O’)Neill, (O’)Gallagher, (O’)Boyle, (O’)Doherty, O’Donnell, Connor, Cannon, BRADLEY, O’Reilly, Flynn, (Mc)Kee, Campbell, Devlin, Donnelly, Egan, Gormley, Hynes, McCaul, McGovern, McLoughlin, McManus, McMenamin, Molloy, O’Kane, O’Rourke and Quinn.

50th G – EÓGHAN (Owen) macNéill  Irish king who founded the kingdom of Ailech, later Tír Eoghain (modern County Tyrone) in the 5th century (Wikipedia) died in 465 in Ireland.  Eóghan married Indorbra the Fair.   Eoghan’s children include:

i. MUIREDACH mac Eógain, his successor in Ailech
ii. Fergus, founder of the Cenél Fergusa
iii. Echach Binnich, founder of the Cenél mBinnig.

Eogan was a close friend of Saint Patrick and received Patricks blessing.  With his brother the high king Lóegaire mac Néill (d.462), he was one of the judges in a dispute over the succession to Amalgaid (d.440), king of Connacht among his sons competing to rule their territory of Tir Amalgaidh in northwest Connacht.

The old graveyard and the ruined church in Iskaheen – the resting place of Eógan mac Néill

Eoghan, King of Tír Eoghain, and Prince of Inis Eoghain is buried at St. Patrick’s Church in Iskaheen, Innishowen, Donegal. A plaque there states “Eoghan Prince of Iniseoghain, Son of Niall of the Nine Hostages. Died 465 of grief for his brother Conall. Baptised by Patrick and buried in Uisce Chaoin”

The plaque marking the burial place of Eógan mac Néill

49th G – MUIREADHACH  died about 489. (Wikipedia) King of Ailech and head of the Cenél nEógain branch of the northern Uí Néill.  Married Erra (Earca) daughter of Loarn mac Eirc   of Dál Riata .  They had the following children:

 i. Feredach macMuirdeach O’Neill founder of the Cenél Feradaig branch;
ii. Muirchertach mac Muiredaig (died 532), high king of Ireland, also known as Muirchertach mac Ercae and founder of the Cenél maic Ercae branch
iii. FERGUS Mor macEarca , King of the Dalriada
iv. Moen, founder of the Cenél Moen branch
v. Tigernach, founder of the Cenel Tigernaig branch.

There is no mention of him in the Irish annals but the Laud Synchronisms give him a reign of 24 years as King of Ailech giving him an approximate reign of 465–489.

48th G – FERGUS Mór mac Eirc (Scottish Gaelic: Fergus Mòr Mac Earca) , King of of Dál Riata (Wikipedia) died in 501 in killed. A legendary king of Dál Riata.   While little is known of his acutal historical record, his posthumous importance as the founder of Scotland in the national myth of Medieval and Renaissance Scotland is not in doubt. Rulers of Scotland from Cináed mac Ailpín until the present time claim descent from Fergus Mór (Fergus the Great).

The historical record, such as it is, consists of an entry in the Annals of Tigernach, for the year 501, which states: Feargus Mor mac Earca cum gente Dal Riada partem Britaniae tenuit, et ibi mortuus est. (Fergus Mór mac Eirc, with the people of Dál Riata, held part of Britain, and he died there.)  The record in the Annals has given rise to theories of invasions of Argyll from Ireland, but these are not considered authentic.

Fergus is also found in the king lists of Dál Riata, and later of Scotland, of which the Senchus Fer n-Alban and the Duan Albanach can be taken as examples. The Senchus states that Fergus Mór was also known as Mac Nisse Mór. These sources probably date from the 10th and 11th centuries respectively, many generations after Fergus may have lived.

The Senchus and the Duan name Fergus’s father as Erc son of Eochaid Muinremuir. A Middle Irish genealogy of the kings of Alba gives an extensive genealogy for Fergus: [Fergus] m. h-Eircc m. Echdach Muinremuir m. Óengusa Fir m. Feideilmid m. Óengusa m. Feideilmid m. Cormaicc, and a further forty-six generations here omitted.  While it was suggested some believe Fergus claimed lineage to Arthur, the historian John Morris has suggested, instead, that Fergus was allowed to settle in Scotland as a federate of Arthur, as a bulwark against the Picts.

Andrew of Wyntoun’s early 15th century Orygynale Cronykil of Scotland says that Fergus was the first Scot to rule in Scotland, and that Cináed mac Ailpín was his descendant. In addition, he writes that Fergus brought the Stone of Scone  with him from Ireland, that he was succeeded by a son named Dúngal.

If Wyntoun’s account adds little to earlier ones, at the end of the 16th century George Buchanan in his Rerum Scoticarum Historia added much, generally following John of Fordun. In this version, the Scots had been expelled from Scotland when the Romans under one Maximus conquered all of Britain. His father Eugenius had been killed by the Romans, and Fergus, Fergusius II according to Buchanan’s count, was raised in exile in Scandinavia. He later fought with the Franks, before eventually returning to Scotland and reconquering the Scottish lands. He was killed in battle against Durstus, king of the Picts, and was succeeded by his son Eugenius.

Buchanan’s king, James VI, shared the scholar’s view of the origins of his line, describing himself in one of many verses written to his wife Anne of Denmark, as the “happie Monarch sprung of Ferguse race”. Nor was James VI the last ruler to share this belief. The Great Gallery of the Palace of Holyroodhouse in Edinburgh was decorated with eighty-nine of Jacob de Wet’s portraits of Scottish monarchs, from Fergus to Charles II, produced to the order of James’s grandson.

47th G –DOMANGART Réti macFergusson, King of Dál Riata (Wikipedia) died about 506. Domangart married Fedelmia daughter of Eochy Mogmedon , King of Ireland. They had at least two children

i. Comgall  Succeeded his father  around 507

The Tripartite Life of St. Patrick states that he was present at the death of the saint, circa 493. Domangart died around 507 and was succeeded by Comgall.

His byname, Réti, appears in Adomnán’s Life of Saint Columba, in the form Corcu Réti, perhaps a synonym for Dál Riata. Corcu, a Primitive Irish language term for a kin group, usually combined with the name of a divine or mythical ancestor, is apparently similar to the term Dál. Alternatively, rather that representing an alternative name for all of Dál Riata, it has been suggested Corcu Réti was the name given to the kin group which later divided to form the Cenél nGabráin of Kintyre and the Cenél Comgaill of Cowal, thus excluding the Cenél nÓengusa of Islay and the Cenél Loairn of middle and northern Argyll.

46th G –GABRÁN mac Domangairt (Goramus) King of the Scots (Wikipedia) was born about 500. He died about 559.  Gabhran married Ingenach (Lleian) daughter of Brychan , Prince of Manau and Ingenach. The historical evidence for Gabrán is limited to the notice of his death in the Irish annals. It is possible that his death should be linked to a migration or flight from Bridei mac Maelchon, but this may be no more than coincidence.

The domain of the Cenél nGabraín appears to have been centerd in Kintyre and Knapdale and may have included ArranJura and Gigha. The title king of Kintyre is used of a number of presumed kings of the Cenél nGabrain. Two probable royal sites are known,Dunadd, which lies at the northern edge of their presumed lands, and Aberte (or Dún Aberte), which is very likely the later Dunaverty on the headland beside Southend, Kintyre.

45th G – AIDAN macGabhran  King of the Scots (Wikipedia) was born about 555. He died about 608.  Aidan married Ygerna del Acqs daughter of Taliesin “the Great Bard” and Viviane of Avallon del Acqs. They had the following children:

 i Eochaidh Buidhe macAidan , King of the Scots
ii Arthur macAidan of Dál Riata , Pendragon
iii Morgaine d’Avallon (Margawse)

Alternatively, Áedán’s other sons are named by the Senchus fer n-Alban as

i. Eochaid Find
ii. Tuathal
iii. Bran
iv. Baithéne
v. Conaing  – Adomnán also names Artúr, called a son of Conaing in the Senchus.  The main line of Cenél nGabráin kings were the descendants of Eochaid Buide through his son Domnall Brecc, but the descendants of Conaing successfully contested for the throne throughout the 7th century and into the 8th.
vii. EOCHAID Buide.

Áedán mac Gabráin (pronounced [ˈaiðaːn mak ˈɡavraːnʲ] in Old Irish) was a king of Dál Riata from circa 574 until his death, perhaps on 17 April 609. The kingdom of Dál Riata was situated in modern Argyll and Bute, Scotland, and parts of County Antrim, Ireland. Genealogies record that Áedán was a son of Gabrán mac Domangairt.

He was a contemporary of Saint Columba,, and much that is recorded of his life and career comes from hagiography such as Adomnán of Iona’s Life of Saint Columba. Áedán appears as a character in Old Irish and Middle Irish language works of prose and verse, some now lost.

The Irish annals record Áedán’s campaigns against his neighbours, in Ireland, and in northern Britain, including expeditions to the Orkney Islands, the Isle of Man, and the east coast of Scotland. As recorded by Bede, Áedán was decisively defeated by Æthelfrith of Bernicia at the Battle of Degsastan. Áedán may have been deposed, or have abdicated, following this defeat.

44th G – EOCHAID Buide macAidan King of the Scots (Wikipedia) was king of Dál Riata from around 608 until 629. “Buide” refers to the colour yellow, as in the color of his hair.  He was a younger son of Áedán mac Gabráin and became his father’s chosen heir upon the death of his elder brothers. ”

Eochaid Buide (“The Yellow-Haired”), King of Picts and Dalriada, Eochu Buide, Eochaid mac Aidan,  Celtic Art from The Book of Kells (9th Century)

According to Admonan’s Life of Columba, Columba identified Eochaid as the successor to Aedan mac Gabhran, even though he was one of Aedan’s younger sons, recognizing that the elder sons would be killed in battle. This prophecy happened before the battle against the Maetae in around 590, at which time Eochaid was still young enough to sit on Columba’s lap, which suggests he was probably born around the year 583 or 584.”

St Columba

In the last two years of his reign, 627–629, Eochaid was apparently co-ruler with Connad Cerr, who predeceased him.

Children of Eochaid Buide:

i. Domnall Brecc followed his father as King
ii. Conall Crandomna
iii. Failbe (who died at the Battle of Fid Eoin)
iv. Cú-cen-máthair (whose death is reported in the Annals of Ulster for 604)
v. Conall Bec, Connad or Conall Cerr (who may be the same person as Connad Cerr who died at Fid Eoin)
vi. Failbe
vii. Domangart
viii. Domnall Donn

43rd G – DOMNALL I “the Speckled” of Argyll , Domnall Brecc (Welsh: Dyfnwal Frych; English: Donald the Freckled) King of Scotland (Wikipedia) was king of Dál Riata, in modern Scotland, from about 629 until 642 when he was killed in the battle of Straith-Cairnaic.  He first appears in 622, when the Annals of Tigernach report his presence at the battle of Cend Delgthen (probably in the east midlands of Ireland) as an ally of Conall Guthbinn of Clann Cholmáin. This is the only battle known where Domnall Brecc fought on the winning side.

Domnall suffered four defeats after he broke Dál Riata’s alliance with the Cenél Conaill clan of the Uí Néill. In Ireland, Domnall and his ally Congal Cáech of the Dál nAraidi were defeated by Domnall mac Áedo of the Cenél Conaill, the High King of Ireland, at the Battle of Moira, County Down in 637. He also lost to the Picts in 635 and 638 and lastly to Eugein I of Alt Clut at Strathcarron in 642, where he was killed.

A stanza interpolated into the early 9th Century Welsh poem Y Gododdin refers to these events:

I saw an array that came from Pentir,
And bore themselves splendidly around the conflagration.
I saw a second one, rapidly descending from their township,
Who had risen at the word of the grandson of Nwython.|
I saw great sturdy men who came with the dawn,
And the head of Dyfnwal Frych, ravens gnawed it.

42nd G – DOMANGART II macDonnaill King of Scots (Wikipedia) (killed 673) was a king in Dál Riata (modern western Scotland) and the son of Domnall Brecc. It is not clear whether he was over-king of Dál Riata or king of the Cenél nGabráin.

Domangart is not listed by the Duan Albanach but is included in other sources, such as genealogies of William the Lion, and that of Causantín mac Cuilén found with the Senchus fer n-Alban. In these genealogies he is noted as the father of Eochaid mac Domangairt.

The Annals of Ulster for 673 report: “The killing of Domangart, son of Domnall Brecc, the king of Dál Riata.” Some king-lists state that in his time the Cenél Comgaill separated from the Cenél nGabráin.

41st G – EOCHAIDH II “Crook-Nose” King of Scots was born before 675 in Scotland. He died in 698 in killed.

40th G –  EOCHAID III macEchdach – was born about 695 in Scotland. He died in 733 in Scotland.  Eochaid married Spondana daughter of Garnard , King of the Picts.

39th G –  Áed Find (Áed the White of Argyll) or Áed mac Echdach – King of Scots (Wikipedia) was born about 725 in Scotland. He died in 778 in Scotland.  He had the following children:

i. Eochaidh IV Rinnamail “the venomous” of Argyll , King of the Dalriada
ii. Fergus was born about 733 in Scotland.

Áed Find (Áed the White) or Áed mac Echdach (before 736–778) was king of Dál Riata (modern western Scotland).  According to later genealogies, Áed was the great-grandfather of Kenneth MacAlpin (Cináed mac Ailpín) who is traditionally counted as the first king of Scots. This descent ran through Áed’s son Eochaid mac Áeda Find and Eochaid’s son Alpín mac Echdach. The evidence for the existence of Eochaid and Alpín   shows signs of fabrication in the High Middle Ages.

The Annals of Ulster in 768 report “Bellum i Fortrinn iter Aedh & Cinaedh”: a battle in Fortriu between Áed and Cináed. This is usually read as meaning Áed Find and the Pictish king Ciniod I, who is called “Cinadhon” in the notice of his death in 775.

Áed’s death in 778 is noted by the Annals of Ulster. He appears to have been followed as king by his brother Fergus mac Echdach.

38th G – EOCHAIDH IV Rinnamail “the venomous” of Argyll King of the Dál Riata (ca. 755 – 805), r. King of Dalriada ca. 781 – 805?  (Wikipedia) was born about 750 in Scotland. He died in 819 in Scotland.   In about 781 Eochaidh married Unnuistic (Urgusia, Fergise)  Princess of the Picts daughter of Ungust , King of the Picts.  Unnuistic was born about 770 in Scotland.  He ruled Dalriada (sub-king of Kintyre) 781 – 805?

37th G –  ALPIN of Kintyre  King of All Scotland (Wikipedia) was born about 790 in Scotland. He died on 20 Jul 834 in Galloway, Scotland; slain fighting the Picts. His place of burial is not recorded.  Alpin married a Scottish Princess in Scotland.  They had the following children:

i. Kenneth I MacAlpin , King of All Scotland
ii Donald I MacAlpin , King of Scotland was born about 812 in Scotland. He died in 863 in Scone, Perthshire, Scotland, killed in battle, or died that year at his palace at Kinn Belachoir. He died unmarried.

Alpín mac Eochaid may refer to two persons. The first person is a presumed king of Dál Riata in the late 730s. The second is the father of Kenneth MacAlpin (Cináed mac Ailpín). The name Alpín is taken to be a Pictish one, derived from the Anglo-Saxon name Ælfwine; Alpín’s patronymic means son of Eochaid or son of Eochu.

Irish annals such as the Annals of Ulster and the Annals of Innisfallen name Kenneth’s father as one Alpín. This much is reasonably certain.

The Chronicle of the Kings of Alba usually begins with Kenneth, but some variants include a reference to Kenneth’s father: “[Alpín] was killed in Galloway, after he had entirely destroyed and devastated it. And then the kingdom of the Scots was transferred to the kingdom of the Picts.”  John of Fordun calls Kenneth’s father “Alpin son of Achay” (Alpín son of Eochu) and has him killed in war with the Picts in 836; Andrew of Wyntoun’s version mixes Fordun’s war with the Picts with the Chronicle version which has him killed in Galloway

36th G –  KENNETH I MacAlpin was born about 810 in Scotland. He died on 13 Feb 859/860 in Fortevoit, not far from Scone, Perthshire, Scotland. He was buried in Isle of Iona, Scotland.  He had the following children:

i. Constantine I of Alba , King of the Picts and Scots, King of Alba
ii. a daughter of Kenneth MacAlpin
iii. Aedh (Ethus) Swift-Foot , King of Scotland
iv. a daughter of Kenneth MacAlpin
v. a daughter of Kenneth MacAlpin was born about 841.
vi. a daughter of Kenneth MacAlpin married Olaf the White , King of Dublin son of Ingiald. Olaf died in 873.

The first king of te united Scots of teh Dalriada and the Picts, and so of Scotland north of a line between the Forth and the Clyde Rivers.
Of his father Alpin little is known, though tradition credits him with a signal victory over the Picts by whom he was killed three months later (c.834). Kenneth succeeded in the Dalriada and ruled in Pictavia also, ruling for sisteen years. The period is obscure. The gradual union of the two kingdoms from 843 doubtless owes much to intermarriage. By the Pictish marriage custom, inheritance passed through the female. Nevertheless, Kenneth probably made some conquests among the eastern Picts and possibly invaded Lothian and burned Dunbar and Melrose. After attacks on Iona by Vikings he removed the relics of St. Columba, probably in 849 or 850 to Dunkeld, which became headquarters of the Scottish Columban church. He was buried in the Island of Iona.

Cináed mac Ailpín (Modern Gaelic: Coinneach mac Ailpein),commonly Anglicized as Kenneth MacAlpin and known in most modern regnal lists as Kenneth I (died 13 February 858) was king of the Picts and, according to national myth, first king of Scots, earning him the posthumous nickname of An Ferbasach, “The Conqueror”. Kenneth’s undisputed legacy was to produce a dynasty of rulers who claimed descent from him and was the founder of the dynasty which ruled Scotland for much of the medieval period.

Kenneth MacAlpin King of the Picts Reign 843–858

The Kenneth of myth, conqueror of the Picts and founder of the Kingdom of Alba, was born in the centuries after the real Kenneth died. In the reign of Kenneth II (Cináed mac Maíl Coluim), when the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba was compiled, the annalist wrote:

So Kinadius son of Alpinus, first of the Scots, ruled this Pictland prosperously for 16 years. Pictland was named after the Picts, whom, as we have said, Kinadius destroyed. … Two years before he came to Pictland, he had received the kingdom of Dál Riata..

When humanist scholar George Buchanan wrote his history Rerum Scoticarum Historia in the 1570s, a great deal of lurid detail had been added to the story. Buchanan included an account of how Kenneth’s father had been murdered by the Picts, and a detailed, and entirely unsupported, account of how Kenneth avenged him and conquered the Picts. Buchanan was not as credulous as many, and he did not include the tale of MacAlpin’s treason, a story from Giraldus Cambrensis, who reused a tale of Saxon treachery at a feast in Geoffrey of Monmouth’s inventive Historia Regum Britanniae.

Later 19th century historians such as William Forbes Skene brought new standards of accuracy to early Scottish history, while Celticists such as Whitley Stokes and Kuno Meyer cast a critical eye over Welsh and Irish sources. As a result, much of the misleading and vivid detail was removed from the scholarly series of events, even if it remained in the popular accounts. Rather than a conquest of the Picts, instead the idea of Pictish matrilineal succession, mentioned by Bede and apparently the only way to make sense of the list of Kings of the Picts found in the Pictish Chronicle, advanced the idea that Kenneth was a Gael, and a king of Dál Riata, who had inherited the throne of Pictland through a Pictish mother. Other Gaels, such as Caustantín and Óengus, the sons of Fergus, were identified among the Pictish king lists, as were Angles such as Talorcen son of Eanfrith, and Britons such as Bridei son of Beli.

Modern historians would reject parts of the Kenneth produced by Skene and subsequent historians, while accepting others. Medievalist Alex Woolf, interviewed by The Scotsman in 2004, is quoted as saying:

The myth of Kenneth conquering the Picts – it’s about 1210, 1220 that that’s first talked about. There’s actually no hint at all that he was a Scot. … If you look at contemporary sources there are four other Pictish kings after him. So he’s the fifth last of the Pictish kings rather than the first Scottish king.

35th G –  CONSTANTINE I of Alba  King of the Picts and Scots, King of Alba (Wikipedia) was born about 836 in Scotland. He died in 877 in Inverdorat (Black Cove, Angus), Forgan, Fifeshire, Scotland, beheaded in battle against the Danes. He was buried in Isle of Iona, Scotland.

King of Scotland or Alba, the united kingdom of the Picts and Scots, succeeded his uncle Donald I.

Constantine’s reign was occupied with conflicts with the Norsemen. Olaf the White, the Danish king of Dublin, laid waste the country of the Picts and Britons year after year; in the south the Danish leader halfdan devastated Northumberland and Galloway. Constantine was slain at a battle at Inverdovat in Fife, at the hands of another band of northern marauders. His heir was his brother Aed, who was killed by the Scots after a year and was succeeded by a nephew Eochaid.

18th century depiction of Causantín, son of Kenneth MacAlpin. The depiction is highly anachronistic. King of the Picts Reign 862–877

Causantín or Constantín mac Cináeda (in Modern Gaelic, Còiseam mac Choinnich; died 877) was a king of the Picts. He is often known as Constantine I, in reference to his place in modern lists of kings of Scots, though contemporary sources described Causantín only as a Pictish king. A son of Cináed mac Ailpín (“Kenneth MacAlpin”), he succeeded his uncle Domnall mac Ailpín as Pictish king following the latter’s death on 13 April 862. It is likely that Causantín’s (Constantine I) reign witnessed increased activity by Vikings, based in Ireland and Northumbria, in northern Britain and he died fighting one such invasion.

Very few records of ninth century events in northern Britain survive. The main local source from the period is the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba, a list of kings from Cináed mac Ailpín (died 858) to Cináed mac Maíl Coluim (died 995). The list survives in the Poppleton Manuscript,, a thirteenth century compilation. Originally simply a list of kings with reign lengths, the other details contained in the Poppleton Manuscript version were added from the tenth century onwards.  In addition to this, later king lists survive.  The earliest genealogical records of the descendants of Cináed mac Ailpín may date from the end of the tenth century, but their value lies more in their context, and the information they provide about the interests of those for whom they were compiled, than in the unreliable claims they contain.  The Pictish king-lists originally ended with this Causantín, who was reckoned the seventieth and last king of the Picts.

For narrative history the principal sources are the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle and the Irish annals.    If the sources for north-eastern Britain, the lands of the kingdom of Northumbria and the former Pictland, are limited and late, those for the areas on the Irish Sea and Atlantic coasts—the modern regions of north-west England and all of northern and western Scotland—are non-existent, and archaeology and toponymy are of primary importance.

34th G – DONALD II of Alba, King of Scotland (wikipedia) was born about 862 in Scotland. He died in 900 in Dun-Fother, Morayshire, Scotland, killed in battle. He was buried in Isle of Iona, Scotland.  He had the following children:

i. Malcolm I , King of the Scots and Picts, King of Alba
ii Eugene , Prince of Cumberland was born about 899 in Scotland.

Domnall mac Causantín (Modern Gaelic: Dòmhnall mac Chòiseim), anglicised as Donald II (died 900) was King of the Picts or King of Scotland (Alba) in the late 9th century.  Donald is given the epithet Dásachtach, “the Madman”, by the Prophecy of Berchán.

Donald II King of the Picts or of Alba 18th century drawing — There is absolutely no evidence that suggests he actually looked like this

Donald became king on the death or deposition of Giric (Giric mac Dúngail), the date of which is not certainly known but usually placed in 889. The Chronicle of the Kings of Alba reports:

“Doniualdus son of Constantini held the kingdom for 11 years [889–900]. The Northmen wasted Pictland at this time. In his reign a battle occurred between Danes and Scots at Innisibsolian where the Scots had victory. He was killed at Opidum Fother [modern Dunnottar] by the Gentiles.

The change from king of the Picts to king of Alba is seen as indicating a step towards the kingdom of the Scots, but historians, while divided as to when this change should be placed, do not generally attribute it to Donald in view of his epithet.  The consensus view is that the key changes occurred in the reign of Constantine II (Causantín mac Áeda), but the reign of Giric has also been proposed.It has been suggested that the attack on Dunnottar, rather than being a small raid by a handful of pirates, may be associated with the ravaging of Scotland attributed to Harald Fairhair in the Heimskringla. The Prophecy of Berchán places Donald’s death at Dunnottar, but appears to attribute it to Gaels rather than Norsemen; other sources report he died at Forres. Donald’s death is dated to 900 by the Annals of Ulster and the Chronicon Scotorum, where he is called king of Alba, rather that king of the Picts. He was buried on Iona.

33rd G – MALCOLM I (Wikipedia) was born about 897 in Scotland. He died in 954 in Fordoun, Kincardineshire, Scotland, slained by the men of Moray. He was buried in Isle of Iona, Scotland.  He had the following children:

i Dubh (Duff) (Mogallus) , King of Scotland
ii. Kenneth II of Alba , King of Scotland

Máel Coluim mac Domnaill (anglicised Malcolm I) (c. 900–954) was king of Scots(before 943 – 954), becoming king when his cousin Causantín mac Áeda abdicated to become a monk.

Malcolm I King of Alba 943–954

Since his father was known to have died in the year 900, Malcolm must have been born no later than 901, by the 940s he was no longer a young man, and may have become impatient in awaiting the throne. Willingly or not—the 11th-century Prophecy of Berchán, a verse history in the form of a supposed prophecy, states that it was not a voluntary decision that Constantine II abdicated in 943 and entered a monastery, leaving the kingdom to Malcolm.

Seven years later the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba says:

[Malcolm I] plundered the English as far as the river Tees, and he seized a multitude of people and many herds of cattle: and the Scots called this the raid of Albidosorum, that is, Nainndisi. But others say that Constantine made this raid, asking of the king, Malcolm, that the kingship should be given to him for a week’s time, so that he could visit the English. In fact, it was Malcolm who made the raid, but Constantine incited him, as I have said

32nd G –  KENNETH II of Alba (wikipedia)was born about 934 in Scotland. He died in 995 in Fettercairn, Kincardineshire, Scotland, perhaps murdered on behalf of his successor. He was buried in Isle of Iona, Scotland.  Kenneth married a Princess of Leinster.  They had the following children:

i. Malcolm II of Alba , King of Scotland
ii. Dunclina of Scotland was born about 960 in Scotland. Dunclina married Kenneth , Thane of Lechaber. Kenneth was born about 958.
iii. Dungal died in 999 in Scotland, killed by his cousin Gillacomgain, son of Kenneth III.

Cináed mac Maíl Coluim (Modern Gaelic: Coinneach mac Mhaoil Chaluim[1] anglicised as Kenneth II, and nicknamed An Fionnghalach, “The Fratricide”;[2] before 954–995) was King of Scots (Alba). The son of Malcolm I (Máel Coluim mac Domnaill), he succeeded King Cuilén (Cuilén mac Iduilb) on the latter’s death at the hands of Amdarch of Strathclyde in 971.

Kenneth II – King of Alba 971–995

The Chronicle of the Kings of Alba was compiled in Kenneth’s reign, but many of the place names mentioned are entirely corrupt, if not fictitious. Whatever the reality, the Chronicle states that “he immediately plundered [Strathclyde] in part. Kenneth’s infantry were slain with very great slaughter in Moin Uacoruar.” The Chronicle further states that Kenneth plundered Northumbria three times, first as far as Stainmore, then to Cluiam and lastly to the River Dee by Chester. These raids may belong to around 980, when the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records attacks on Cheshire.

In 973, the Chronicle of Melrose reports that Kenneth, with Máel Coluim I , the King of Strathclyde, “Maccus, king of very many islands” (i.e. Magnus Haraldsson (Maccus mac Arailt), King of Mann and the Isles) and other kings, Welsh and Norse, came to Chester to acknowledge the overlordship of the English king Edgar the Peaceable. It may be that Edgar here regulated the frontier between the southern lands of the kingdom of Alba and the northern lands of his English kingdom. Cumbria was English, the western frontier lay on the Solway. In the east, the frontier lay somewhere in later Lothian, south of Edinburgh.

31st G – MALCOLM II of Alba  (Wikipedia) was born about 954 in Scotland. He died on 25 Nov 1034 in Glammys Castle, Angus, Scotland, killed by his kinsman. He was the last king of the house of MacAlpin. He was buried in Isle of Iona, Scotland.  Malcolm married a daughter of Sigurd , an Irishwoman from Ossory.   They had the following children:

i. Bethoc (Beatrice) , heiress of Scone
ii. Doda Olith of Thora , Princess of Scotland

King of Scotland from 1005 to 1034, the first to rule over an extent of land roughly corresponding to much of modern Scotland.  Malcolm succeeded to the throne after killing his predecessor, Kenneth III, and allegedly secured his territory by defeating a Northumbrian army at the battle of Carham (c. 1016); he not only confirmed the Scotish hold over the land between the rivers Forth and Tweed, but also secured Strathclyde about the same time. Eager to secure the royal succession for his daughter’s son Duncan, he tried to eliminmate possible royal claimants; but MacBeth, with royal connections to both Kenneth II and Kenneth III, survived to challenge the succession.

Malcolm II

Máel Coluim mac Cináeda (Modern Gaelic: Maol Chaluim mac Choinnich, known in modern anglicized regnal lists as Malcolm II; died 25 November 1034), was King of the Scots from 1005 until his death.  He was a son of Cináed mac Maíl Coluim; the Prophecy of Berchán says that his mother was a woman of Leinster and refers to him as Máel Coluim Forranach, “the destroyer”.

To the Irish annals which recorded his death, Máel Coluim was ard rí Alban, High King of Scotland. In the same way that Brian Bóruma, High King of Ireland, was not the only king in Ireland, Máel Coluim was one of several kings within the geographical boundaries of modern Scotland: his fellow kings included the king of Strathclyde, who ruled much of the southwest, various Norse-Gael kings of the western coasts and the Hebrides and, nearest and most dangerous rivals, the Kings or Mormaers of Moray. To the south, in the kingdom of England, the Earls of Bernicia and Northumbria, whose predecessors as kings of Northumbria had once ruled most of southern Scotland, still controlled large parts of the southeast.

30th G –  Doda OLITH of Thora was born about 986 in Scotland. She died on 25 Nov 1034. Doda married (1) Findleach MacRory of Moray “Synell” (Wikipedia), Lord of Glammis, Mórmaer of Moray in 1004. Findleach was born about 982 in Scotland. He died in 1004/1005 in Scotland.

They had the following children:

i MacBeth (Maelbeatha) , King of Scotland (Wikipedia) – Mac Bethad mac Findlaích (Modern Gaelic: MacBheatha mac Fhionnlaigh,anglicized as Macbeth, and nicknamed Rí Deircc, “the Red King”; died 15 August 1057) was King of the Scots (also known as the King of Alba, and earlier as King ofMoray and King of Fortriu) from 1040 until his death. He is best known as the subject of William Shakespeare’s tragedy Macbeth and the many works it has inspired, although the play presents a highly inaccurate, almost outright fabrication of his reign and personality.

Orson Wells as Macbeth

Doda married (2) Sigurd “Digri” “the Stout” HLODVERSSON, 7th Earl of Ornkey  in 1005/1008. Sigurd was born about 979 in Orkney Islands, Scotland. His parents were  Earl Hlodver Thorfinnsson 6th Earl of Orkney and s Audna Kjarvalssdatter.  He died on 23 Apr 1014 in Clontarf, Dublin, in battle with Brian Boru, King of Ireland, on Good Friday.

They had the following children:

ii. Thorfinn II Sigurdsson ,

29th G –  THORFINN II Sigurdsson  was born in 1009 in Orkney Islands, Scotland. He died in 1064 in Scotland.  He was Jarl of Ornkey and Earl of Caithness. He was buried in Christchurch, Birsay, Orkney Islands.  Thorfinn married Ingibriorg Finnsdottir of the Uplands (of Halland) , “Earl’s Mother” daughter of Finn Arnasson of Vrjar , Jarl of Halland and Bergliot (Thorbiorg) Halfdansdottir in 1038. Ingibriorg died about 1069. They had the following children:

i. DOLPHIN (Bodin) Thorfinnsson of Appletreewick
ii. Paul (Bardolf) , Earl of Ornkey and Caithness
iii. Erlend II Thorfinnsson , Earl of Ornkey

In Molsonby and Diddaston bailiwick of the Geld, 11 carucates and 10 ploughs. There TORFIN had one manor; now BODIN has there 1 carncate and 15 villans, and 3 borders, with 7 ploughs. There is a church there. The whole was 1 league in length, and 1 in breadth, temp. Edward the Confessor.”–(1041-1066.)

28th G –  Dolphin (Bodin) THORFINNSSON of Appletreewick  Lord of Bingley was born about 1040 in Ravelswath, York. He died before 1064.

27th G – a daughter of Dolphin THORFINNSSON  was born about 1055.   She married Gospatric , Lord of Bingley son of Archill , Earl of Lennox and Sigfrida (Sigrid). Gospatric was born about 1045.  They had the following children:

i. DOLPHIN de Bradelay
ii. Thurstan de Bradelay
iii. Uchtred of Allerston and Coyton was born 1 about 1070
iv. Thorfin de Bradelay was born about 1072
v. Gospatric de Bradelay

26th G – Dolphin de BRADELAY  was born about 1067 in Northumbria, during the reign of Edward the Confessor.  He had the following children:

i.  DOLPHIN de Bradelay
ii. Uchtred de Bradelay
iii. Hebden de Bradelay
iv. Swayne de Bradelay

25th G – Dolphin de BRADELAY was born about 1100 in Northumbria, during the reign of Henry I. He had the following children:

 i. RICHARD de Bradelay
ii. William de Bradelay
iii. Swain de Bradelay
iv. Torfin de Bradelay
v. Robert de Bradelay
vi. Henry de Bradelay
vii. Gila (Gale) de Bradelay.

24th G – Richard de BRADELAY was born about 1145.

23rd G – John de BRADELAY was born about 1180 in (near) Halifax, during the reign of Henry II.

22nd G – William de BRADELAY  was born about 1210 in (near) Halifax, during the reign of King John.

21st G – William de BRADELAY was born about 1240 in (near) Halifax, during the reign of Henry III. William married Ellota.

20th G – Henry de BRADELAY  was born about 1280.

19th G – John de BRADELAY was born about 1320 in (near) Halifax, during the reign of Richard II.  John was the Constable of Ovenden.  Ovenden is a village in the county of West Yorkshire, England, located next to Boothtown and Illingworth and about 1 mile from Halifax town centre.

18th G – John de BRODELEGH was born about 1380 in (near) Halifax, during the reign of Richard II. John married Alice.  They had the following children:

i. John de Brodelegh was born about 1415.
ii. William de BRODELEGH, Constable of Halifax
iii. Henry de Brodelegh was born about 1425.

17th G – William de BRODELEGH was born about 1420 in (near) Halifax, during the reign of Henry V.  He was constable of Halifax.  Halifax is a minster town, within the Metropolitan Borough of Calderdale in West Yorkshire, England.    It is well-known as a centre of England’s woollen manufacture from the 15th century onward, originally dealing through the Halifax Piece Hall. Halifax is internationally famous for its Mackintosh chocolate and toffee (now owned by Nestlé), the Halifax Bank (formerly Halifax Building Society), and the nearby Shibden Hall.

Halifax Piece Hall

The oldest written mentions of the town have the spelling as Haliflax, apparently meaning “holy flax” (Hair), the second “l” having been subsequently lost by dissimilation. Local legend has it that the head of John the Baptist was buried here after his execution. The legend is almost certainly medieval rather than ancient, though the town’s coat of arms still carries an image of the saint. An alternative explanation for the name of the town could come from a corruption of the Old English words Hay and Ley. Anecdotal evidence for this alternative and plausible explanation can be seen in the presence of Haley Hill, the nearby hamlet of Healey (another corruption). The fact that the surnames Hayley/Haley which are derived from Hay and Ley, for ‘hay’ and ‘clearing’ or ‘meadow’ respectively and are most abundant around the Halifax environs, also gives credibility for this explanation.

16th G – Thomas BROODELEY was born about 1450 in (near) Halifax, during the reign of Henry VI.  Halifax Minster in Halifax, West Yorkshire, England is dedicated to St John the Baptist. was completed by about 1438. It comprises a nave, chancel and full-length aisles, and is thought to be the third church on this site, but it includes stonework from earlier periods. There are a few carved chevron stones, which date from before 1150, and several 12th century tomb-covers in the porch. Windows of the Early English style in the north wall are replacements of originals dating from the 14th century. A portion of this north wall is much earlier, and may have originally been part of the Norman church.  After the completion of the present nave and chancel, several additions were made. The tower was erected between 1449 and 1482; and the Rokeby and Holdsworth Chapels – originally chantry chapels – were completed by about 1535.

Halifax Minster

Thomas had the following children:

ii. William Broodeley was born about 1475.

15th G – John BROODELEY  was born about 1475 in (near) Halifax, during the reign of Edward IV. John married Agneta HYNSCLIFFE.  They had the following children:

 i. William BROODELEY
ii. Richardus Broodeley was born on 20 Mar 1538/1539 in Halifax, Yorkshire, England.

14th G – William BROODELEY was born about 1510 in Great Horton, Bradford, Yorkshire, England. He died on 22 Dec 1577 in Bradford, Yorkshire, England. William married Ann about 1540. Ann was born about 1515. She died after 1555.

13th G – William BRADLEY (1545 – 1600)  was born in 1545 in Bingley (Newclose), Yorkshire, England during the reign of Henry VIII.   Alternatively, he was born in Coventry, Warwick, England.   He married  Agnes Angeta MARGATES 1584 in Coventry, England, daughter of Thomas MARGATES. She was born Bet. 1565 – 1573 in Reseden, Northamptonshire, England, and died 1 Feb 1602/03 in Bradford, England.  William died in Newclose Farm, Shipley, Parish of Bradford, Yorkshire England.  William signed a will on 22 Dec 1598 which was probated 14 Aug 1600.

Bingley is a market town in the metropolitan borough of the City of Bradford, in West Yorkshire, England. It is situated on the River Aire and the Leeds and Liverpool Canal. The town has a population of 19,884 according to the 2001 Census. In 1592 Bingley was shown on a map by Yorkshire map-maker Christopher Saxton as a single street with about 20 houses on each side. The church sits at the west end of the street opposite a single large house, possibly a manor house. Since Bingley was a market town, the market stalls would have been set up on either side of the main street.

All Saints Parish Church, Bingley

The only building shown on Saxton’s map which now still survives is the parish church of All Saints. Although it has been much restored in later centuries, the overall aspect of the church is much the same as it would have appeared in Tudor times when it was undergoing major rebuilding. The tower was added in the late 15th or early 16th century and the chancel in 1518 by Richard Wylson, Prior of Drax. Drax was not the only ecclesiastical establishment to have an interest in the Bingley area before the Dissolution by Henry VIII. The Cistercian abbey of Rievaulx had mining rights on Ilkley Moor and held the manor of Harden. After the Dissolution the Harden estates were bought by Walter Paslew of Riddlesden for £274 13s 4d. In 1338 the monks had been getting a rent of just over £15 a year for the property. Paslew invested heavily in the estate, but the investment paid off. In 1570, the property was bringing in a rent of over £26 a year.

12th G – Major Danyell BROADLEY de West Morton (1589 –  1641) was Alex’s 10th Great Grandfather; one of 2,048 in this generation of the Shaw line through his son Samuell. Danyell  was also Alex’s 10th Great Grandfather; one of 2,048 in this generation of the Miller line through his son Daniel which didn’t come back together for over 300 years when I was born.

Danyell Broadley de West Morton – Coat of Arms

Danyell Broadley de West Morton was baptized on 26 Jan 1588/89 in Bingley, Yorkshire, England.    He married  Elsabeth ATKINSON on 1 Jul 1607 in Bingley.  After Elsabeth died, he married (2) Annis Holdroide Liaison.   After Annis died, he married (3) Elizabeth Sheaffe about 1631.   Danyell died in Ulster, Ireland and was buried on 27 Nov 1641 in Bingley, Yorkshire, England

11th G – Daniel BRADLEY  (1613 – 1689) Born 29 Aug 1613 in Bingley, Yorkshire, England.   He married Mary WILLIAMS on 21 May 1662 in Haverhill, Mass.   Daniel was killed by Indians on 13 Aug 1689 in Haverhill, Mass.  Many of his children and grandchildren were also killed or kidnapped and carried into Canada.

Daniel and his son were both killed in Indian attacks. His granddaughter Hannah Bradley testified in 1739 that about forty years past she with the widow Mary Neff were taken prisoners by the Indians & carried together into captivity, & above penny cook the Deponent was by the Indians forced to travel farther than the rest of the Captives, and the next night but one there came to us one Squaw who said that Hannah Dustan and the aforesaid Mary Neff assisted in killing the Indians of her wigwam except herself and a boy, herself escaping very narrowly, chewing to myself & others seven wounds as she said with a Hatched on her head which wounds were given her when the rest were killed, and further saith not her.

10th G – Mary BRADLEY was born 16 Apr 1671 in Haverhill, Essex, Mass.     She first married Bartholomew Heath son of John Heath and Sarah Partridge on 23 Jan 1691 in Haverhill, Mass. She married in  in 1705 in Haverhill, Mass. to  Lt. James HEATH  (1683 – 1744) Mary was killed by Indians on  3 Sep 1718 in Haverhill, Mass.

9th G – David HEATH was born 14 Apr 1706 in Haverhill, Essex, Mass.   He married Ann STAPLES 24 May 1732 in Bradford, Essex, Mass. David died 16 Apr 1770 in Haverhill, Mass.

8th G – Mary HEATH was born 16 Jan 1739 in Haverhill, Mass.  In our imaginations, Mary’s father might have been  Chief CROOKED KNIFE.  She married 21 Mar 1760 in Haverhill, Mass. to  John BRADLEY (1738 – bef. 1830).  Mary died before 1824 in New Brunswick.

Vermont legend says Mary Heath’s father was Abenaki Chief Crooked Knife

7th G – Sarah Hannah BRADLEY was born in 1771 in Woodstock, New Brunswick Canada. Woodstock was settled by Loyalists following the American War of Independence.  She married 17 Jul 1793 in Woodstock Anglican Church, Carleton County, New Brunswick to Jonathan PARKS (1767 – 1855)   Sarah died about 1861 in Caribou Maine.

Jonathan and Sarah petitioned for a lot on “Presqu’isle, St. John River” in 1803.  Blue, grey and black wash over pencil by George Heriot  20 July 1807, Credit: Library and Archives Canada/C-012724.

6th G – Harriet PARKS was born 15 Nov 1798 in Waterborough (Grand Lake area), Queens Co, New Brunswick, Canada.   She married on 31 Jul 1815 in Woodstock, New Brunswick Canada to Isaac MILLER Jr (bet 1767/1770 – 1837) . Harriet was more than 30 years younger than Isaac and there were 39 years between Isaac’s oldest and youngest children.   Harriet was a widow with 8 of her 10 children living, beside seven or eight of her 13 step children, when she married  Tristram Winslow Hillman in 1846.  He was referred to in family history as “that queer duck Hillman.”   Harriet died  29 Jan 1873 in Pickett, Winnebago County, Wisconsin.

Harriet Parks Miller Hillman

5th G. George MILLER   was born 21 Jun 1817 in Northampton, York County, New Brunswick, Canada.  George married Mary ESTEY on 23 Aug 1838 in Dumfries, York Co [New Brunswick Royal Gazette] or 22 Oct 1837.  George died on 7  Sep 1860 in Winnebago County, Wisconsin and is burried in Liberty Prairie Cemetery. Family legend says he died of apoplexy while arguing about the Civil War.

George Miller

4th G. – Frank Nelson MILLER  was born on 18 June 1858 in Utica Wisconsin.   He married on 4 Jan 1896 in Fresno, Calif.  to  Agnes Genevieve HENRY (1863 – 1931).   Frank died on 29 Dec 1903 in Willows, California.

Miller Family: Genevieve, Frank, Henry, and Agnes

Miller Family: Genevieve, Frank, Henry, and Agnes

3rd G. Genevieve MILLER  was born 23 Mar 1899 in San Diego.  She married on 4 Apr 1925 in Los Angeles to Horace Horton BLAIR (1894 – 1965)

Genevieve Miller 1921

2nd G. Nancy BLAIR m. Everton Harvey MINER 
1st G.  Mark MINER m. Guadalupe VILLA VELAZQUEZ



This entry was posted in Artistic Representation, Fun Stuff, Historical Church, Historical Monument, Historical Site, Line - Miller, Line - Shaw, Royal Ancestors, Wikipedia Famous and tagged . Bookmark the permalink.

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