Solomon Kendrick

Solomon Kendrick (1706 – 1790) was Alex’s first cousin, nine times removed in the Shaw line. 

Solomon Kendrick was born in 1706 in Harwich, Barnstable, Mass. His parents were Edward Kendrick (1680 – 1743) and Elizabeth Snow (1683 – 1713). His maternal grandparents were our ancestors Jabez SNOW  and Elizabeth SMITH. He married in 1735 Chatham, Barnstable, Mass. to Elizabeth Atkins. Solomon died in 1790 in Barrington, Shelburne, Nova Scotia, Canada

Elizabeth Atkins was born in 1715 in Chatham, Barnstable, Mass. Elizabeth’s sister Anna married Solomon’s brother Thomas. Their parents were Samuel Atkins (1679 – 1768) and Emeline “Emblem” Newcomb (1685 – 1768) Their grandparents were our ancestor Andrew NEWCOMB Jr. and his second wife Anna Bayes.  She first married 31 Jan 1731 in Eastham to Daniel Eldredge (1702 – 1732). Elizabeth died in 1790 in Sherose Island, Shelburne, Nova Scotia, Canada

Their son John Kendrick (wiki)  (c. 1740–1794) was the first ship master who went on a voyage to the Northwest coast of the United States and discovered the Columbia River. Kendrick Bay on Prince of Wales Island near the southern tip of the Alaskan panhandle and Kendrick Islands, at the mouth of the bay are named for John Kendrick.

Children of Solomon and Elizabeth

Name Born Married Departed
1. Solomon Kendrick 1731
Harwich, Barnstable, Mass
Martha Godfrey
1756
Chatham, Barnstable, Mass
2. Elizabeth Kendrick 29 Aug 1736
Chatham, Barnstable, Mass
Elkanah Smith
17 Nov 1753 in Harwich, Barnstable, Mass
Sambro, Nova Scotia, Canada
3. John Kendrick 
(wiki)
1740
Harwich, Barnstable, Mass
Huldah Pease
28 Dec 1767
Edgartown, Dukes, Mass.
12 Dec 1793
Honolulu Harbor, Hawaii
4. Eunice Kendrick 1744 Rueben Cahoon 24 Feb 1777
Barrington, Nova Scotia, Canada
5. Benjamin Kendrick 13 Aug 1751
Harwich, Barnstable, Mass
Jedidah Nickerson
1772
Clarks Harbour, Shelburne, Nova Scotia, Canada
6. Joseph Kendrick 1755
Barrington, Nova Scotia, Canada
Hannah Horner
1776

1770 census of Barrington, Solomon indicates that he is living just with his wife and that they are Protestant Americans.
Solomon was engaged primarily in the Whale Fishery at “the passage”. His descendants settled mainly at “the passage”, where his namesake, Solomon, son of John, continued the whaling voyages until the mid 1850s.

Children

1. Solomon Kendrick

Solomon’s wife Martha Godfrey’s origins are not known.

Solomon was a mariner and went with his father’s family to Barrington, Nova Scotia where he was a propriater in 1768.  He married twice, but no record of his first wife has been found.

2. Elizabeth Kendrick

Elizabeth’s husband Elkanah Smith was born 6 Dec 1729 in Chatham, Barnstable, Mass.  His parents were David Smith (1691 – ) and Sarah Higgins (1699 – 1795)Elkanah died 25 Jun 1731 in Sambro, Nova Scotia, Canada

3. John Kendrick  (wiki)

John’s wife Huldah Pease was born 29 Apr 1744 in Edgartown, Dukes, Mass.  Her parents were Theophilus Pease (1705 – 1783) and Jedidah Butler (1711 – ).  Huldah died Jan 1824 in Rochester, Plymouth, Mass

John Kendrick (wiki)  (c. 1740–1794) was the first ship master who went on a voyage to the Northwest coast of the United States and discovered the Columbia River. Kendrick Bay on Prince of Wales Island near the southern tip of the Alaskan panhandle and Kendrick Islands, at the mouth of the bay are named for John Kendrick.

[This story is  a little much for a 2nd cousin, but it’s a rousing adventure tale  and he is our cousin two different ways, so I’m including the long version]  Here’s video biography

Kendrick was born about 1740 in what was then part of the Town of Harwich, Massachusetts (now Orleans, Massachusetts), according to official town records in Orleans, his last name was originally Kenrick, but later adopted the “d”. John Kendrick came from a long family line of seamen. Solomon Kenrick, his father, was a humble seaman and this fact gave young John the ambition of becoming a sea captain. He had a common education, like most people at the time. At age 20, he joined a whaling crew, working on a schooner owned by Captain Bangs.

John Kendrick later joined Captain Jabez Snow’s company during the French and Indian War in 1762. Like most Cape Codders of the time, he served for only eight months and did not re-enlist. All that is known about him between 1762 and the 1770s is that he owned a few merchant ships and married Huldah Pease of Edgartown on Martha’s Vineyard.

Kendrick was reputed to have participated in the Boston Tea Party on December 16, 1773. He was an ardent Patriot, going on to serve as commander of the privateer Fanny, the first ship of what became the Continental Navy during the American Revolution. He was commissioned May 26, 1777.

The Fanny had 18 guns and a crew of 100 as she captured a few British ships, gaining some money on the side and taking possession of items needed by the Americans defending themselves from the British. Some items also helped build Kendrick’s house in Wareham, Massachusetts. HMS Brutus and HMS Little Brutus captured Kendrick in November, 1779. He was soon traded in a prisoner exchange. Upon release, he commanded a sixteen-gun-armed, hundred-man-crewed brigantine named the Count d’Estang in 1780. Then, he commanded another brigantine called the Marianne later that same year.

When the war ended in 1783, Kendrick returned to whaling and coastal shipping until he became commander of the first American ship the discovery.

Not much is known about what happened to John Kendrick between the Revolution’s end and his voyage to the Pacific Northwest. A syndicate led by Boston merchant Joseph Barrell financed the Columbia Expedition in 1787. The vessels included were the ship Columbia Rediviva and the sloop Lady Washington.

The command of the larger Columbia was given to Captain Kendrick, then 47 years old, and 32-year-old one-eyed Robert Gray was given Washington. Overall command of expedition was given to Kendrick.  The combined crews of the two ships numbered about 40 men, one of them being 19-year-old Robert Haswell, the only one in the crew who kept an account of the voyage that survives today and who came to dislike Kendrick. Second Officer of Columbia was 25-year-old Joseph Ingraham, a veteran of the Massachusetts State Navy and POW during the Revolution, later captain of the Hope that sailed in 1790 to compete in the fur trade, and admirer of Kendrick. The oldest man on the voyage was Simeon Woodruff, who had sailed with James Cook aboard the HMS Resolution on his famous third voyage around the world.

The Columbia Expedition set sail from Boston Harbor on the morning of October 1, 1787, after a brief party with family and friends. The vessels reached the Cape Verde Islands on November 9, where Simeon Woodruff, after a fight with Kendrick, left the Columbia and went onto the islands with all his baggage. A Spanish captain passing by the islands offered to take Woodruff to Madeira and the old man, bitter at Kendrick’s treatment of him, accepted. He eventually returned to America and lived in Connecticut most of the remainder of his life.

Kendrick continued the journey on December 21 and reached Brett’s Harbor on the western side of the Falkland Islands on Feb 16 1788. While at sea, an argument between Kendrick and Haswell, the 2nd Officer, a friend of the dismissed Woodruff, had arisen over the disciplining of a seaman. He was apparently demoted, but attributed it to Kendrick’s wish to hasten the ascent of his own son, John Kendrick, Jr., who was serving as Fourth Officer of Columbia. Haswell also claimed that Captain Kendrick gave the young man permission to take passage on a European- or American-bound ship at the Falklands. But finding none there, Haswell agreed to transfer to the Washington. Kendrick considered wintering in the Atlantic, but was convinced to leave the islands on February 28, heading around Cape Horn instead of through the Strait of Magellan, and into the Pacific Ocean.   On April 1, after Kendrick gave the order to at last turn Columbia from a southwesterly course toward Antarctica and to the north, signaling a successful passage around the Horn, the two vessels lost sight of each other, to the relief of Captain Gray.

Kendrick survived the storm and stopped at the Juan Fernández Islands with two men dead and some others sick with scurvy. The Columbia continued sailing north and eventually settled down at Friendly Cove in Nootka Sound. The Washington had arrived at Nootka Sound a few weeks before Kendrick. Gray found himself again under Kendrick’s command. The Americans found two British ships anchored in Nootka Sound. They were part of a fur trading venture under John Meares—the Iphigenia, under William Douglas, and the North West America, under Robert Funter. Meares had left with his command ship, the Felice Adventurer, after Gray had arrived but before Kendrick had. On October 26, 1788, the British ships left for Hawaii and China.

Once they were gone Kendrick announced that he had decided the expedition would spend the winter in Nootka Sound. They would befriend the native Nuu-chah-nulth people and gain an advantage in the fur trade over the competing British ships.  During the winter Kendrick met and established friendly relations with the Nuu-chah-nulth chiefs Maquinna and Wickaninnish.

Kendrick sent the Washington under Gray out on a short trading voyage on March 16, 1789. Gray was to visit Wickaninnish in Clayoquot Sound and cruise south to look for the Strait of Juan de Fuca. He collected many sea otter pelts in Clayoquot Sound and found the entrance of the Strait of Juan de Fuca before returning to Nootka Sound on April 22. Gray found the Iphigenia under William Douglas anchored at Friendly Cove. Kendrick had moved the Columbia to a cove known as Mawina (today called Kendrick Inlet), six miles deeper into Nootka Sound. He had built a fortified a small island and built an outpost on it, with a house, gun battery, blacksmith forge, and outbuildings. Kendrick called it Fort Washington. He had decided that the Columbia was too unwieldy for close sailing on the Pacific Northwest coast. The smaller, more maneuverable  Washington was better suited for trading.

Immediately upon arrival the Washington was readied for another voyage. On May 2, days after the British ship Iphigeniaset off northward to trade for furs, Gray took the Washington north as well. On the way out of Nootka Sound Gray encountered the Princesa, under Spanish naval officer Esteban José Martínez, who had come to take possession of Nootka Sound for Spain. Martínez informed the officers of the Washington that they were trespassing in Spanish waters and demanded to know their business. Gray and his officers showed him a passport and made weak excuses for being on the Northwest Coast. Martínez knew they were dissembling but let them go, knowing that the command ship Columbia was trapped in Nootka Sound.

Gray returned to Nootka Sound on June 17 to find the Spanish in control, Fort San Miguel built, and the British ships Iphigenia and North West America captured. Martínez had let the Iphigenia leave but kept the North West America. A third British ship, the Princess Royal had arrived and was being detained by the Spanish. The British command shipArgonaut under James Colnett would soon arrive, triggering the Nootka Crisis. The situation on the Northwest Coast was changing rapidly.

On July 15 the Columbia and Washington, under Kendrick and Gray, left Nootka Sound. They sailed south to Clayoquot Sound, where they stayed for two weeks. There, switching vessels, Kendrick ordered Gray to take the Columbia to China, and Kendrick would take the Washington north. Kendrick recognized that with the British driven off out of the trade due to the Nootka Crisis the Americans had a window of opportunity on the Northwest Coast. All the furs in the Washington were transferred to the  Columbia  and the crews were divided so Kendrick would have a full complement of experienced sailors on the Washington. On July 30 Gray sailed the Columbia out of Clayoquot Sound, making for Hawaii and China.

The reason for this exchange of ships remains unknown, but one reason could be that Kenrick thought the Washington was easier to handle because she was smaller. Whatever the reason, Gray returned to Boston via Canton, later taking a second expedition in the Columbia that would enter the Columbia River on the modern Washington-Oregon border, and result in its naming for the ship.

Kendrick sailed up the coast of Vancouver Island at the end of June. He traded with the Haida and their chief, Coyah, on the Queen Charlotte Islands. One day, some clothes were stolen from the ship. Kendrick had Coyah locked up until the clothes were returned. Coyah was released at the stolen clothes’ return, but he was deeply bitter about the incident. This incident has been cited as the basis for the hatred of the Haida of the “Boston Men” as all American traders were then called. An account of the incident has it that Kendrick had clamped two chiefs to the base of a cannon and threatened to kill them both unless the Indians let him have all of their skins for the price that Kenrick set on the pretext that laundry had been stolen.

Two years later, when Kendrick returned, the Haida had not forgotten this treatment and a battle ensued. The natives captured the arms chest of the Washington. Kendrick and his crew had to retreat below decks. He and his officers fought off the attack. Kendrick, seeking revenge, killed a native woman who had encouraged the attack in the water after her arm had been severed by a cutlass and killed many other natives with cannon and small arms fire as they retreated.

Kendrick went to the Sandwich Islands (now Hawaii) and then he reached Macau in January, 1790. He eventually left Macau in March, 1791, along with William Douglas, formerly captain of theIphigenia but now of an American ship called Grace. Kendrick and Douglas reached Japan on May 6, probably becoming the first official Americans to meet the Japanese. The next day a typhoon came and forced Kendrick’s ship northeast to Kashinoura Harbor. Kendrick soon ran into trouble with the Japanese, who kept some samurai to make sure things did not get out of hand. Kendrick finally left on May 17. He and Douglas parted ways at a group of islands that they called the Water Islands.

Kendrick landed on the shores of the Haida village, Ce-uda’o Inagai, again on June 13. Kendrick began trading with about 50 Haida aboard his ship, half of whom were women, and another 100 in canoes alongside the Washington. It was when Kenrick had a fight with a crew member that Coyah’s grudge against Kenrick that had smoldered for two years was revealed.

The Haida seized the arms chests and overran the decks of the ship. One of Coyah’s men held a fierce-looking weapon at Kendrick’s face, ready to kill when the order was given. As the men were taken to the hold, they quietly and secretly grabbed any weapons left in unnoticeable places. Kendrick found an iron bar and when Coyah came into sight, he leaped on top of the Haida chief, who non-fatally slashed the captain’s belly with his knife. The chief fled when he saw the other Americans armed as well. Kendrick and his men charged the Haida, shooting at them and grabbing whatever weapons were around. One Haida woman tried to urge the fight on, even though she had lost an arm and had a few other wounds. She was the last one to retreat, jumping into the water and trying to swim away. A crewman shot her as she swam towards the shore. About 40 Haida were killed that day, including Coyah’s wife and two children. Coyah was wounded as well as his two brothers and another chief named Schulkinanse.

Coyah was soon removed from chief to ahliko. The Haida decreased in numbers and they became dirty, their faces painted black and their hair cut short. They would, in later months or years, have some successful ship captures along with human slaughters.

Kendrick left immediately and arrived in Marvinas Bay on July 12.  Kendrick built a small fort called Fort Washington in Clayoquot Sound in late August. By this time Gray had returned to the Northwest Coast, and built his own winter quarters on the sound, Fort Defiance. He continued trading furs, returning to Macau in December. The Chinese refused to buy his furs that year because of a quarrel with the Russians. Kenrick eventually found someone who would buy his furs in March 1792. Problems with the weather forced him to remain in Macau until the Spring of 1793. He sailed back and forth between the Sandwich Islands and Clayoquot Sound until October, 1794, after a brief reunion with his son John Kendrick, Jr., who commanded a Spanish ship called the Aranzazú.

Kendrick arrived in Honolulu (then called Fair Haven) on December 3, 1794. There were also two other British vessels: the Jackal under Captain William Brown and the Prince Lee Boo under a Captain Gordon.

This was coincidentally when a Kaeokulani, the chief of Kauai, invaded Oahu, meeting little resistance from his nephew Kalanikūpule. Brown sent eight men and a mate to aid Kalanikūpule’s forces. Kendrick also probably sent some of his men to help the Hawaiian chief in what was later called the Battle of Kalauao. The muskets of the sailors drove Kaeo’s warriors into some hills that overshadowed Honolulu. They finally retreated into a little ravine. Kaeo tried to escape, but Brown’s men and Kenrick’s men saw his ʻahuʻula, his feather cloak, and fired at the enemy chief from their boats in the harbor to show his position to Kalanikūpule’s men. The Oahu warriors killed Kaeo along with his wives and chiefs. The battle ended with Kalanikūpule as the victor.

At 10:00 the next morning, December 12, 1794, Kendrick’s brig fired a thirteen-gun salute, to which the Jackal answered with a salute back. One of the cannons was loaded with real grapeshot, though, and the shot smashed into the Washington, killing Captain Kenrick at his table on deck along with several other men. Kendrick’s body and the bodies of his dead men were taken ashore and buried on the beach in a hidden grove of palm trees. John Howel, Kendrick’s clerk, read the ship’s prayer book for the captain’s funeral.

4. Eunice Kendrick

Eunice’s husband Reuben Cahoon was born in 1738 in Chatham, Barnstable, Mass

5. Benjamin Kendrick

Benjamin’s wife Jedidah Nickerson was born 13 Aug 1751 in Chatham, Barnstable, Mass.  Her parents were Nathan Nickerson (1739 – 1793) and Abigail Eldredge (1728 – 1761)  Jedidah died in  Clarks Harbour, Shelburne, Nova Scotia, Canada

6. Joseph Kendrick

Joseph’s wife Hannah Horner was born in 1755.

Sources:

http://trees.ancestry.com/owt/person.aspx?pid=3278592

http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=oldmankew&id=I13103

Advertisements
This entry was posted in Line - Miller, Line - Shaw, Place Names, Sea Captain. Bookmark the permalink.

4 Responses to Solomon Kendrick

  1. Pingback: Jabez Snow | Miner Descent

  2. Pingback: Lt. Andrew Newcomb Jr. | Miner Descent

  3. I am a Kendrick descendent. My ancestor was Solomon’s brother, Anson, who settled in Barrington in 1761. He and his wife, Azubah Sears Kendrick had a number of children, among them my GG G-father, Josiah Sears Kendrick.
    The reason I am writing is to let you know that a couple of books and a TV series have come out regarding Kendrick’s.
    Scott Ridley wrote Morning of Fire, which is a compelling bio of Captain John Kendrick. I highly recommend it. Captain John’s father, Solomon is given a couple of pages. He was apparently a highly respected mariner.
    Andrew Buckley has produced Hit and Run History about Kendrick. You can pick it up online. It’s affiliated with WGBH, Boston, a Public Broadcasting affiliate.
    Finally, Joseph T. Kendrick has published “The Odyssey of the Kendrick Family” subtitled from Gods to Cowboys.

    All the Best,
    Lainey Sainte Marie

  4. LCGoodrich says:

    Solomon Kendrick was my 8th great grandfather. I was interested in your comment Lainey, since I love to read. Solomon had a son, Joseph, who married Hannah Hibbard dau of Eleazar Hibbard. I have not researched that branch yet but the family believes that Hibbard, Bulter and Moulton together started the Baptist church in NS. Their daughter married Abner Walker, who is a of the line of Richard Walker 1637 – the seafaring branch. Abner was father of 4 master mariners, nearly all of whom perished at sea. One of them, Captain Israel crafted a wooden captain’s chest of inlaid woods which I use as a jewelry box. This branch of Kendrick descendents all moved to California eventually, bringing along an assortment of Hiltons, Durkees and a Walker daughter from the other Walker tree (Richard h. of Jane Talmadge 0 1611). The last Kendrick known to me was actually his first name. He was a pastor in Southern California, born in Cuba. His father was a Watson, married to one of the daughters of Abner Walker. I am so glad that she chose to honor her ancestor with the Kendrick name. Martha Walker Watson died in 1970.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s