Paulus Jacobszen TURCK (1635 – 1703) was Alex’s 10th Grandfather; one of 2,048 in this generation of the Shaw line.
Paulus Jacobszen Turck was born in 1635 in Den Haag, Zuid Holland. He was baptized on 31 Oct 1637 in Princehagen, Noord Brabant, Netherlands. His parents were Jacobus TURCK and Sarah JANS. He married Aeltje Barentse KOOL on 12 Sep 1660 in New Amsterdam. NY. In 1686, Paulus and Aeltje were living on Brede Weg (today’s Broadway) Paulus died in May 1703 in New York, NY.
Aeltje Barentse Kool (Coel) was born 23 Sep 1640 in New Amsterdam NY. Her parents were Barent Jacobsen KOOL and Marretje Leenderts DeGRAUW. Aeltje died in 1693 New York City.
Children of Paulus and Aeltje:
|1.||Jacobus TURCK||born Kinderhook NY
4 Dec 1661 in the New Amsterdam Dutch Church, NY
|Cathryntje Van BENTHUYSEN
Teuntje Janse Goes Winne
27 Oct 1705 Albany, NY
|24 Mar 1711 in Albany, NY|
|2.||Paulus Turck Jr||13 Jul 1664
|Marretje Rijerse Martens
21 Apr or 16 May 1688 Brooklyn, Kings, NY
New York City
|3.||Marijken (Maryken) Turck||5 Dec 1666 New Amsterdam||Abraham Kermer
17 Dec 1684
New York City
|4.||Sara Turck||27 Feb 1669
New York City
|5.||Helena Turck||22 Mar 1671
New York City
|Johannes Borger (Burger)
2 Oct 1691
New York City
|6.||Augustinus Turck||2 Jul 1673 New York City|
|7.||Anna Elisabeth Turck||12 May 1675
New York City
|8.||Saertie Turck||11 Jul 1677
New York City
|9.||Sara Turck||14 Aug 1678
New York City
13 May 1714 – New York City
|25 Jan 1736|
|Cornelis Turck||20 Sep 1679
New York City
|Lysbeth Van Schaick (Schayk)
3 Dec 1702
New York City
|1 Nov 1727
|11.||Johannes Turck||1 Apr 1682
New York City
|Annetje Cornelis Kuijper
10 Sep 1706
New York City
Baptismal records of Princenhage, North Brabant, Netherlands; witnesses were Paulus TURCQ , Secretary of Princen-land and Cornelia Van STREYEN, his paternal grandparents. No baptisms for siblings were found in the record.
Paulus was a member of the Dutch West India Company.
A combination of an extraction project of the TURK Surname Society, focusing on New York State, along with the Y-DNA results of a couple of TURK Surname Y-DNA project members, who relate as seventh cousins and descend from Paulus Jacobszen TURCK (1635-1703), have seemingly identified this lineage’s Haplogroup, which has been confirmed by an SNP as G2. FTDNA defines the G2 Haplogroup as:
This lineage may have originated in India or Pakistan, and has dispersed into central Asia, Europe, and the Middle East. The G2 branch of this lineage (containing the P15 mutation) is found most often in Europe and the Middle East.
Paulus migrated from the Netherlands to New Amsterdam, where he married in 1660. He was known as His High and Mightiness from the Dutch West India Trading Company. His lineage has been traced to Pascasius Justus TURCQ (1531-1584), who was associated with first Flanders and then Noord Brabant. Chronology, geography and Y-DNA seem to suggest that the origin of this branch of the TURK surname is grounded in the Spanish Netherlands with genetic roots reaching into Moorish Spain. The year 1500 is frequently associated with the rather general emergence of surnames in Western Europe. The terms “Turk” and “Moor” were frequently used interchangeably. It seems plausible that this is the root origin of the early New York Turk family name.
Jacobus Turck b: ABT 1614 in , Princenhagen, Noord Brabant, Netherlands
Sarah Jans b: ABT 1616 in , Leiden, Noord Brabant, Netherlands
Paulus Turck b: 1563 in Dinteloord En, Prinsland, Noord Brabant, Netherlands
Cornelia Van Stryen b: ABT 1566 in Dinteloord En, Prinsland, Noord Brabant, Netherlands
Pascasius Justus Turcq b: 1531 in , Eeklo, Oost-Vlaanderen, Flanders (Belguim)
Elisabeth Van Sevenhoven b: ABT 1545 in , Bergen Op Zoom, Noord Brabant, Netherlands
Pascasius Justus Turcq was a physician in Bergen op Zoom. He first married Cornelia Velters after 1591 in Flanders. They had two children:
1. Israel continues with II
2. Joos [derived from Latin: Justus] secretary of Wouw [North Brabant, Netherlands]
He next married Elisabeth van Sevenhoven
Pascasius Justus Turcq wandered through Europe and studied literature at the unversities of Rome, Bologna, Padua, and Pavia. In his time he was known a gifted and civilized man, a perfect humanist. He was often seen as a guest at the royal courts of Europe. In Pavia, in the year 1561 he wrote his best known book: Pascasii Justi de Alea, sive de curanda ludendi in pecuniam cupiditate (The game of dice by Pascasius Justus from Eeklo, Doctor of Philosophy and Medicine, being two books discussing a way to cure people from the passion of playing for money). The book was printed in Basel Switzerland, reprinted in 1616 in Frankfurt Germany and again in Amsterdam in 1642.
After writing this book, he took up residence in Bergen op Zoom and was subscribed to the Guild of St. Anthony. There he became court-physician of Jan IV, marquis of Bergen op Zoom. From October 28, 1562 he also was designated “Master of Medicine of the City”. Still later he became the court-physician of the Duke of Anjou-Alencon, an ally of prince William of Orange. When the latter got severely wounded in an assasination attempt by Jean Jaurequy on March 18, 1582, Turcq was able to stop the Prince’s bleeding. From that time on he was on a friendly basis with Prince William. This friendship didn’t last very long: In 1584, Balthazar Gerards was succesful in an attemt to assassinate the Prince.
Psychoanalysts such as Sigmund Freud were not the first ones to offer a purelymedical explanation of ‘problem gambling’. Indeed, as early as 1560, Pascasius Justus Turcaeus, a humanist and physician from Eeklo, a small town in Flanders (Belgium),wrote the very first medical monograph on compulsive gambling. The work, first issued by Joannes Oporinus at Basel in 1561, was entitled Alea, sive de curanda ludendi in pecuniam cupiditate. The title clearly reveals the author’s intentions. Contrary to the moralizing discourse of contemporary clerics who considered gambling indicative of man’s greed, Pascasius offers a medical explanation of the socially disruptive phenomenon and, consequently, proposes a medical treatment for those people who find themselves afflicted by the disease.
Pascasius’ diagnosis was firmly rooted in a humoral theory that was heavily dependent upon Aristotle’s and Galen’s writings. Compulsive gambling is regarded as a passion or mental disturbance that results from both a hot or sanguine temperament and melancholy. Despite his insistence on the physiological cause of compulsive gambling, Pascasius did not propose a medical treatment based on the prescription of a proper diet or the administration of special drugs. Rather he drew heavily on ancient moral writings – including Galen’s – to devise a detailed psychotherapy which depended first and foremost on the application of cognitive strategies. According to Pascasius, persuasive words were needed to dispel the wrong opinions that created and maintained a gambler’s mental disorder.
Pascasius’ medical fame rests almost entirely on his discovery of compulsive gambling
as a mental disorder requiring psychotherapy; his treatise Alea was the only work he ever published. However important his discovery may have been, it did not suffice to
protect his name completely against the ravages of time. He is not mentioned in any
modern dictionary of scientific or medical biography. No attention is paid to him in
overviews of the history of medicine in the Low Countries. On the other hand, his
intellectual achievement attracted a considerable amount of interest in the early modern
period. Together with a number of other, admittedly more theological and legal tracts on
gambling, his treatise was issued again in 1617 by Johann von Münster. A third edition,
published by Lodewijk Elzevier in 1642, was prepared by the Dutch humanist Marcus
Zuerius Boxhernius and dedicated to the physician Justus Turq, a descendant of
Pascasius’s. Moreover, his work was eagerly read and lavishly pillaged by the French
ecclesiastical author Jean-Baptiste Thiers for his moralizing treatise on games of 1686.
But when, at the beginning of the twentieth century, behavioural scientists started to
show a new interest in the medical background of ‘problem gambling’, Pascasius’s
treatise had already fallen into almost complete oblivion.
Before the publication of his treatise Pascasius left Italy and started a career as the personal physician of John IV of Glimes, marquis of Bergen-op-Zoom. John played a leading role in the opposition of the Netherlandish nobility against Granvelle, king Philip II’s ‘minister’ in the Low Countries. As early as 1542, Pascasius, a member of the local gentry, undertook a long travel which led him to several courts and academic centres in France, Spain, and Italy. Probably in or around 1552, he left Spain for Italy, where he attended the universities of Rome, Bologna, Padova, and Pavia successively in order to devote himself to literature and study both philosophy and medicine.
It is most probably at the university of Pavia that he obtained his doctoral degree in medicine. During his stay in Pavia, he met Philip of Marnix, better known as Marnix of Saint-Aldegonde, who was to play a crucial role in the secession of the Northern Netherlands from Spain. Philip even wrote a preliminary poem in Greek for his treatise on gambling.
Pascasius’ decision to study medicine at the university of Pavia was certainly not strange or whimsical. It should be stressed that, by the time he arrived there, the Studium generale Ticinense had lost quite a bit of its previous glory and appeal to foreign students as a result of the ongoing wars which started in 1494 and culminated in 1525 in the sack of the town and the temporary closure of the university. However, it opened its doors again in 1531/1532 and slowly but steadily recovered at least partly from the damage done. In the second half of the sixteenth century, the university continued to attract a considerable amount of students from beyond the Alps, most of whom admittedly came to Pavia to study law. Just ranking behind Bologna and Padua in the fifteenth century, Pavia fell to a middle-rank position among Italian universities in the second half of the sixteenth century, especially in arts and medicine.
This is not to say that the medical teaching which Pascasius received was provincial and antiquated. The medical curriculum in Pavia, as at other Italian universities, remained of course largely based on the medieval canon of authoritative texts written by Aristotle and
Galen. Traditionally, these texts were commented upon in quaestiones and disputationes which were primarily aimed at solving discrepancies by making use of a strictly scholastic method of reasoning according to Aristotelian logic. This system remained more or less intact in the course of the sixteenth century. Yet, medical education did change considerably at that time.
Pascasius’ work contains two parts, the first one being devoted to a careful diagnosis of the medical problem of gambling, the second one suggesting an adequate therapy. Although the analysis of gambling in the first book has a strong Aristotelian flavour in so far as it is tightly structured according to Aristotle’s well-known categorization of causes, Pascasius did not write a scholastic treatise. For one thing, he does not follow a strictly
dialectical line of reasoning. Nor does his style smack of scholastic aridity. As the author points out in the preface to the reader, his treatise originated from a public oration held in Bologna. In reworking his speech, Pascasius made sure to adopt a smooth and quiet style best suited for an exposé that was more aimed at instruction than emotional stimulation. In fact, Pascasius seems to have followed the lead of Galen himself in adopting a quite leisurely way of writing in which argumentation and narration go hand in hand. Indeed, Pascasius likes to pad out his lessons with examples and anecdotes, some of which are derived from personal experience, while others are taken from classical literature. Thus, he delves into Suetonius’ Vitae Caesarum: the behaviour of the emperors Augustus, Caligula, and Domitian – all of them passionate gamblers – is said to prove that gambling has no connection with avarice but rather with prodigality. Our author appears to be particularly fond of Terentian comedy. Although his plays do not contain any detailed description of a compulsive gambler, they do feature a number of characters who reveal a specific temper or mental disturbance. Tellingly, some of the passages quoted are accompanied by a short philological aside: as a humanist physician or a medical humanist, Pascasius was eager to demonstrate his hermeneutic skills.
In the first part of his treatise on gambling, Pascasius dismisses an analysis of compulsive gambling in terms of avaritia. The association with greed was typical of the theological discourse on gambling in early modern times. It goes back to Aristotle who in his Nicomachean Ethics put gamblers on a par with thieves and robbers. What they have in common is exactly their greed (ajneleuqeriva): they care more for wealth than they ought to – to such an extent that they are willing to acquire it by making use of dishonorable or sordid means.
Pascasius does not deny that compulsive gamblers want to make a lot of money in an easy and quick way. However, they are not simply greedy (ajneleuvqeroi), but rather belong to the subcategory of prodigal or wasteful people (a[swtoi) who, according to Aristotle, “take from the wrong sources, and are in this respect mean.”
Pascasius is of the opinion that greed (or prodigality, for that matter) does not suffice to explain the disruptive behaviour of compulsive gamblers. It only offers a partial explanation, as it is only the causa (finalis) intermedia.26 What really drives compulsive gamblers is a particular attitude or disposition which compels them to try their luck against their better knowledge and never to give up, assuming that sooner or later the tide must turn to their advantage. In other words, compulsive gamblers are fundamentally characterized by a peculiar kind of narrow-mindedness which makes them lose their sense of reality.
This psychological mechanism, which is still widely acknowledged by contemporary psychologists and psychotherapists dealing with compulsive gambling, is analyzed by Pascasius in terms of eujelpistiva – a concept borrowed from Aristotle’s penetrating description of youth in his Rhetoric. According to the Stagirite, youngsters are full of hopeful expectation (eujelpistiva).27 They are similar to people who are under the influence of wine: not unlike drunkards, they are full of heat, partly because of their nature, partly because of the fact that, contrary to older people, they have not yet
suffered many disappointments.
(Sources: Encyclopedia of Noord Brabant/ Navorscher 1889, 1914, 1923/ De Nederlandsche Leeuw 1914, 1915, 1917/ De Wapenheraut 1918, 1919.
1. Jacobus TURCK (See his page)
2. Paulus Turck Jr
Paulus’ wife Marretje Rijerse Martens was born 16 Nov 1664 in Brooklyn, Kings, New York. Her parents were Martin Ryerson and Annetje Rapalje.
3. Marijken (Maryken) Turck
Marijken’s husband Abraham Kermer was born in 20 Aug 1661 in New Amsterdam. His parents were Abraham Kermer and Metje Martha Davids. Abraham died 21 Aug 1727 in Kings County, New York.
5. Helena Turck
Helena’s husband Johannes Borger (Burger) 1665 in New York City. His parents were Borger Joriszen Van Hersberg and Engeltje Mans. A Johannes Burger died 31 Mar 1733 in New York City.
9. Sara Turck
Sara’s husband William Roome was born 17 Apr 1692 in New York City. His parents were Pieter Willemse Roome and Hester Van Gelder. William died 10 Dec 1759 in New York.
10. Cornelis Turck
Cornelis’ wife Lysbeth Van Schaick (Schayk) was born 23 Jan 1683/84 in New York City. Her parents were Hendrik Cornelissen Van Schaick and Neeltje (Cornelisse or Hendrickse) Stelle.
11. Johannes Turck
Johannes ‘ wife Annetje Cornelis Kuijper (Cuyper) was born 18 Oct 1682 in Brooklyn, Kings, New York. Her parents were Cornelius Kuyper and Aeltje Teunise Bogaert. Her sister Hillegout married Johannes’ cousin once removed Ahasuerus Turck.