Gerrit Frederickse Lansing

Gerrit Frederickse LANSING (1610 – c. 1655) was Alex’s 10th Grandfather; one of 2,048 in this generation of the Shaw line.

Coat of Arms of Hasselt, Overijssel, Netherlands

Gerrit Frederickse Lansing  may have been born about 1610 in  Hasselt, Overijssel, the Netherlands.   He was the father of the Lansing family – the most numerous family group to live in early Albany.    He married Elizabeth HENDRIX in 1636 in Hasselt, Overijssel, Netherlands.

Painting Hasselt, 17th century

About 1640 with their six children, these Lansings emigrated to New Netherland and settled in what became  Beverwyck where Lansing was known as baker.

17th Century Albany

Although sometimes confused with his son and namesake, Gerrit Frederickse was dead by October 1679. At that time, he was identified as “deceased” and “in his lifetime,” a “burgher of Hassell.” His widow had remarried and was living in Albany. A more specific senario fixes his death during the 1650s.

Alternatively, Gerrit died in Holland prior to 1654, Lysabeth married second Wolter Albertsz van den Uythoff shortly after 31 January 1654. She and Wolter, also a baker, sailed for America in September 1655 with her children by Gerrit.

Elizabeth Hendrix was the matriarch of the Lansing family – the largest family group to live in early Albany. She was born in 1615 – Borne, Overijssel, Netherlands.  Following the death of Gerrit Frederickse – perhaps during the mid-1650s, Elizabeth Hendrix married another baker, widower Wouter Albertse Van Den Uythoff. They became Albany mainstays in a second marriage that lasted more than four decades.  In 1678, Wouter and Elizabeth filed a joint will. She was characterized by the notary as “virtuous” but “sickly.” The will noted that their marriage produced no children but that she had six children from her first marriage living at the time.  She was accounted for within the household of Wouter Albertse on the Albany census of 1697. In 1699, Wouter was dead and she was identified as his widow.

Children of Gerrit and Elizabeth:

Name Born Married Departed
1. Aeltjen Lansing bapt.
23 Oct 1637
Hasselt, Overijsseel, Holland
Gerritt Van Slick Ten Horst
bef. 1660
Sep 1685
2. Gysbertje (Gisbert) Lansing 1639
Reusel-de Mierden, Noord-Brabant, Netherlands
Hendrick Janse Roseboom
Albany, NY
3. Gerrit Lansing 1641
Hasselt, Overijssel, Netherlands
Elsie Van Wythorst
Albany, NY
11 Jul 1709
Rensselaerwyck, New York
4. Hendrick Gerrit Lansing 1639
Hasselt, Overijssel, Netherlands
Lysbeth Casperse Hallenbach
c. 1674
Albany, NY
11 Jul 1709 Albany, NY
5. Jan Lansing 1640
Hasselt,  Overijssel, Netherlands
Geertje Goosense Van Schaick
1678 in Albany, Albany, New York
26 Feb 1727
6. Hilligien LANSING 1648 in Hasselt, Overijssel, Netherlands Storm Albertse Van Der ZEE
c. 1666
Willem Ketelhuyn – who took over her husband’s tavern
10 Sep 1693 Albany, NY.

With more than 400 family members in the city before 1800, the Lansings are, by far, the largest early Albany family. After Beverwyck became Albany in 1664, the Lansings became mainstays in the colonial city, spread throughout the region, then settled across New York and the United States. Today, they are one of the most widespread and broadly successful of the New Netherland-era early Albany families.

The Albany Lansings are the descendants of Gerrit Frederickse and his wife Elizabeth Hendrix who came to America with their European-born children about 1640. Within a few decades of settling in Albany, Gerrit Frederickse was dead but three sons and three daughters had found partners and were raising families of their own. The city census of 1697 listed the households of sons baker/contractor Gerrit Lansing, butcher/trader Hendrick, trader/landholder Jan Lansing, grandson Abraham G. Lansing, and also the home of Wouter Albertse Van Den Uythoff – a widowed baker who had married widow Elizabeth Hendrix several decades earlier. Of the daughters, Gysbertje – the wife of Hendrick Roseboom, and Hilletie Ketelhuyn – the widow of Storm Vanderzee, were living in the city.

Over the next century, the Lansings spread out in Albany and in the greater region. More so than most New Netherland families, the Lansings maintained a strong and even expanded presence in the city of Albany. The mix of trades, crafts, and business activities of the householders of 1697 was characteristic and became even more diversified through succeeding generations. The Lansings were prominent within the Albany community and more widely known as silver and gun smiths. Middling with some upward mobility, Lansing sons often followed in their father’s footsteps while daughters were well-represented as wives in traditional and newcomer city homes. Thirteen Lansing-named families appeared on the census of householders taken by the British army in 1756.

Although the family continued to expand into the growing countryside, in 1790, the census still listed seventeen Lansing-named households in the city of Albany. These included the homes of gunsmith Robert Lansing, baker Sanders Lansing, and businessman Abraham G. Lansing who married the daughter of Abraham Yates, Jr.

Always involved in city affairs, the American Revolution elevated the Lansing family to new prominence. Several Lansings attended the Albany Committee of Correspondence as members and associates while others served in the military and on supply lines. John Lansing, Jr., a one-time clerk and secretary, was elected to the New York State Assembly, appointed mayor of Albany, delegate to the Federal Convention of 1787, and later became chancellor of New York State.

Robert, Sander, or Jeremiah. However, the historical detective is often thwarted by the fact that so many Lansings were named either Gerrit, Jacob, or John. For example, after Jan Lansing, more than fifty city Lansings born before 1800 were christened Johannes or one of its variants – thus creating perplexing problems in the development of individual biographies.

John Lansing, Jr. (the younger – even though he was the son of Gerrit), orJohn 5 Lansing – an innkeeper who was the fifth generation “John” in his particular line. The Gerrits, Jacobs, Marias, and other Lansings pose similar predicaments.

More often than most early Albany families – and possibly abetted by the shear size and Albany focus of the family, Lansing cousins frequently intermarried!

LansingburghLansing Manor, and places and people named “Lansing” across the country recall the family’s formative role in early American History

Elizabeth Hendrix Lansing’s second husband Wouter Albertse Van Den Uythoff was an emigre to New Netherland.  By the mid-1650s, he was a widower with at least one child of his own when he married Elizabeth Lansing. He was a baker in Beverwyck and then Albany for the remainder of the century. He was a longtime member and supporter of the Albany Dutch church.

In 1658, he purchased a house and lot from fellow baker Jochem Wesselse – although subsequent court actions were required for Wesselse to secure payment. In 1660, he was among the fur traders who petitioned for more liberal trading policies. Over the years, he occasionally appeared before the Albany court as principal, witness, attorney, mediator, and juror. He also bought and sold real estate in Albany.

In April 1676, the Albany court called him “Wouter de Backer” when it appointed him a carman. In June 1678, Wouter Albertse and Elizabeth Hendrix filed a joint will. It named his six step-children. A year later, his home was included on a census of Albany householders.


Wouter and Catherine owned a house lot and Bowery #10 in Schenectady.  The town was destroyed and its people killed or kidnapped in the  Schenectady Massacre of Feb. 08, 1689/90.   See Andries Arentse BRADT’s  page (Hilligien LANSING’s father-in-law) for details.  I haven’t found how Catherine and Woulter fared.

Schenectady Map 1690 showing the homes of many of colonists killed in the massacre -- Blue X marks the home of Elizabeth Hendrix and Wouter Albertse Van Den Uythoff. -- Red X marks the home of Barent Janse Van Ditmars, Catalyntje De Vos Bradt Van Ditmarsand Andries & Arentse Bradt

How the Schenectady Lands Purchased by Van Curler from the Mohawks in 1661, Were Divided Among the First Proprietors

Schenectady Original Owners of the Farms in the Bouwery -- Farm #1: our relative Catalynje De Vos Bradt Farm #10 was later owned by Catherine Lansing and Wouter Uythoff and sold for 540 beavers

Farm No. 10

The double bouwery No. 10, was first patented to Teunis Cornelise Swart, June 16, 1664, and confirmed Jan. 16, 1667. Patents, 309.

Elizabeth, widow of Teunis Swart, then wife of Jacob Meese Vrooman, of Albany, Feb. 20, 1685/6, conveyed to her son Jesaias Swart, eight acres of land out of this farm to be taken from the extreme south end. Deeds, III, 310.

26th April, 1692. Wouter Uythoff (third husband of Elizabeth), and said Elizabeth his wife, for 540 beavers conveyed the whole bouwery No. 10, to Claas Laurense Van Purmerend (alias Van der Volgen). Deeds, IV, 35.

Jan. 4, 1692/3. Claas Laurense Van Purmerend sold to Claas Janse Van Boekhoven for 147 pounds the half of farm No. 10 lying between the highway and the river, — eleven morgens. Deeds, IV, 34.

And Jan. 5, 1692/3. Claas Janse conveyed to Dirk Arentse Bratt, his stepson for 73 1/2 pounds, five and one-half morgens of the above purchase, being the easterly half of that portion lying north of the highway. Deeds, IV, 38.

On the same day, to wit, Jan. 5, 1692/3, in consideration of a sum of money paid him by Catharine Glen, sometime widow of Cornelis Barentse Van Ditmars, eldest son of Barent Janse Van Ditmars, Claas Janse Van Boekhoven conveyed to said Catharine Glen (and as her dower), now wife of Gerrit Lansing, Jr., a piece of land out of farm No. 10, being the westerly half of that portion lying between the highway and the river — consisting of five and one-half morgens.Deeds, IV, 37.

In 1697, Wouter and Elizabeth were alone in their second ward home. In July 1699, Wouter Albertse was identified in the city records as the deceased husband of Elizabeth Hendrix. In that year, he joined in swearing allegiance to the king of England. After 1699, his name dropped community rolls.


1. Aeltjen Lansing

Aeltjen’s husband Gerritt Van Slick Ten Horst ( Van Schlichtenhorst) was born 1635 – Nijkerk, Gelderland, Netherland. His parents were Brandt (Arent) Van Slichtenhorst and Aeltje (Gysbrecht) Van Wenckum. Gerritt died 9 Jan 1684 – Kingston, Ulster, New York.

2. Gysbertje (Gisbert) Lansing

Gisbert’s husband Hendrick Janse Roseboom was born 1640 in Dingsterveen, Overijssel, Netherlands. His parents were xx. Hendrick died 4 Nov 1703 in Albany, Albany, New York,

3. Gerrit Lansing

Gerrit’s first wife Elsie Van Wythorst was born 1630. Her parents were Wouter Van Wythorst and [__?__] . Elsie died in 1690.  Some sources say she was Elsie Van Den Uythoff, the daughter of his mother’s second husband.

Jan. 5, 1692/3, in consideration of a sum of money paid him by Catharine Glen, sometime widow of Cornelis Barentse Van Ditmars, eldest son of Barent Janse Van Ditmars, Claas Janse Van Boekhoven conveyed to said Catharine Glen (and as her dower), now wife of Gerrit Lansing, Jr., a piece of land out of farm No. 10, being the westerly half of that portion lying between the highway and the river — consisting of five and one-half morgens.Deeds, IV, 37.

4. Hendrick Gerrit Lansing

Hendrick’s wife Lysbeth Casperse Hallenbach was born 1650 in Albany, Albany, New York. Her parents were Caspar Jacobse Hallenbeck and Lysbeth Hoffmeyer. Lysbeth died 1713 in New York.

By 1679, Hendrick was identified as an Albany householder. For the next three decades, he was a pillar of the Albany community – serving on juries, acting as surety, and appearing in cases before the Albany court. Like his brothers, he was a fur trader whose property ranked him with other middling Albany businesssmen. In 1697, his second ward home was configured on the city census – next to that of his mother and step-father. Two years later, he joined with other Albany mainstays in signing a loyalty oath to the King of England.

5. Jan Lansing

Jan’s wife Geertje Goosense Van Schaick was born 1649 in Albany, Albany, New York. Her parents were Goosen Gerritse Van Schaick and Geertje Van Nieukerke. Geertje died Dec 1739 in Albany, Albany, New York.

He was the first of more than fifty early Albany people to be named John Lansing.

Jan was a fur trader who was able to amass a considerable fortune while still a young man. By 1679, he had established his own residence within the Albany stockade following his marriage to Geertie Van Schaick, the widow of Hendrick Coster – who brought with her several growing children. Over the next two decades, their household on Pearl Street grew again with the birth of six Lansing children.

Jan Lansing was one of Albany’s city fathers – being appointed one of the original assistants by the governor in 1686. Two years later he was elected as alderman to represent the second ward on the Common Council. Except for the hiatus of 1689-90, he served on the council until 1698. During that time, he sat on a number of committees and courts and regularly performed contract duties. As his children grew into adulthood, the city-based Lansing continued to prosper and invested in real estate. By the early 1700s, Jan Lansing was one of the wealthiest Albany merchants – as his property was among the highest valued on city assessment rolls.

A lifelong Reformed church member, Lansing served on the consistory and was actively involved in church business. In 1715, he joined a number of European-born Albany people who became naturalized British subjects. Living on into his eighties, Jan Lansing died in February 1728 and was buried under the Dutch church.

6. Hilligien LANSING (See Storm Albertse Van Der ZEE‘s page)


About these ads
Posted in 12th Generation, Immigrant - Continent, Line - Shaw, Pioneer, Place Names, Tavern Keeper | Tagged | 3 Comments

Barent Van Rotmers

Barent Van ROTMERS (1595 – 1632) was Alex’s 11th Grandfather; one of 4,096 in this generation of the Shaw line.

Wappen Otterndorf

Barent Van Rotmers (Röttmer) was born in 1591 or 1595 in Osterbruch, Hannover, Preußen, Germany or Otterndorf (about five miles from Altenbruch, also in Hannover).  He married Gysje Geesje BARENTSDOTTER in 1611 in Osterbruch, Hannover. Barent died in Europe before 1632 and did not emigrate.

Gysje (Gissel or Geesie) Geesje Barentsdotter was born in 1591 in Osterbruch,  Germany. She was known as Barents and Barentsdr. (Barentsdotter) meaning “daughter of a man named Barent”.  At the time Gissel was living on the Schaepensteegje or Sheep Alley in Amsterdam, Netherlands. Geesie’s husband Barent Rottmer is never listed, so it is assumed he died before 1632.  After Barent died, she married Pieter Jacobse Van Rynsburgh.  They emigrated on the Den Waterhondt which  sailed from the Texel on 15 June 1640 and had arrived in New Amsterdam by 25 Oct 1640.

Pieter Jacobsz  Van Rynsburgh was the  gunner at Fort Orange. He filed a joint will with Gysje  in June 1642 in New Amsterdam.  On 12 Apr 1658 Pieter made the first of three payments to the deacons for an adult pall at Fort Orange, so it is likely that Geesjie had died that previous winter or in the spring. Pieter went on to marry Elisabeth d’Honneur.

Children of Albert and Annatje:

Name Born Married Departed
1. Annatje Barentse Van ROTMERS c. 1608
Oudenbroek, (now Altenbruch, Niedersachsen, Germany)
Albert Andriese BRADT
11 Apr 1632 at the Oude Kerke, Amsterdam
1661 in Albany, NY.
2. Barent Barentsen Van Rottmers 1610
Annetie Jans van Schoonhoven
21 Aug 1632 Amsterdam, Netherlands .
Cathalina Michiels
25 Nov 1634 in Evan, Amsterdam
Annetie Jans van Amsterdam 17 Sep 1644 Amsterdam

Gissel or Geesie Barentsdr. [Barentsdochter] assisted her daughter Annatie Barents Van Rottmer at the signing of banns on 27 March 1632 for her marriage to Albert Andriessen. Annetie was 24 years old. When Annatie’s brother Barent Barents signed his banns at the age of 22, on 21 Apr. 1632 he too was assisted by his mother. At the time Gissel was living on the Schaepensteegje or Sheep Alley in Amsterdam, Netherlands. Geesie’s husband Barent Rottmer is never listed, so it is assumed he died before 1632.

The passenger list of Den Waterhondt, which sailed from The Texel in June or July 1640 for New Netherland, lists Gijsje Berents, wife of Pieter Jacobsz. Gijsje was charged with board on den Waterhondt in 1640 and credited with 28 days work done by her husband at the home of Arent van Curler. Pieter Jacobsz may have been the “constapel” of Fort Orange, who on 15 April 1652 by order of Johannes Dyckman, tore van Slichtenhorst’s proclamation from the house of Gijsbert Cornelisz, tavern keeper.

1662 . . . Baptismal record transcription from church records by Hoes 81 – March 13. Cornelia, daughter of Eva Bratt and Roleof Swartwout, had as her baptismal sponsors Cornelis Slecht, Jannetje Pels, Willemje Jacobs, and Geesje Barents. Geesje Barents was the child’s maternal great grandmother.

1667 . . . Baptismal sponsor as noted. Child: Cornelia. Reference ID: 81. Bapt. Date: 13 Mar 1667. Parents: Roeloff Swartwout and Eva Swartwout. Sponsors: Cornelis Slecht; Jannetje Pels; Willempje Jacobs; Thomes Loodewycksen and Geesje Barents . Source: Kingston Baptismal Register.


1. Annatje Barentse Van ROTMERS (See Albert Andriese BRADT‘s page)

Annetje Barents Van Rotmers d. in 1662, and on 10 July, 1663, her children gave to Storm Albertsen Van Der Zee, her eldest son, power of attorney to collect property inherited from Pieter Jacobsen van Rendsburgh (Rynsburgh), husband of Geesie Barents, their maternal grandmother (Notary Papers at Albany, p. 347). This right enabled Storm to sell a share in a house and lot at New Amsterdam inherited from his mother and occupied by Burgomaster Allard Anthony. Geesie Barents was in this country as earlv as 1642, for in June of that year Pieter Jacobsen, b. in Rendsburgh (probablY Rendsburg, a town of Prussia, in Holstein, on the Eider), and “Gysje Pieters” (Pieters meaning wife of Pieter), both of Fort Orange, made a joint will (Berthold Femow’s Calendar of Wills, No. 956) in which real and personal property was left to her dau. “Annitje Alberts*’ (Alberts meaning wife of Albert). In 1667 Geesie Barents was at Kingston, N. Y., standing as one of the sponsors for Cornelia, dau. of Roelof Swartwout and Eefgen Albertse Bratt.

2. Barent Barentsen Van Rottmers

Barent’s second wife Cathalina Michiels was born 1612 in Leyden, Germany. Her father was Michiel Christiaenss,  Cathalina died in 1644.

Barent Barentsen Van Rottmers (1610-1663) is known to have worked in Amsterdam in the silk industry and perhaps his father Barent Van Rottmers worked in the textile industry there also.  Barent Van Rottmers died in Amsterdam, Netherlands in the 1620s or 1630s.


Posted in 13th Generation, Immigrant - Continent, Line - Shaw | Tagged , | 4 Comments

Albert Andriessen Bradt

Albert Andriessen BRADT (1607 – 1686) was one of the earliest Norwegian settlers in New Netherland.   Alex’s 10th Grandfather; one of 2,048 in this generation of the Shaw line.

Albert Andriese Bradt was born 26 August 1607 in Fredrikstad, Smaalenenes (now in Østfold, Norway)  a town at the mouth of the Glommen, the largest river in Norway. Fredrikstad was a brand new city when Albert was born.  After Sarpsborg was burned to the ground during the Northern Seven Years’ War, the ruling king, King Frederik II, of Denmark, decided by to rebuild the city 15 kilometers south of the original location. The name Fredrikstad was first used in a letter from the King dated 6 February 1569. The temporary fortification built during the Hannibal War (1644–1645)  became permanent in the 1660s.

In the early records he is often called Albert de Noorman (the Norwegian). After 1670 he became known as Albert Andriesz Bradt. His parents were Andries Arentse BRADT and Aeffi Eva Pieterse KINETIS.  Whether he was related to the Bratts of Norwegian nobility, can not be ascertained. The Bratt family lived in Bergen, Norway, before the early part of the fifteenth century, when it moved to the northern part of Gudbrandsdalen. It had a coat of arms until about the middle of the sixteenth century. Since that time the Bratts belong to the Norwegian peasantry. They have a number of large farms in Gudbrandsdalen, Hedemarken, Toten, and Land.

He was listed as a 24 year old sailor when he married Annatje Barentse VAN ROTMERS on 11 Apr 1632 at the Oude Kerke, Amsterdam, Netherlands.  They emigrated on the Arms of Rensselaerswyck which had a particularly long voyage, beginning at Amsterdam 25 Sep 1636,  sailing from Texel on 8 Oct 1636, and not arriving in Rensselaerwyck (Albany NY) until 7 Apr 1637.  After Annatje  died, he married Pieterje Jans. Pieterje died in 1667 and he married third Geertruy Pieterse Coeymans.  Albert died 7 Jun 1686 near Albany, NY.

Albert was born in Østfold County, Norway

Annatje Barentse Van Rotmers was born in 1608 Oudenbroek.   Oudenbroek may now be that place called Altenbruch, Niedersachsen, Germany.  Her parents were Barent VAN ROTTMER and Gissel (Geesie) BARENTSDR (Baerens). Annatja died 1661 in Albany, NY.

Geertruyt Pieterse Coeymans was the  widow of Abraham Pietersen Vosburgh.  Her marriage with Albert Bradt was  unhappy. She filed a court petition for separation and alimony on 13 Janurary 1669 and after a long court battle they were legally separated “because of strife and differences that hath arisen between them” on 24 October 1670 and she received annual alimony of 80 schepels in apples and beavers.  Geertruty died in 1695.

Children of Albert and Annatje:

Name Born Married Departed
1. Eva Albertsen Bradt bapt
9 Jan 1633
Ev. Lutheran Church in Amsterdam
Anthony de Hooges
20 Oct 1647
Albany, NY
Roeloff Swartout
13 Aug 1657
Albany, Albany, New York
1689 Hurley, NY
2. Barent Albertse Bradt bapt 22 Oct 1634
Ev. Lutheran Church in Amsterdam
Susanna Dirkse Mayer
Albany, NY
3. Storm Van Der ZEE 2 Nov 1636 at Sea lattitude 41 degrees 50 minutes on the Arms of Rensslaerswyck Hilletje LANSING May 1679 Albany, NY.
4. Engeltje Bradt c. 1637
Albany, NY
Teunis Slingerlandt
c. 1674
5. Geseltje Bradt c. 1640
Albany, NY
Jan van Eschelen
6. Andries Albertse Bradt c. 1642
Albany, NY
Neeltje [__?__]
Cornelia Teunisse van Wie (Vervay)
3 Jun 1662
Albany, NY
New York
7. Jan Albertse Bradt c. 1648 Maria Post
c. 1674
Greene Co., NY
8. Dirck Albertse Bradt c. 1650 Unmarried 1698

The name of Albert Andriessen occurs for the first time in a document bearing the date August 26, 1636, an agreement between him and  millwright Pieter Cornelisen and carpenter Claes Jansen  on the one hand, and the patroon of the colony of Rensselaerswyck, Kiliaen van Rensselaer, on the other to build and operate a saw mill. The agreement was made and signed in Amsterdam. It states that Andriessen was a tobacco planter. He may have learnt the cultivating of tobacco in Holland, where tobacco was raised as early as 1616.

In the name of the Lord, Amen. On conditions hereafter specified, we, Pieter Cornelissen van munnickendam, millwright, 43 years of age, Claesz jans van naerden, 33 years of age, house carpenter, and albert andriessen van fredrickstadt, 29 years of age, tobacco planter, have agreed among ourselves, first, to sail in God’s name to New Netherland in the small vessel which now lies ready and to betake ourselves to the colony of Rensselaerswyck for the purpose of settling there on the following conditions made with Mr. Kiliaen Van Rensselaer, as patroon of the said colony, etc”Thus done and passed, in good faith, under pledge of our persons and property subject to all courts and justices for the fulfillment of what is aforewritten, at Amsterdam, this 26th of August [1636].

‘In witness whereof we have signed these with our own hands in the presence of the undersigned notary public . .

“Kiliaen Van Rensselaer
“Pieter Cornelissen
“albert and riessen . . -. “Claes jansen.
“J. Vande Ven, Notary.”

Bradt’s Sawmill – Tawasentha was the site of a powerful waterfall where Albert Andriesen Bradt operated saw mills. It became known as Norman Kil after Albert Andriesen Bradt “de Noorman”. Albert Andriesen Bradt worked a farm and these two saw mills at Bushwyck a few miles south of Albany on land he leased from Van Rensselaer and there is a record that he paid f250 annual rent 04 May 1652-04 May 1672.

Most of the settlers who came to Rensselaerswyck in 1637 came on the vessel of the same name. Additionally a handful of settlers who first appeared in accounts of the colony are described as probably passengers on the vessel. The log of the voyage of the Rensselaerswyck was translated by Van Laer and included in The Van Rensselaer Bowier Manuscripts. The journey was an unusually long one, beginning at Amsterdam 25 Sep 1636 It sailed from Texel on 8 Oct 1636, not arriving in Rensselaerwyck (Albany NY) until 7 Apr 1637.

Difficult weather was invariably the culprit. When not beset by severe storms, still, calm, windless days made the ship drift for days at a time. For 17 days the ship was off course and near the coast of Spain when the captain at last decided they must head back because of limited supplies of food and because more and more people were growing ill daily. His goal was the south coast of England. There, at Ilfracombe, on 8 Dec, Cornelis Thomasz was stabbed by his helper, Hans van Sevenhuysen. Thonasz died the following day – a Tuesday – and the captain noted in his log how all the people in this neighborhood went to pray on account of the severe sickness which God is sending them.

The Rensselaerswyck at last arrived at Manhattan on Wednesday, 4 Mar, but could not travel to Fort Orange because the Hudson River was still closed by ice. On Sunday, the 8th, two children born on board the vessel were baptised at the Manhattan church. On Sunday, the 22nd, the widow of the murdered Cornelis Thomasz, a smith, married Arent Steffeniers. Finally on March 26th, the vessel left for Fort Orange and arrived there Tuesday, April 7th. Since some of the passengers are first listed in accounts of April 3rd, these men evidently traveled to Fort Orange via yacht. The Rensselaerswyck left Fort Orange on 29 May.

Andriessen and his partners were to operate a mill. But not long after his arrival he took the liberty of dissolving partnership and established himself as a tobacco planter. After about a year he and his brother began growing tobacco for the patroon and participating in the fur trade.  Van Renssselaer had sent greetings to him in a letter dated September 21, 1637, (addressed to the partner of Andriessen, Pieter Cornelisz, master millwright) but in a subsequent letter, of May 8, 1638, to Cornelisz he wrote: “Albert Andriessen separated from you, I hear that he is a strange character, and it is therefore no wonder that he could not get along with you.”

Nevertheless, Van Rensselaer entertained the hope that Albert Andriessen would succeed as a tobacco planter. On December 29, 1637, he wrote to Director William Kieft that he should assign some of the young men on board the “Calmar Sleutel”, commanded by Pieter Minuit and sailing in the same month, to tobacco planting with Aiidriessen “if he has good success,” otherwise they were to serve with the farmers.

These young men were inexperienced, it seems. One, Elbert Elbertz, from Nieukerck, eighteen years old, was a weaver; Claes Jansen, from the same place, seventeen years old, was a tailor; Gerrit Hendricksz, also from the same place, fifteen year old, was a shoemaker. Gerrit must have served Andriessen for a term of at least three years; for his first three years’ wages, from April 2, 1638 to April 2, 1641, are charged to Andriessen.

In a letter of May 10, 1638, Van Rensselaer advised Andriessen that he had duly received his letter stating that the tobacco looked fine. But he was desirous to get full particulars as to how the crop had turned out, and to get a sample of the tobacco. He expressed dissatisfaction at Andriessen having separated from Pieter Cornelisz, and liked to know the cause of his dispute with the officer and commis Jacob Albertsz Planck and his son. He informed Andriessen that he was obliged to uphold his officers. and promised him to stand by him and cause him to be “provided with everything.” But he would not suffer bad behavior. He also informed him that it was apparent from the news he had received from several people that he was “very unmerciful to his children and very cruel” to his wife; he was to avoid this “and in all things have the fear of the Lord” before his eyes and not follow so much his own inclinations. But there was also another matter for which Van Rensselaer censured him: he had traded beaver furs with Dirck Corszen Stam contrary to contract, defrauded and cheated him. For seven pieces of duffel he had given him only the value of twenty-five merchantable beavers.

Van Rensselaer also addressed a letter, of the same date, to Jacob Albertsz Planck informing him that he had written to Andriessen that he should have more respect for the officers. Planck was instructed to notify Andriessen and all others living in the colony not to engage in “such detrimental fur trade,” for he did not care to suffer in his colony those who had their eyes mainly on the fur trade.’

Notwithstanding, it was Dirck Corszen that was an unfaithful supercargo. And Van Rensselaer requested, in a letter of May 13, 1639, of Andriessen, that he should write him the truth of the matter and pay him what he still owed Corszen. If he saw that Andriessen acted honestly herein, he would do all in his power to help him. Andriessen should go to the superintendent of the colony, Arent van Curler, and purchase necessaries for himself and his own people at an advance in price of 50 per cent. He should get merchandise for the Indian trade at an advance of 75 per cent. In return he was to furnish Van Curler with skins at such a price that he could make something on the transaction.

Van Rensselaer also informed Andriessen that he would try to sell his tobacco at the highest price and furthermore give him 25 per cent more than his half of the net proceeds would amount to. He would moreover grant him 25 per cent discount on the grain which he bought. In fact, Van Rensselaer’s confidence in Andriessen seemed to be increasing. For he not only acknowledged that he had received several letters from him, but also wished to say to his credit that he had received returns from no one. but him. He complained, however, of the tobacco which had been sent to him in barrels. It was a great loss to both that the “tobacco was so poor and thin of leaf that it could not stand being rolled.” This. he thought, was likely due to Andriessen having left too many leaves on the plants. But not this alone: the weight was short. One barrel, put down at 292 lbs., weighed but 220 lbs. This was perhaps due to deception on the part of a certain Herman, a furrier. But anything like this should be avoided in the future. The tobacco amounted to 1,156 pounds net, which was sold for 8 st. (16 cents) a pound. Had it not been so bad and wretched, it could have been sold for twenty cents a pound. A higher price could be obtained if Andriessen would be more careful in the future and leave fewer leaves on the plants. He should try to grow “good stuff”, for the tobacco from St. Christopher, an island in the West Indies, was so plentiful in Netherland that it brought but 3 stivers a pound. Andriessen should also each year make out a complete account of all expenses and receipts from tobacco, so Van Rensselaer could see whether any progress was made.

But Andriessen was a poor accountant. Neither Van Rensselaer nor his nephew, the former Director Van Twiller, could understand his accounts.  Van Rensselaer therefore gave him directions to follow in making his entries and statements, claimingthat any other procedure would “leave everything confused and mixed up.” He complained that Andriessen laid certain transactions before the patroon, which should be laid before the commis. He expressed the sentiment that Andriessen was making him his servant when he wrote to him “about soap and other things.” He also complained that Andriessen caused great loss by making him hold the tobacco too high: it was safest to follow the market price in Netherland. Finally he censured him for buying unwisely – he had paid f. 200 for a heifer, “which is much too high.” is The patroon and Andriessen had several disagreements.

Albert, with his brother Arent Andriessen, sent to the patroon sometime in 1642, 4,484 lbs. of tobacco. It was sold on an average of eight and one half st. a lb. Deducting 270 lbs. for stems, the net weight brought a sum of f. 1790:19. But the duty, freight charges, and convoy charges amounted to f. 629:15. The patroon said he would deduct only half of this if Andriessen compensated him according to his ordinance for his land on which the tobacco grew. But as long as he was in dispute with him he would deduct the whole sum. Andriessen did not suffer. Van Rensselaer complained in letter of March 16, 1643, to Arent van Curler that he did not know what privilege Albert Andriessen had received, since “his cows are not mentioned in the inventory sent him.” He stated he would not want any one, no matter who he was, to own any animals which were not subject to the right of preemption. Therefore, Curler should include Andriessen’s animals in the inventory, or make him leave the colony and pay for pasturing and hay during the past year.

In September 5, 1643, the patroon stipulated the following with respect to Andriessen, whose term had long before expired without his having obtained a new lease or contract.

He “shall . . . be continued for the present but shall not own live stock otherwise than according to the general rule of one half of the increase belonging to the patroon and of the right of preemption and, in case he does not accept this, his cattle shall immediately be sent back to the place whence they came, with the understanding, however, that half of the increase bred in the colony shall go to the patroon in consideration of the pasturage and hay which they have used; and as to his accounts he shall also be obliged to close, liquidate and settle the same; and as far as the conditions after the expiration of his lease are concerned, the patroon adopts for him as well as for all others this fixed rule, of which they must all be notified and if they do not wish to continue under it must immediately leave the colony, namely, that every freeman who has a house and garden of his own shall pay an annual rent of 5 stivers per Rhineland rod and for land used in raising tobacco, wheat or other fruits 20 guilders per Rhineland morgen, newly cleared land to be free for a number of years, more or less, according to the amount of labor required in such clearing.

Andriessen not only cultivated tobacco. He operated “two large sawmills,” run by a “powerful waterfall,” worth as much as f. 1000 annual rent, but the patroon let him have them for f. 250 annual rent. 17 From May 4, 1652, to May 4, 1672, Andriessen is charged with the annual rent for these two mills and the land on Norman’s Kill.

Tawasentha was the site of a powerful waterfall where Albert Andriesen Bradt operated saw mills. It became known as Norman Kil after Albert Andriesen Bradt “de Noorman”. Albert Andriesen Bradt worked a farm and these two saw mills at Bushwyck a few miles south of Albany on land he leased from Van Rensselaer and there is a record that he paid f250 annual rent 04 May 1652 – 04 May 1672.

Originally this Kill was called Tawasentha, meaning a place of the many dead. The Dutch appelative of Norman’s Kill is derived from Andriessen.  The Vale of Tawasentha, referred to in Longfellow’s The Song of Hiawatha, is now named Normans Kill after Albert Andriese Bradt. The Dutch word Norman means Norseman after Albert’s Norwegian origin. The Dutch word “kill” means creek.  Normans Kill is the first tributary of the Hudson River south of the city of Albany.

From the Vale of Tawasentha,
From the Valley of Wyoming,
From the groves of Tuscaloosa,
From the far-off Rocky Mountains,
From the Northern lakes and rivers
All the tribes beheld the signal,
Saw the distant smoke ascending,
The Pukwana of the Peace-Pipe. …

“In the Vale of Tawasentha,
In the green and silent valley,
By the pleasant water-courses,
Dwelt the singer Nawadaha.
Round about the Indian village
Spread the meadows and the corn-fields,
And beyond them stood the forest,
Stood the groves of singing pine-trees,
Green in Summer, white in Winter,
Every sighing, ever singing.

“And the pleasant water-courses,
You could trace them through the valley,
By the rushing in the Spring-time,
By the alders in the Summer,
By the white fog in the Autumn,
By the black line in the Winter;
And beside them dwelt the singer,
In the Vale of Tawasentha,
In the green and silent valley.

“There he sang of Hiawatha,
Sang the Song of Hiawatha,
Sang his wondrous birth and being,
How he prayed and how he fasted,
How he lived, and toiled, and suffered,
That the tribes of men might prosper,
That he might advance his people!”

Ye who love the haunts of Nature,
Love the sunshine of the meadow,
Love the shadow of the forest,
Love the wind among the branches,
And the rain-shower and the snow-storm
And the rushing of great rivers
Through their palisades of pine-trees,
And the thunder in the mountains,
Whose innumerable echoes
Flap like eagles in their eyries;–
Listen to these wild traditions,
To this Song of Hiawatha!

Ye who love a nation’s legends,
Love the ballads of a people,
That like voices from afar off
Call to us to pause and listen,
Speak in tones so plain and childlike,
Scarcely can the ear distinguish
Whether they are sung or spoken; –
Listen to this Indian Legend,
To this Song of Hiawatha!

Normans Kill Creek

Whether known as Petanock, Tawasentha, Godyn’s Kil or Norman’s Kill (Norwegian’s Creek in Dutch), this meandering stream figures prominently in Bethlehem history. Though patroon Kiliaen van Rensselaer contracted earlier to have mills built where the lower falls meet the Hudson, the first permanent settler on the mainland was Albert Andriesen (Bratt after 1670) of Norway. Albert came in 1637 and lived 49 years conducting a tobacco farm and mills along its shores. His neighbors were farmer and miller Pieter WINNE I (de Vlamingh, the Fleming) and fur trader Teunis C. Slingerland. Scot Archibald McCormack bought land in 1787 on both sides of the Normans Kill that reached to McCormack Road. The road’s hollow, where it drops down to the creek, was for a time called “Molasses Hollow” for the molasses that once spilled here. Barrels of the stuff rolled off a tipped over cart and broke on the way down the hill. People scurried to capture the precious sweetener in any way they could.

The Normans Kill forms the northern border of the town. The Normanside Country Club covers a fair length of a creek and offers a glimpse of its once pastoral nature. In May of 2000 a landslide along its slippery clay slopes carried a produce stand down with it and prompted a major reshaping of the Delaware Avenue overpass area.

Normansville was originally called Upper Hollow for the deep ravine carved by the Normans Kill that the unincorporated village sits in.

In New Amsterdam he had acquired a house and lot from Hendrick Kip, August 29, 1651. It lay northeast of fort Amsterdam.” Under date of October 5, 1655, we find that he was taxed fl. 20 for this house and lot.

In May, 1655, before the court of the Burgomasters and Schepens in New Amsterdam, Roeloff Jansen, a butcher, appeared and made a complaint against Christiaen Barentsen, attorney for Andriessen. Jansen had leased a house and some land belonging to Andriessen who was to give him some cows. But the house was not tight” and “not enclosed,” and the cows were missing. might still suffer. The defendant, as attorney for Andriessen, replied that it was not his fault that the demand had not been complied with according to the contract. He requested time to write to his principal about it. The Court granted him a month’s time in which to do this. In due time, however, the court ruled that Andriessen should make the necessary repairs.

He had a reputation for a violent temper and cruelty to family members and quarrelsomeness with others. He was censured in a 10 May 1638 letter from Van Rensselaer for being “very unmerciful to his children and very cruel to his wife” and he was told to avoid this behavior.

On 15 May 1658 Albert Andriesen Bradt and Wilem Martensen Hues advertised to sell to the highest bidder their “sloop as it rides at anchor and sails” (as is). Willem Martensen Hues was the highest bidder.

After wife Annetje Barentse Van Rotmers died in 1661, widower Albert Andriesen Bradt sold the New Amsterdam property and lived at Norman’s Kill. He created a document dated 03 June 1662 whereby he paid all of his children for their shares in all of their mother’s estate: Eva (Roeloff) Swartwout, Barent Albertsen, Storm Albertsen, Engeltje (Teunis) Slingerlandt, Gisseltje (Jan) Van Echelen, Andreis Albertsen (minor), Jan Albertsen (minor), and Dirck Albertsen (minor).

Albert Andriesen Bradt married second Pieterje Janse, widow of Albert Andriesen Bradt’s deceased partner in a sawmill venture, and she died in 1667. Albert Andriesen Brandt married third Geertruyt Pieterse Coeymans, widow of Abraham Pietersen Vosburgh, in 1668 and this marriage was unhappy. She filed a court petition for separation and alimony on 13 Janurary 1669 and after a long court battle they were legally separated “because of strife and differences that hath arisen between them” on 24 October 1670 and she received annual alimony of 80 schepels in apples and beavers. In 1672 Albert Andriesen Bradt turned the saw mills over to son Barent Albertsen Bradt. In his old age, Albert Andriesen Bradt’s behavior became even worse and his children were ordered to deal with him. Albert Andriesen Bradt lived his last few years with unmarried son Dirck Albertsen Bradt in Albany, NY.


1. Eva Albertsen Bradt

Eva’s first husband Anthony de Hooges was baptized 14 Dec 1620 in the Nieuwkerk (New Church), Amsterdam, North Holland, Netherlands.  His parents were Johannes de Hooges and Maria Tijron. A shareholder and bookkeeper in the Dutch West Indies Company at Amsterdam named Johannes de Hooges may have been his father.  Anthony died 11 Oct 1655 in Albany, Albany, New York.

Eva’s second husband Roeloff Swartwout was born 1 Jun 1634 in Amsterdam, Holland. His parents were Thomas Swartwout and Hendrickjen Otsen. Roeloff became the Sheriff of the Esopus in 1660. Eva must have died before 22 Nov 1691 because Roeloff is found remarrying in Bergen, New Jersey then.  Roeloff died 30 Mar 1714 in Hurley, Ulster, New York.

In 1641 when Anthony de Hooges entered the employ of Rensselaerwyck, sailing on den Coninck David, the skipper being commanded to allow him to eat and sleep in the cabin. He brought letters of introduction to William Kieft, Director-General, and also to Arent van Curler to whom he was sent as an assistant. He later became the Secretary of the Colony. Kiliaen Van Rensselaer, the patron, seems to have had a great deal of concern and respect for Anthony.

He kept a journal of his long voyage for the patron. It begins:

” In the year of our Lord 1641, the 30th of July, I commenced this journal in the name of the Lord. May the Lord conduct us to the place of our destination in order that on our arrival we may offer to the Lord the offering of our lips to His honor and our salvation. Amen.”

They had an unusually stormy passage. He closes his journal saying:

“At daybreak we ran to the sand point (Sandy Hook) and we rounded it too close. We got aground on a reef which had formed there within a year. After two hours we got afloat again. God be praised we suffered no damage and with good speed passed between the Hoofden (the headlands at the sides of the Narrows) and in the afternoon came to qanchor at the Manhatens, in front of Smits Vly (on the East River). Thus the Lord delivered us at last, after much adversity, for which He be praised forever, Amen. The next day a dead horse overboard.

“Journal of Anthony de Hooges, of his voyage to New Netherland beginning 30 July ending 29 November 1641.”

One year later Kiliaen van Rensselaer writes him that the journal had been received and had given him great satisfaction. The letter is filled with advice and van Rensselaer evidently felt a great interest in him. “In the beginning,” he writes, “hear and see, notice and learn, obey and make yourself agreeable and liked; in that way you will be able to accomplish much.” That he considers his counsel worth seeking was shown by a letter to Domine Megapolensis urging him “to confer sometimes with de Hooges and extract the quintessence of his discourse.”

Van Curler, De Hooges’ superior officer, was somewhat dissipated and, going from bad to worse, all his papers were turned over to de Hooges. Then van Rensselaer writes again to Domine Megapolensis: “Every effort ought to be made to stop the excessive drinking and now that there is a public brewer (Evert PELS) I hope that private brewing will cease. I hope that Anthony de Hooges will conduct himself well. What I fear most for him is that he may become strongly addicted to drink against which he must be strongly warned. His sweetheart here in the Netherlands, Anneken Sporom, married at Campen so that he need not wait for her any longer. I have sometimes thought that his thoughts were too much concentrated on her and that he liked the country less on that account. You may tell him this when there is an opportunity or have someone else tell him in order that he may be at ease…Let him behave well and have patience and he will be advanced in due time.”

That he stood high in the opinion of van Rensselaer a letter to van Curler shows for he told the latter “not to lightly reject the advice of Hooges although he is younger than you and so experienced. I consider him an upright young man. March 18, 1643, the patron writes to de Hooges:”I have your letters of the first of March and the 23th of August of last year, 1642…I have recommended you well, as you will learn from de Megapolensis, but I must admonish you to be righteous and faithful and especially to guard yourself drunkenness and lewd women. There are many rumors current about the first, but you can best test the matter yourself; heed the faithful admonitions of your pastor, de Megapolensis, and do not follow the footsteps of those who may be guilty thereof, but fear the Lord; do right and fear no one. You will do well to keep and send me a daily journal, giving a truthful account of affairs, for I have no use for things that are not true…I hope that you will have more and more satisfaction; all new things are difficult but matters will turn out to your advantage if you conduct yourself well. I must thank you for communicating to me the text of the first sermon of de Megapolensis; no other foundation can and ought to be laid. Vale.”

The position of De Hooges was a responsible one. He was commissioner and administrator of goods suitable for merchandise and was to pay the laborers. We find him leasing farms and making contracts for buildings. From the departure of van Curler for Holland October 1, 1646 until the arrival of Brant Aertz van Slichtenhorst March 22, 1648, he was entrusted with the business management of the colony. In a petition for the payment of his salary he states that he must have a house built for him.

“A certain fish of considerable size, snow-white in color, round in the body, and blowing water out of its head,” made at the same time his appearance, March stemming the impetuous flood. What it portended, “God the Lord only knew.” All the inhabitants were lost in wonder, for ” at the same instant that this fish appeared to us, we had the first thunder and lightning this year.” The public astonishment had scarcely subsided, when another monster of the deep, estimated at forty feet in length, was seen, of a brown color, having fins on his back, and ejecting water in like manner, high in the air. Some seafaring people, “who had been to Greenland,” now pronounced the strange visitor a whale. Intelligence was shortly after received that it had grounded on an island at the mouth of the Mohawk, and the people turned out in numbers to secure the prize, which was, forthwith, subjected to the process of roasting, in order to extract its oil. Though large quantities were obtained, yet so great was the mass of blubber, the river was covered with grease for three weeks afterwards, and the air infected to such a degree with the stench, as the fish lay rotting on the strand, that the smell was perceptibly offensive for two (Dutch) miles to leeward. The whale, which had first ascended the river, stranded, on its return to sea, on an island some forty miles from the mouth of the river, near which place four others grounded, also, this year.

…These particulars are taken from an old book kept by Antonie de Hooges, Secretary of Rensselaerswyck, endorsed, “Copye van eenige acten ende andere aenmerckelycke notitien,” and from Van der Donck’s Beschryv. van N. N. The island at the mouth of the Mohawk goes since by the name of Walvisch, or Whale Island. De Hooges refers to the visit of a similar large fish ” many years ago,” which caused great wonder at the time, but he does not mention the year, nor furnish any further particulars of the circumstance.

On 13 August 1657 at Fort Orange, in the marriage agreement between Roelof Swartwout and Eva Albertsen Bradt, widow of Anthonie de Hooges, the bride serves for each of her children with her former husband, Marichen, Anneken, Catrina, Johanis and Eleanora de Hooges, one hundred guilden each. Roelof Swartwout and his bride moved to Esopus in Ulster County, New York, where he was the first sheriff.

See Peer Jan HENDRICKS’ page for details about the Esopus raid on Wiltwyck (Kingston), June, 1663 and Roelof’s June 20, 1663 letter from The Court at Wildwyck to the Council of New Netherland describing the massacre.

Marinus Schoonmaker, History of Kingston, New York(1888), p.489;
John O. Evjen,  Scandinavian Immigrants in New York (1916), pp.30-33.

“In the name of the Lord Amen, be it known by the contents of this present instrument, that in the year 1657, on the 13th day of the month of August, appeared before me Johannes La Montagne, in the service of the General Privileged West India Company, deputy at Fort Orange and village of Beverwyck, Roeloff Swartwout , in the presence of his father, tomas Swartwout , on the…, and Eva ALBERTSEN (BRATT), widow of the late Antony de Hooges, in the presence of Albert ANDRIESSEN (BRATT), her father of the other side, who in the following manner have covenanted this marriage contract, to wit, that for the honor of God the said Roeloff Swartwout and Eva Albertse after the manner of the Reformed religion respectively held by them shall marry; secondly, that the said married people shall contribute and bring together all their estates, personal and real, of whatsoever nature they may be, to be used by them in common, according to the custom of Holland, except that the bride, Eva Albertse, in presence of the orphanmasters, recently chosen, to wit, Honorable Jan VERBEECK and Evert WENDELS, reserves for her a hundred guilders, to wit, for Maricken, Anneken, Catrina, Johannes, and Eleanora de Hooges, for which sum of one hundred guilders for each child respectively (she) mortgages her house and lot, lying here in the village of Beverwyck; it was also covenanted, by these presents, by the mutual consent of the aforewritten married people, that Barent ALBERTSE (BRATT) and Teunis Slingerland, brother and brother-in-law of the said Eva Albertse, and uncle of said children, should be guardians of said children, to which the aforesaid orphanmasters have consented; which above written contract the respective parties promise to hold good, etc. — “Done in Fort Orange, ut supra in the presence of Pieter Jacobsen and Johannes Provost, witnesses, for that purpose called.
“Roeloff Swartwout , (x) Eva ALBERTSE, Thomas SWARTWOUT,
“Witnesses: Johanes Provoost, (+) Pieter Jacobsen
“Acknowledged before me, La Montagne, Deputy at Fort Orange.”

2. Barent Albertse Bradt

Barent’s wife Susanna Dirkse Mayer was born about 1634. Her parents were Dirck Dirckse and Maria Jans of Norway. Susanna died 8 May 1722 in Albany, New York.

Barent Albertse Bradt was born in Amsterdam, Holland and baptized in the Lutheran church there in October 1634.   He came to America with his parents in 1637.

Growing up on his father’s Rensselaerswyck farm, he learned the mechanics of farming, milling, and trading. Those skills enabled him to represent his father and then establish himself in the new village of Beverwyck. About that time, he married Susanna Dircks – the mother of his eight children. The marriage suffered from Barent’s intemperate behavior which led to several court appearances on battery and assault charges!

Barent derived his income from sawing – probably at his father’s Normanskill mill. At the same time, he sought to take part in the fur trade. He sought acceptance in now Albany by joining the Dutch church. However, he found trading difficult as his family was fined several times for illegal trading.

Instead, Barent Albertse found success in real estate – acquiring several parcels and using boards cut at the Bradt mill to build houses in Albany and outside the stockade. By 1682, he was living outside the north gate. In 1684, his Albany taxes were in arrears. Fives years later, he was listed among the farmers employed by Marte Gerritse but was assessed no money for defense. Raising a large family, he also was the guardian of a number of related children and a frequent baptism sponsor for family members and neighbors.

By the 1690s, he had become an Albany mainstay. He served on juries and as firemaster and roadmaster. In 1697, Barent, Susanna, and one child were living in his Market Street house just outside the north gate. Assessment rolls for ensuing years place him among the moderately wealthy Albany householders.

He also acquired lots at Halfmoon and Schaghticoke. Barent Albertse Bradt disappeared from Albany rolls after 1712. His four sons further established the Bradt name in Albany and its hinterland.

3. Storm Van Der ZEE (See his page)

4. Engeltje Bradt

Engeltje’s husband Teunis Cornelisse Slingerland was born 7 Apr 1617 in Amsterdam, Holland.  After Engeltje died, he married 9 Apr 1684 in Albany, Albany, New York to Geertie Fonda. Teunis died 5 Mar 1805 in Hackensack, Bergen, New Jersey.

He immigrated New Amsterdam, New Netherlands and settled on the Onisquethaw flats near Albany, New York, aka Beverwyck. Teunis and Engeltje had 8 children. Teunis and 2nd wife Geertie Fonda had one child, Johannes in 1685. He was named guardian of Eva Bradt’s children; Engeltje, Geeseltje, Andries, Jan, Dirck and Storm on 13th August 1657 in Albany New York. There appears to be seven years between the first child Engeltje and Arent. This is most unusual for this periond of time and indicates that either the birth dates are wrong or two or three children are missing.

In 1652 he purchases a tract of land lying east of the present Chapel Street and traversed, in part, by State Street, in Albany. In 1665, with his son-in-law Johannes Apple, he purchased 9874 acres from the Indians. The three chiefs who sold the land used sign manuals of “Bear”, “Wolf” and “Turtle”, the totems of the three tribes involved. This land lies east of the Helderberg Mountains and in the present towns of New Scotland and Bethlehem, and a NY. State Historical Marker may be found on NY. Route, just west of the village of Feura Bush, stating that this was the site of the “Slingerland house, built by Tunis Cornelise Slingerland, Dutch Emigrant, 1650, on land purchased from Indians.”. This land also includes the pretty village of Slingerlands on the Delaware and Hudson Railroad. This purchase was confirmed by Governor Thomas Dongan on 6 March 1684. Of this tract, Tunis Slingerland retained 2000 acres, the remainder going to the van Rensselaers. He was appointed commissary by Governor Dongan.” He moved to Hackensack, Bergen County, New Jersey in 1693. He died between 1701 and 1705 in Hackensack, Bergen County, New Jersey.

5. Geseltje Bradt

Geseltje’s first husband Jan van Eschelen was born 1633.  Jan died 23 Mar 1668 in Albany, NY.

Geseltje’s second husband Hendrick Willemsen was born 1633 in Reusel-de Mierden, Noord-Brabant, Netherlands. His parents were Daniel Hendrickson and Emma Van Guelder.  Hendrick died in 1677 in Albany, New York.

6. Andries Albertse Bradt

Andries’ first wife Neeltje [__?__]

Andries’ second wife Cornelia Teunisse van Wie (Vervay) was born 1640 in Albany, Albany, New York,

7. Jan Albertse Bradt

Jan’s wife Maria Post was  baptized 6 Jun 1649 in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil.   Her parents were Adrian Crijnen Post and Claretje (Clara) Moocerks (Source: Doopregister Hollanders in Brazilie, 1633-1654.).  After Jan died, she married 26 Nov 1699 in Albany, Albany, New York to Eduwart Carbert.   Maria died Nov 1695 in Albany, New York.

Adriaen Crijnen Post married Claartje Moockers. They were possibly from the Hague, Netherlands (one of the children is listed in his marriage record as being from the Hague. The first known record of the Post family was when they lived for a while in West India Company’s colony in Recife, Brazil. After returning home to the Netherlands, the family sailed for the colony of New Netherland 30 June 1650 aboard the “New Netherland’s Fortune” and arrived on 19 December 1650.

As the representative of Baron Hendrick van der Capellen, Adriaen led a group in settling a successful colony on Staten Island.   Captain Post  had cultivated friendly relations with the Indians and familiarized himself with their language, an acquisition which was destined to be of much service to him at a most critical period in his career.

The colony was attacked and burned by Hackensack Indians on 15 Sep 1655 as a result of the Peach Tree War. Among the sixty-seven prisoners were Adriaen, Claartje, their five children (Adrian, Maria, Lysbeth, and two unknown children) , and two servants of the Post family.

Chief Penneckeck sent Adriaen to bargain with Peter Stuyvesant for the prisoners’ release that October. Adriaen traveled to and from Manhattan and the Natives’ base at Paulus Hook, New Jersey several times before a negotiation was made. Many of the prisoners, including Claartje and the children, were exchanged for ammunition, wampum, and blankets.

By van der Capellen’s orders, Adriaen and the other survivors returned to Staten Island to build a fort. He gathered the cattle that had survived the attack, butchering some and using others for milk, in an effort to feed his group. By the next spring, Adriaen was too ill to perform his duties. Claartje asked that someone else be appointed agent to van der Capellen and, in April, she petitioned Stuyvesant to keep soldiers on the island. Stuyvesant decided against it since there were so few people there.

When Van der Capellen heard of the great havoc made by the Indians in his colony, he instructed Captain Post to gather together the survivors and to erect a fort on the Island and also  to keep the people provisioned. This, however, was impracticable, as the Captain with his starving family during the ensuing winter were obliged tocamp out under the bleak sky without any protection or means of defense. The authorities recognized the insurmountable difficulties in the way of protecting the colony, and decided to withdraw the soldiers and abandon him to his fate unless he would remove with his people and his patron’s cattle to Long Island. (N.Y. Col. Doc.,XIII, 60-1.)

The creditors of Van der Capelle, seeing the desperate condition of the colony, he began to harass Post for the payment of the Baron’s debts, and suit was brought by Jacob Schellinger and others against him as agent for the Baron for payment of a note; and Janneke Melyn claimed as hers some of the few cattle still in Post’s possession.

The attempt at colonizing Staten Island by individual enterprise having failed, the Island was purchased by the West India Company, to whom nineteen persons presented a petition, August 22, 1661, for tracts of land on the south side, in order to establish a village, which was allowed by the Company, Captain Post being one of the grantees. (N.Y. Col. Docs.,XIII., 206) It is probable, however, that he did not avail himself of the grant, but removed to Bergen (now Jersey City, N.J.) about this time, if, indeed, he was not already a resident there. In 1662, he was one of petitioners to have a clergyman settled at Bergen, and promised to contribute twenty florins therefore yearly. (N.Y. Col Docs MSS XIII,,233.)

The family later moved to what is now Bergen, New Jersey, becoming some of the first settlers of the Acquackononk Tract. Adriaen remained active in public life. As an ensign in the Bergen Burgher Guard, he took an oath of allegiance on 22 November 1665. Philip Carteret, the governor of New Jersey, requested Adriaen as an interpreter in a meeting to purchase land from the sachem, Oraton, in May of 1666. Adriaen also served on jury at the Admiralty Court at Elizabethtown in May of 1671, was elected as a representative of Bergen to the New Jersey General Assembly on 7 June 1673, and became a Lieutenant in Bergen’s militia in 1675. Adriaen was buried 18 February 1677 in Bergen, Hudson, New Jersey.

8. Dirck Albertse Bradt

Dirck Albertse Bradt was born during the 1640s.  He grew up on his father’s farm and mill on the Normanskill and at Albert Andriesse’s house in Beverwyck/Albany.

He seems to not have married but was identified as a householder in Albany in 1679 and participated in real estate and other transactions with his father and other family members. In 1681, he joined with oher Albany burghers in petitioning the court regarding the Indian trade. In 1684, his Albany taxes were in arrears.

By the early 1680s, Dirck Albertse’s aging and irascible father came to live in his Albany home. Dirck Albertse occasionally appeared before the Albany court. But, following the death of his father in 1686, his life in the community’s record is best described as marginal.

Dirck Albertse Bradt died sometime after 1702 when he was elected constable for Canastigione.


Posted in 12th Generation, Artistic Representation, Historical Monument, Immigrant - Continent, Line - Shaw, Place Names, Storied | Tagged , , , , , , | 15 Comments

Storm Albertse Van Der Zee (BRADT)

Storm Albertse Van Der ZEE (Bradt) (1663 – 1712) was Alex’s 9th Grandfather; one of 1,024 in this generation of the Shaw line.

Storm Albertse Van Der Zee was born 2 Nov 1636 at Sea lattitude 41 degrees 50 minutes on the Arms of Rensslaerswyck.  His parents were Albert Andriese BRATT (de Noorman) and Annatje B. Van ROTMERZ.  He married Hilletje LANSING about 1666. Storm died May 1679 in Albany, NY.

Hilletje Lansing was born in 1630 in Hasselte, Overijssel, Netherlands. Her parents were Gerrit Fredricksger LANSING and Elizabeth Hendricks TenCATE.  When Storm died, a  joint will left everything to his wife with provision that half the estate be divided among their children when they reached adulthood. At the same time, she stood to inherit a share of her father’s estate in Holland. Within a year,  she had remarried. Her second husband was Willem Ketelhuyn – who took over her husband’s tavern. As she was still in her twenties, Hilletie gave birth to at least three Ketelhuyn children over the next deade – with two sons being christened “Storm” in honor of her first husband.  Hilletje died 10 Sep 1693 in Albany, NY.

Children of Storm and Hilletje:

Name Born Married Departed
1. Anna Van Der ZEE 16 Jun 1665
Albany, NY
Johannes BECKER
17 Dec 1684 Albany, NY
19 Dec 1739
2. Marie Stormse Vanderzee (Bradt) 1665
3. Gerrit Stormes Vanderzee (Bradt) 1671 1671
4. Wouter Stormes Vanderzee Bradt 1673
Janetje Swart
2 Jul 1695
Schenectady, NY
9 Aug 1734
Albany, New York
5. Albert Stormse Vanderzee Bradt 1675 Hilletje Gansevoort
20 Jan  1706/07
9 Aug 1734
Albany, New York


Willem Ketelhuyn was born in 1665 in Ft. Orange, Albany, NY  His parents were Joachim Ketelhyn and Anna Willems.   About 1680, He married young widow Hilletie Lansing Vanderzee. She brought several Vanderzee children to the marriage which produced at least three more children. Over the next half century, he was a supporter and regular sponsor for baptisms at the Albany Dutch church.  Willem died in August 1746 and was buried in the cemetery of the Albany Dutch church.

Formerly a farmer in the employ of Marte Gerritse, William Jochemse took over management of the tavern Hilletie inherited from her late husband. Over the next two decades, their household was described on censuses and he was identified as an Albany mainstay. His tavern was located on the southside at the intersection of Beaver and Green streets.In 1700, it was used as lodging for garrison officers and their wives.  During the 1680s, Ketelhuyn purchased land north of Rensselaerswyck and east of the Hudson. That property became his farm. In 1713, following the death of Hilletie and his re-marriage to Maria De Ridder, he moved north to his farm. In 1720, he was identified as a freeholder of Rensselaerswyck. In 1734, he filed a will that stated he was a resident of Saratoga and the husband of Maria.

Children of Hilletje and Willem Ketelhuyn: :

Name Born Married Departed
6. Gerrit Van der Zee Ketelhuyn
7. Joachim Ketelhuyn 9 Nov 1684  Albany, Albany, NY Eva Mae Vrooman
25 Jun 1730 – Schenectady, Schenectady, New York
 Died Young
8. Storm Ketel 24 Jul 1687
Saratoga, Saratoga, New York,

Storm was the son of Albert Andriesz (son of Andries) Bratt, from Frederikstad, Norway. Storm was born on the voyage over in 1636, in the North Sea, during a storm. In later records he is frequently called  Storm Van Der Zee [Storm from the Sea]. The log of the Rinselaers Wijck [Arms of Rensslaerswyck] is still extant contains under the date of November 1 and 2 1636, the following interesting entries which are given in facsimile in the “Van Rensselaer Bowier Manuscripts,”


Saturday 1. In the morning we veered toward the west and drifted north. The Wind S. W with rough weather and high seas. The past half day and entire night.

Sunday: 2. Drifted 16 leagues N. E. by E.; the wind about west, the latitude by dead reckoning 41 degrees, 50 minutes with very high seas. That day the overhang above our rudder was knocked in by severe storm. This day a child was born on the ship, and named and baptized in England Stoerm; the mother is Asnetie Baernts. This day gone.

His father settled on the stream just at the southern bounds of Albany, called after him the Normans Kill. Here was the Vale of Taswasentha, of Longfellow’s Hiawatha. Albert Bratt was a notoriously quarrelsome man. Tradition has it that Storm and he had a failing out, and Storm, in his dudgeon, dropped his father’s name and called himself thence forth Van der Zee, from the Sea, in which he had had his birth.

Growing up on the Normanskill, by the mid-1650s he was trading lumber, furs, and tobacco in New Amsterdam – probably on his father’s behalf. In 1662, he obtained a lot and then a house in Beverwyck. Thereafter, he settled in Albany – forming a number of trading partnerships, opening a tavern, and marrying Hilletie Lansing.

Running a tavern and other enterprises frequently brought him before the Albany magistrates. In February 1679, Storm and Hilletie filed a joint will. It stated that he was sick but she was well. He was listed on a census of householders made a month later. In May, another legal document stated that Storm Vanderzee had died at age forty-two. His two sons carried on the family name in the city of Albany.


1. Anna Van Der ZEE (See Johannes BECKER‘s page)

4. Wouter Stormes Vanderzee Bradt

Wouter’s wife Janetje Swart was born about 1668. Her parents were Teunis Corneliuse Swart and Elizabeth Van der Lind. Jennetje died 1719, in Schenectady, Schenectady, New York.

5. Albert Stormse Vanderzee Bradt

Albert’s wife Hilletje Gansevoort was born 1679 in Albany, New York. Her parents were Harmen Gansevoort and Commertje Leendertse Conyn.

7. Joachim Ketelhuyn

Joachim’s wife Eva Mae Vrooman was born 7 Sep 1706 in Albany, Albany, NY. Her parents were Adam Vrooman (1649 – 1730) and Grietje Margrietje (Margarita) Heemstraat (1672 – 1730).

Adam Vrooman Bio from Genealogical and family history of northern New York : a record of the achievements of her people in the making of a commonwealth

Note: From the perspective of the Palatines, Conrad WEISER Sr was a hero.  From Adam Vrooman’s perspective, not so much.

Here’s the story from Weiser’s perspective.   The people had taken possession of Schoharie without informing the Governor of New York. In 1715, Hunter sent an agent, Adam Vrooman, to Schoharie, to make deeds for the Palatines, although the Mohawk had granted them the land.  The Palatines were resistant, and the land that the Germans had settled on in Schoharie was taken away and granted by Hunter  to seven rich merchants, four of whom lived in Albany, the other three in New York. The names of those in Albany were Myndert Shyller, John Shyller, Robert Livingston (the one with the 160,000 acre manor), Peter Van Brugken; of those in New York were George Clerk, at that time Secretary, Doctor Stadts, Rip Van Dam.

The German deputies were stripped of their titles, and the promise of free land by Queen Anne was ignored.  Hunter authorized a warrant for Weiser’s arrest, after Vrooman complained of mistreatment while in Schoharie, but Weiser escaped. This brought an uproar, and the Germans rebelled. They drove out the sheriff who was sent from Albany, and became increasingly hostile to the government.


Posted in 11th Generation, Immigrant - Continent, Line - Shaw, Storied, Tavern Keeper | Tagged , , , | 8 Comments

Jan Juriaensen Becker

Jan Juriaensen BECKER (c. 1630 – 1697) was Alex’s 10th Grandfather; one of 2,048 in this generation of the Shaw line.

Jan Juriaensen Becker was born about 1630 in Amsterdam Holland,  His father was  Jurrian (Jeuriaen , George) BEKKER He was sent over by the West India Company.   When he was only 25, he served as a clerk at Fort Christina (renamed by the Dutch Fort Altena) on the Delaware River when the Dutch defeated the Swedes.   He arrived at New Amsterdam in 1653 on the ship “King Solomon“. He married Maria Cornelis ADRIAENS about 1660 while living in the Delaware River Colony.  After Maria died, he may have married Greetien Fonda on 9 Apr 1684.  Jan’s will was administered 16 Dec 1697 in Albany, NY.

Maria Cornelis Adriaens (Adriaensen) was baptized Sep 1643 in Goirle, Noord-Brabant, Netherlands. Her parents may have been Cornelis Daniel ADRIAENS and Adriana Joost DANIELS. Maria died before 1684.

Greetien Fonda was born in 1642 in Albany, NY. Her parents were Jiles Douwesz Fonda and Hester Jans.  Greetien died in 1689 or 25 Jan 1702 in Albany, Albany, New York

Children of Jan and Maria:

Name Born Married Departed
1. Jeuriaen Bekker bapt,
1 Sep 1660; New City, Rockland, NY
2. Johannes BECKER bapt.
3 Jun 1663 New Amsterdam,
Anna van der ZEE
17 Dec 1684 Albany, NY
Albany, NY
3. Martina Becker c. 1670 Fort Orange (later Albany NY) Willem Hogan
3 Sep 1692
Albany, NY
 Jul 1736 Albany, NY

Jan was from Amsterdam and had a fair education, but here is no record of his having attended any of the universities.

In 1655 the West India Company resolved to reduce the Swedish colony on the Delaware by conquest. Director General Stuyvesant set sail with a fleet and bloodlessly took Fort Christina. Jan Becker [age 25] went with him and was posted as clerk of the colony.  In 1658 he was made provisional commisary or commander.

Model of Fort Cristina

Fort Casimir was a Dutch settlement in 17th century colonial province of New Netherland. It was located on a no-longer existing barrier island at the end of Chestnut Street in what is now New Castle, Delaware.   The trading post was named for Ernst Casimir of Nassau-Dietz, count of Nassau-Dietz and Stadtholder of Friesland, Groningen and Drenthe in the Netherlands.

Fort Casimir Woodcut

Following plans by King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden to establish a Swedish colony in North America, the Swedes arrived in Delaware Bay on March 29, 1638 aboard the ships Kalmar Nyckel and Fogel Gripunder the command of Peter Minuit, the former director general of the New Netherland colony. They landed at a spot along the Christina River at the present site of Old Swedes Church in Wilmington. Minuit selected the site on the Christina River near the Delaware as being optimal for trade in beaver pelts with the local Lenape.

At the time, the Dutch had claimed the area south to the Delaware (then called “South River”). The Swedes claimed an area for the Realm of Sweden on the south side of the Delaware that encompassed much of the present-day U.S. state of Delaware, eventually including parts of present-day southeastern Pennsylvania and southern New Jersey on the north side of the river.

The colony remained in constant friction with the Dutch. In 1651, the Dutch under Peter Stuyvesant established Fort Casimir at present-day New Castle, only 7 miles south of Fort Christina, in order to menace the Swedish settlement. In 1654, the Swedes captured Fort Casimir, but the following year in 1655, the Dutch took control of New Sweden, ending the official Swedish colonial presence in North America and renaming the fort ‘Fort Altena’. The land remained as part of New Netherland until it became part of the British Empire when an English fleet invaded the area in 1664.

Peter Stuyvesant led a Dutch force which retook the fort on 11 Sep 1655, renaming it New Amstel.  Subsequently, Fort Christina also fell on 15 Sep and all New Sweden came under the control of the Dutch.  John Paul Jacquet was immediately appointed Governor, making New Amstel the capital of the Dutch-controlled colony. In 1664, Stuyvesant peacefully surrendered control of all of New Netherland to the British. They gave the settlement yet another name, New Castle.

Historical markers near Harmony & 2nd streets in New Castle, DE state that Fort Casimir. was “100 ft to the east”  Where is that?   100 ft to the east is at the end of the concrete pavement that led to the ferry (1925-1952)

In 1660 a permanent commander was sent.  He found Becker insubordinate and engaged in violating the law by trading liquor to the Indiana for game. So Becker was brought to Manhattan tried before the  Burgomaster.   Jan was fined 300 guilders for selling liquor to the Indians. He proved the Fort’s new commandant also sold liquor and his fine was dismissed, though he was banished from South River.

The following account is based on information recorded in Documents Relative to the Colonial History of New York , Vol. 12, Dutch and Swedish Settlements at the Delaware River, Fernow, LoC Cat #: 71-93943. It displays a unique slice of life in that remote, rough and ready settlement on the shores of the Delaware River.

The Complaint

8 Nov 1659 – The first indication of trouble is a letter from William Beekman (Vice-Director of the South (Delaware) River portion of the New Netherland colony to Director-General Peter Stuyvesant at New Amsterdam, in which he complains about Jan Becker selling liquor to Indians and to soldiers on credit. This letter is dated .

14 Jan 1660 – In a letter from Beekman to Stuyvesant dated , the peeved Vice-Director describes Becker’s activity in more detail:

“…I have to inform your Noble Worship again of the irregularities of Jan Juriaen Becker in selling strong drinks. He incites the soldiers to drunkenness, as he offers to sell them brandy on account or to give them credit and some, principally of the new men, have already spent for drinks 2 or 3 months’ wages, before they have been here 6 or 7 weeks, while he takes their bond, wherein is set forth, that he had advanced such a sum for the necessities of life. I have secretly warned him not to do it, whereas they often come to the Fort at night singing and boisterous, also several times quarrels among them have been caused; nevertheless it was continued and I have finally been compelled, to forbid him not to sell any more strong drink by the small measure.

Yet it goes on still, although secretly. The said crediting has caused, that two soldiers, being drunk, burned a little Indian canoe, whereupon the natives threatened to set fire to a house or to kill some cattle, so that I was obliged to satisfy them immediately. Nor has he ceased to sell liquor to the natives, notwithstanding that I have several times reproved him for it, so that several difficulties have arisen by it, as on the 7th November, when 6 natives, being quite drunk, made a great commotion in the evening among Jan Becker’s neighbors, so that they came to me for assistance: while doing this act of hostility they took from Sander Boyer’s house his gun or the Honorable Company’s musket, which up to this time I have not been able to recover. The farmers have informed me, that these natives kept going to and from Jan Juriaensen’s house the whole afternoon. On the 18th of the same month, Pieter Mayer met far in the woods or bushes a native, who had with him a two-quart-measure full of liquor and said he had bough it from Johannis. The native requesting him to sit down and drink with him, he did so at different times. Next morning this native was found dead a little farther into the woods, the can with a little liquor in it lying near him: hereupon the natives threatened Johannis, as they call him, with death, they said that he had poisoned the native. The declaration of Pieter Mayer, that he had drank several times with him in the afternoon, when the native had bought the liquor, gave some satisfaction to the natives. They placed this dead native upon a hurdle and put it on four great prongs opposite to the house of Jan Juriaensen in the bushes. Some say, that, whereas he has drunk himself to death, he is not yet worthy of a grave, other natives say, that he must curse there the house, where he got the liquor; on the 12th of December, Jan Juriaensen with his wife and girl being at New Amstel, a native came to his house and knocked with a can, which he had with him; two of our soldiers’ wives, who live thereabouts, hearing this asked, what he wanted; he said: I bring back the can, which was fetched from here with liquor; he gave the can to the women and requested them to hand it to Johannis: this can was directly brought to me and I know the can very well, as Maria Becker has had it often with her in the canoe, when she went with me to New Amstel.

Nevertheless I have not been able to catch him again, since the soldiers are somewhat devoted to him for giving them liquor on credit and other reasons. I dare not let him come near to my papers, especially to copy letters and other things, for he is only a tell-tale: he does not perform any other service here, than to read aloud on Sundays, which I can have done by the Sergeant or any other. If your Honor required him at another place, I can, under correction, miss him here very well. …”

The Investigation

The governing council at New Amsterdam gave the following instructions to Nicasius de Sille, who was being sent to the South River to prosecute the murderers of some Indians who had been killed, which created a crisis:

“…Whereas at different times several complaints have reached our ears against Jan Juriaensen Becker and his wife in regard to the sale of brandy to the natives, whereby already several difficulties have been originated and more are to be apprehended, he shall, in presence of the gentlemen accompanying him, Mr. Paulus Lendertsen vad de Grist, Ex-Burgomaster and Jacob Backer, managing Scheepen of this City, inquire of the Commissary Beekman and others, whom it concerns and at the same time examine the said Commissary, why the said Jan Juriaensen Becker is not, for his assistance, employed as secretary or clerk, for which he was expressly sent and engaged. If he discovers any evidence, proof and sufficient reason for the one or the other he is to bring here the said Becker, that further proceedings and measures may be taken against him according to law and his deserts. …”

The Indictment

Indictment of and Proceedings against Jan Juriansen Becker for selling liquor to the Indians, and Papers connected with his case.

To their noble Worships, the Director-General and Council of New Netherland.

Honorable, Noble, very Worshipful Gentlemen,

Whereas Jan Juriaensen Becker of Amsterdam, residing outside of Fort Altena on the South River, has at present been brought here by the undersigned Fiscal, because he did not hesitate, contrary to the strict interdict and in contempt of the issued and repeated placats of Director-General and Council of N.N., to sell brandy to the natives, for which he has long been notorious, as the evidences extant thereof sufficiently prove, viz. the declarations by Bartolomeus Aertse, Jan du Parck, and Pieter Klaessen of 14th of October 1659, also the declarations of the 18th of November 1659 and of Janneke Baernts and Teuntje Jurriaens of the 12th of December 1659 further the affidavits of Jeams Andriesen and Mary Andriesen of the 7th of March of this year; and whereas this is a matter of very bad consequences, from which, as is found by experience, a great deal of mishap has resulted and more is to be expected, unless it be stopped and punished according to the placats as an example to others; therefore the Fiscal concludes ex officio, that Jan Jurriaensen Becker be brought to the place, where sentences are usually executed, be put there into the pillory with a brandy-measure around his neck and also be sentenced to pay a fine of five hundred guilders according to the Placats and to be banished this province, but be kept in prison provisionally, until your Honorable Worships’ sentence or finding shall be executed. Done at Fort Amsterdam, the 1st of April, 1660.

Your Honorable Worships’ servant,
Nicasius de Sille

The Plea

To Their Honorable, Noble Worships, the Director-General and Council of New Netherland

Honorable, Noble, Very Worshipful Gentlemen,

The defendant denies upon the true word of man, that in contempt of your Noble Honorable Worships’ placats he has sold brandy to the natives, much less made a profession of it whereby he should, since a long time, have become notorious; but it is thus, that the persons, who have declared and testified this of him through secret hatred and envy, they belong mostly to those, who deserve no or only little credence, to with Bartolomeus Aertse, Jean du Parck and Pieter Claessen are soldiers, who had been sent out by Mrs. Beekman with a native, having Mr. Beekman’s own can, to impose upon him, the defendant, pretending, that he had the consent of the said gentleman, to get brandy, which however he did not receive. Pieter Mayer is inclined to the party, as he himself makes it a profession to sell brandy to the natives, with which Mr. Beeckman is not unacquainted. Jannetje Barentsen is likewise not impartial, having at present a lawsuit with the defendant about a case of theft committed by her. Teuntje Jeuriansen is notoriously disreputable, as she has been in the service of disreputable people, for instance in that of Margareth Davits, alias the Scotch Woman, herself a known prostitute and keeping a thieves’ den. Jams Andriesen and Maria Andriesen, being … man and wife, have been forbidden by the former Swedish Commander, Jan Rysingh, to appear before his court on account of their troublesome and slandering talk. Consequently it is nothing but envy and villainy, with which they have tried to bespatter the defendant and to make him hated by your Honorable Worships; for having formerly by your Honorable Worships’ favor provisionally filled the position of Commissary, he is therefore until now considered as a chief by the natives and hence he is often given by the native Sachems a goose, a duck or a deer or a turkey, in return for which, it is true, the defendant never hesitated to give or present them a drink of brandy, but that only to such Sachems, as Meckeck Schinck, Wechenarent, Areweehingh and Hoppaming etc. whom neither Dutchmen nor Swedes disdain openly to provide with liquor or to drink with at the tavern, which is done so free, frank and open, as anything, that is allowed, can be done, consequently the defendant never conjectured, that he made himself liable to punishment thereby, the more so as such bartering, even the sale of brandy was there a common and necessary custom, as can be seen formt the annexed affidavit, and if the Honorable Fiscal had been pleased to inform himself more in this respect on the South River, he would most likely have found no or only few persons among the Dutch as well as the Swedish nation, who were exempt from (the charge of) selling liquor to the natives, because without it is hard to get provisions. The defendant prays therefore very humbly, that what has passed as related above may not be charged to him, an old servant of the Company, as a misdemeanor, but if there was nay wrong in it, that it might be graciously overlooked, as having been done in ignorance and not through contempt of your Noble, Honorable Worships’ placats and ordinances, while he promises to avoid in future this and all other mistakes.

Thus doing, etc., Amsterdam in N. Netherland, 12th of April, 1660.

Your Noble Honorable Worships’ obedient servant,
Jan Jeuriaens Becker

(attachment: an affidavit sworn by Rutgert Willemsen van Weesp, 45 years old, Jan Schottes of Amsterdam, 25 years old, and Jan de Widt from Seerdam, 24 years old, each having lived in the Colony of New Amstel on the South River of New Netherland, before Notary Public Matheus de Vos on the 12th of April, 1660).”

The Judgment

Jan Becker remained imprisoned waiting for the next sitting of the court on the 26th of April, when the following judgment was handed down:

“Whereas Jan Juriaens Becker, former Clerk and Reader in the service of the Honorable Priv. West-India Company at Fort Altena on the South River of New Netherland, has not hesitated, contrary to the strict interdict and in contempt of the repeatedly published placats of Director-General and Council of New Netherland, to sell and trade strong liquors to the natives, which is a matter of very bad consequences and influences, whereby at different times and places many mishaps have resulted and occurred and therefore can and must not be suffered, but must be punished as an example to others, Resolved that Director-General and Council of New Netherland after examination of the Fiscal’s complaint and the defendant’s, Jan Juriaensen Becker’s, own admission and confession and after consideration of everything, which has to be considered in this case, administer justice in the name of their High Mightinesses the Lords States-General of the United Netherlands and theh Noble Lords-Directors of the Priv. West-India Company, Department of Amsterdam, and sentence, as they hereby do, the aforesaid Jan Juriaensen Becker to the payment of a fine of five hundred guilders to be applied according to the tenor of the placats issued against the sale of liquor to the natives; they further degrade the said Becker from his office as Clerk and Reader and order, that as quickly as possible he and his wife break up their household and remove from the said South River, also pay the costs and expenses of law incurred hereby, while they reject the further complaint fo the Fiscal.

Done at Amsterdam in New Netherland, on the 26th of April, 1660.”

The Appeal

A fine of 500 guilders was no trivial thing for the colonists of the time, with a highly valued beaver pelt going for 80 guilders or so. In comparison, the fine for a typical misdemeanor offense, such as serving beer on Sunday (a charge that Jan Becker was later to be brought up on) was a mere 30 guilders. Facing financial ruination if forced to pay this heavy fine, Becker made one last appeal to Peter Stuyvesant along with a further affidavit attesting to the conditions at the South River colony:

“To the Noble, Very Worshipful Mr. Petrus Stuyvesant, Director-General and the Honorable Council of New Netherland,

Shows with due reverence Jan Jeuriansen Becker, that he, petitioner, has seen with great embarrassment of mind and grief the sentence pronounced against him by your Honorable Worships, which, if he has to satisfy it, will cause the total ruin of the petitioner. May it please your Honorable Worships to consider, that the petitioner has never thought of treating contemptuously the orders or placats of your Honorable Worships; but as the sale of strong liquors to the natives on the South River was carried on so publicly by high and low officers of the State, the petitioner also has now and then traded some for Indian corn and deer-meat to be used for food, without ever having made it a profession as others have done it. The Honorable Mr. Paulus Leendertsen van der Grift, Burgomaster, Jacobus Backer, Schepen of this City and several other inhabitants, as Jan de Jonge etc. who all have been on the South River lately, will be able to attest, if your Honorable Worships demand it, as likewise appears from the annexed affidavit, how publicly it was done there by Dutchmen and Swedes, even to the extent of whole ankers at one time, which misled the petitioner and made him believe, that it was rather permitted by your Honorable Worships and he therefore prays that in consideration of the above statement and the petitioner’s former conduct your Honorable Worships will please to excuse graciously the committed error and mercifully and compassionately prevent his total ruin, which doing he shall always be and remain,

Your Honorable Worships’ servant,
(signed) J. Becker
Done at Amsterdam in N. Netherland the 3rd of May, 1660.”

Mercy of the Court

Upon hearing Jan Becker’s appeal and considering the affidavit, which showed still more evidence that he was right concerning the widespread sale of liquor to the natives, the following decree was promulgated:

“The above petition was taken up and read and after deliberating upon it and considering the petitioner’s circumstances, the question having been put it was decreed:

The petitioner is for reasons relieved of the payment of the fine, provided that he arranges with the Honorable Fiscal for the costs and mises of the law.

Done at Amsterdam in New Netherland, the 3rd of May, 1660.”

Jan Becker, his wife Maria and young daughter would remain in New Amsterdam for another year or so. Jan obtaining a license to earn a living as a tavernkeeper, an occupation that would make him no stranger to the colonial magistrates.

While living in the Delaware River colony Schools, Directories & Church HistoriesJan Becker appears to have married Maria Adriaens, and to have had a daughter, perhaps the daughter Martina who afterwards married William Hogan, from Birr in Kings County, Ireland, a discharged British soldier and a tavern keeper of Albany, the founder of the Dutch Hogans.  On being returned to Manhattan, and out of his job with the Company for want of anything better to do (as he himself said in a petition to the Company) he opened a tavern. It was located just east of Bowling Green, on the part of Marketfield Street now covered by the produce Exchange. Not far away was the anchoring place and dock at Whitehall and Pearl Streets. Across the street was the Fort and in the fort was the church.

Jan’s tavern was on Marketfield Street, an L-shaped street running between Beaver and Broad streets. It is direct translation of the Dutch livestock market, Marcktveldt, which was in the vicinity of the present Battery Park between 1638 and 1647

On the fourth of August 1660, a Sunday, his son Jeuriaen was born, and there was a tapping of casks for the neighbors and midwives and a carousing. There followed a prosecution for disturbing the peace, and the services in church, and a fine. Not all went well with the tavern business. The visiting sailors were not always quiet. Too many patrons were trusted.

31 August 1660 – . Becker is fined thirty guilders because “he entertained people [in his tap house] after nine o’clock, and tapped during the sermon”; also ten guilders “for having behaved offensively to the officer.”

7 Sep 1660 –  “On the petition of Jan Juriaensen Becker endorsed: The court persist in the judgment by them pronounced.

Broadway and Marketfield in 1798.  Until 1830 or so, Marketfield Street extended west to the Hudson River, but the section west of Bowling Green was renamed Battery Place.

In 1663, Jan got in trouble again  for liquor selling at Greenbush, Rensselaerswyck, New York.

The following year he begged the Company for a job; if it could not be a clerkship, a license to teach school. The license the Company gave him and as there was a place or a schoolmaster at Fort Orange (Albany, NY) he removed there and continued to teach the three R’s to the youth of Albany thirty-six years, until his death in 1697.  He was schoolmaster for the youths at Beverwyck and “esteemed very capable that way, while Jacob Jooste Covelens was allowed for ye teaching of ye younger children.”

Albany, NY in 1686, Ink on mylar by L. F. Tantillo (1985).

Besides this he acted for years as the Notary Public, a position requiring not only the drafting of deeds, wills, contracts and the like but the pleading for clients of petty cases in court.

A variety of legal instruments, such as bonds, powers of attorney, contracts and bills of sale, indentures of service, assignments, leases, wills, marriage settlements and inventories of estates, which were executed before notaries Dirck van Schelluvne. Adriaen Jansen van Ilpendam and Jan Juriaensen Becker. Jan Becker was appointed on November 1, 1669.

On the chartering of the City Of Albany in 1686 he was the first treasurer, and in 1690 he served as Alderman. On his death he left little property but a will which was a notarial masterpiece,  longwinded and full of praise of his daughter Martina Hogan, and disparagement of his only surviving son, (our ancestor) Johannes, Jr.

Will of Jan Becker

In the name of God, Amen. In the year of our Lord 1694, the 31st of August, at Albany, being in the sixth year of the reign of William and Mary, king and queen of England, Scotland, France and Ireland, defenders of the faith. I, the undersigned, Jan Becker, senior, residing in the aforesaid city, considering the frailty of life and the unknown hour of death, have thought fit not to depart hence without first disposing of my temporal estate granted me by the Almighty. Therefore, being hale and sound in body, going and standing, having the full possession an use of my mind, memory, understanding, sense and speech, as outwardly appears, and acting without the persuasion, inducement or misleading of anyone, but of my own free will and motion. I commend first and foremost my soul to the gracious protection of the Most High and my body to a Christian burial and hereby canceling, annulling and my rendering void all testamentary dispositions and bequest heretofore made, now make a new disposition as follows.

My son Johannes after my death shall receive first the sum of one hundred guilders seawan value, that is 50 shillings; he shall also have all of my linen and woolen [clothing] that has belonged to my body, not comprehending therein anything else. My daughter Martina shall have all my other movable estate, including my bed, sheets, blankets and other appurtenances; also all my credits and out standing claims, nothing whatever reserved or excepted.

My garden lying behind the old fort and now by me occupied shall be equally divided between my son and daughter, that is, each to have one-half; the debts which I shall leave being and my burial expenses and whatever is connected therewith shall be a lien upon my house and ground which I now possess, but it is my express will that my daughter shall not let the cost of the funeral and incidental expenses exceed thirty prices of eight at the most. My daughter shall have full ownership of the aforesaid house and ground belonging thereto, to do therewith as she pleases, in all respects as I in my life time might do, without her husband or anyone else having anything to say in the matter or making her do ought but what she intends to do, the same as about all other things which she by virtue of this will of mine shall inherit, but she shall be holden to turn over to her brother one hundred pieces of eight within three years after my death, a third part to be paid every year, all my debts and funeral expenses to be also at her charge. It is also my express will and desire that the aforesaid one hundred pieces of eight which I give to my son, shall not be taken attached, claimed or received by any of his creditors under any pretext whatever, but he shall receive and dispose of the same for his own benefit and use as he pleases.

Also, if either of my aforesaid children be not satisfied with the aforesaid provisions, he or she shall be deprived of what they other wise would have had, the same to in crue to the benefit of the one who is satisfied.

All that is herein before written, I declare to be my testamentary disposition and last will, which I desire to have full effect from the least to the most important article thereof, whether as will, codicil, gift in anticipation of death or among the living, or any other bequest of whatsoever nature it may be, notwithstanding that all the formalities required by law or laws of this province may not be fully observed herein, desiring that said laws may be held not to apply and be not enforced in this case, desiring that the most favorable construction may be allowed for the maintenance of what is herein before written. In witness of the truth of which I have deliberately signed, sealed and executed this on the said 31st of August 1694.

The reason why I apparently give more to my aforesaid daughter than to my son, is not that I bear less affection to him than to her, but because of the great service which from her youth onward she has faithfully rendered in the household and to her mother onward she has faithfully rendered in the household and to her mother in health and sickness, yes to the hour of her death, whereby she has saved much money, for which the mother my (wife) in her last hours promised a reward and recommended the same to me, and because since her mothers death she has, as occasion demanded, rendered me great service, to this day and undoubtedly will continue to do so; yes, I am in truth bound to say that without her diligence I could not have put my estate (small as the same may be) in so good a posture, all of which is not necessary for me to particularize, but is best known to me and after my death it is very apparent her brother will not or very little take into consideration.

Nevertheless, in consideration hereof, knowing that it is the truth and that though untoward circumstances I could not reward her according to her merit, I have given to her what is comprised in my aforesaid will.

Done in Albany, the 31st of August 1694.


2. Johannes BECKER (See his page)

3. Martina Becker

Martina’s husband William Hogan was born in  Birr, King County (now County Offaly) Ireland about 1670. He emigrated to America before 1700. He was the patriarch of the Hogan family of early Albany.

In September 1692, he married innkeeper’s daughter Martina Becker in the Albany Dutch church. Over the next decade, five children were baptized at the Albany Dutch church. In 1714, he contributed to the building of St. Peter’s English church.

William Hogan probably came to Albany as a soldier and served in the garrison at the Albany fort. Following his marriage, he became an innkeeper – possibly in partnership with his father-in-law. He set down permanent roots in Albany. Over the next decades, he was a prominentAlbany personage – serving as juror, firemaster, assessor, constable, and high constable. He also found work as a surveyor. Assessment rolls for the early 1700s show him to be a quite wealthy resident who owned additional buildings in the first ward. He belonged to the Albany militia and several times joined with his neighbors in pledging allegiance to the Protestant King of England.

However, in 1699 and again in 1701, he was identified as one of those cited trading without possessing the freedom of the city.

In 1694, she was named co-exeuctor of her father’s estate. She also was singled-out as “a most devoted daughter [who] from her youth onward rendered great service in the household and to her mother.” Martina was bequeathed their house, half of the garden behind the fort, and most of her parents’ other personal property.

Hogan was an innkeeper and civil servant who utilized his wife’s property to become quite wealthy. The advantaged Martina appears to have been his active partner. Their first ward home was an early Albany landmark.

In September 1732, Martina filed a joint will with her husband. It declared that they both were in good bodily health and that they both were godfearing people. The will provided for their surviving children and grandchildren. It named seven surviving children, six grandchildren, and a number of slaves who were bequeathed to their now adult children. Martina Becker Hogan died in July 1736 and was buried in the Dutch church cemetery.   He died sometime before April 4, 1739 when the will passed probate.


Contributions for the genealogies of the first settlers of the Albany and Vicinity 1872,Jurrian.htm

Documents Relative to the Colonial History of New York , Vol. 12, Dutch and Swedish Settlements at the Delaware River, Fernow, LoC Cat #: 71-93943.

Full text of “Early records of the city and county of Albany

Posted in 12th Generation, Immigrant - Continent, Line - Shaw, Public Office, Storied, Tavern Keeper | Tagged , , , , , , , | 11 Comments

Johannes Becker

Johannes BECKER (1663 – 1712) was Alex’s 9th Grandfather; one of 1,024 in this generation of the Shaw line.

Johannes Becker (Bekker, Baker) was born 3 Jun 1663 New Amsterdam, New Netherland His parents were Jan Jurrianse BECKER and Maria Cornelis ADRIAENS He married Anna van der ZEE on 17 Dec 1684 in Albany, New York. Johannes died in 1712 Albany, New York.

Anna van der Zee was born 16 Jun 1665 in Albany, NY. Her parents were Storm Albertse Van Der ZEE (Bradt) and Hilletje LANSING. Anna died 19 Dec 1739 in Albany, NY.

Children of Johannes and Anna:

Name Born Married Departed
1. Mariken Becker bapt
15 Nov 1685
Jan Harding
22 Dec 1706
2. Hilletje Becker bapt
23 Jan 1689
bef. Sep 1693
3. Johannes Becker bapt
4 Aug 1691
Cornelia Uzille
15 Oct 1714
17 Sep 1748
Schoharie, Schoharie, New York
4. Hilletje BECKER 10 Sep 1693 Albany, NY Hendrick Hendrickse Van WIE
11 Mar 1715 Albany, NY
23 Dec 1744
5. Storm Becker 19 Jan 1695
Albany, NY
Beerta Van Slyck
25 Jan 1726/27
Gertrude Klein
27 Nov 1735
Scoharie, New York
Schoharie, NY
6. Gerrit Becker bapt
9 Oct 1698
Schoharie, NY
Ariaentje van der Karr
23 Oct 1726
7. Elizabeth Becker bapt
8 Jun 1701
Alexander (Sander) Van Woert
5 Oct 1735
8. Albertus Becker bapt
25 Dec 1703
Catharine van der Zee
17 Jan 1733
9. Annaatje Becker bapt
5 May 1706
10. Pieter Becker bapt
26 Sep 1708
Sara Slingerland
7 Feb 1733
Albany Reformed Church, Albany, New York
Annatie Vedder
24 Nov 1739 Schoharie Reformed Church, New York
Schoharie, NY

Johannes and his brother-in-law Willem Hogan operated  a tavern in Albany in the 1690’s.  His wife Anna also came from a tavern operating family.    A 1698 letter to Johannes Becker from Lieut. Matthew Shanks, sailing for England, includes a promise to pay in time his indebtedness for drinks. The back of the letter served for a reckoning of drinks served to the first citizens of Albany.

Shortly after 1700 Johannes removed to a farm on the Van Rensselaer patroonship, in the town of Bethlehem, near the hamlet once known as Becker’s Corners, now Selkirk.   It is probable that for some generations the Beckers had been city dwellers, burghers. Now they returned to the soil, and so continued until after the Revolution. This was, be it said, a step up, for a freeholder, or even a lessee on a manor paying a moderate quit rent ranked higher in social respect.


Johannes Becker, Jr., and Anna had many, children, two of them being Johannes (the third), born in 1691, and Storm, born in 1696. When Johannes, Jr., died, about 1712 , Johannes, his son, became head of the family. He and his brother Storm achieved the ambition to be freeholders, un-beholden to the Van Rensselaers. Thirty-five miles west of’ the Hudson and beyond the bounds of Rensselaerswyck lay the fertile valley of the Schoharie.

About 1712, a flock of German refugees from the wars that had been ravaging the Rhenish country, from the Palatinate, had squatted there, and in time acquired titles from the land speculators who held patent from a grateful colonial governor. in 1724 Johannes and Storm Becker bought lands and a mill on Schoharie Creek, and settled there. These lands were very fertile.  In the time of the Revolution Washington referred to them as granary of the colony. The Beckers grew wealthy and locally influential. They raised large families of sons, and when the boys grew to manhood there were other good lands to be obtained.

The Schoharie Valley was colonized by the British in the early eighteenth century. However, the majority of the settlers were Dutch or Palatine Germans.

1. Mariken Becker

Mariken’s husband Jan Harding was born about 1681 in Albany New York.

3. Johannes Becker

Johannes’ wife Cornelia Uzille was born 2 Apr 1693 in Bushwick, Kings, New York. Her parents were a French Hoguenot named Pierre Uzille  and Cornelia Damen.  Peter’s  family from the neighborhood of Calais, whence his father David fled from persecution to Manheim, Germany, and later to Staten Island. Pieter Uziele was listed as a “nursing child” when his parents, David Usilie and Marie Casier emigrated to the New World on the Gilded Otter  in 1660. Pieter had been born 1659 in Mannheim, Germany. The Uzilles or Zellies still reside in Schoharie. Cornelia died 17 Sep 1748 in Pennsylvania.

Johannes’ son Abraham married his first cousin Elizabeth, daughter of Storm Becker. Their son Abraham Becker lived until 1815. During the Revolution he was a member of the Committee of’ Safety from Schoharie, the war-time governing body, and attended many meetings held at Albany. After the war, in 1784 and 1785, he was a member of the State Legislature and as such served on the Council for the Temporary Government of the Southern District, that is to say, New York City and Westchester, after the evacuation by the British. His life appears to have been that of a gentleman farmer. He had good lands and kept slaves, until New York emancipated them.

Abraham Becker had a son, Storm A. Becker. The practice was to designate the son’s paternity by the initial of the father’s name. I surmise the explanation lies in the fact that in 1780, he was a candidate for, and received, a commission as an Ensign in the Levies. He had an interest in military affairs and after the War continued in the Militia, rising to the rank of Brigadier General, in command of the Schollarie regiment. In those days militia regiments were far from trained for actual war service. Annually there was “general training”, a sort of grand jamboree and precursor of the county fair. Whether by reason of age or lack of qualifications, General Becker was not called on for service in the War of 1812 in any active capacity.

When the County of Schoharie was created in 1795, Storm A. Becker was appointed as the first Surrogate, and he was also a justice of the peace and member of the State Legislature. Looking at the records of the Assembly for 1800, he was one of those who voted against the bill to abolish dueling from which we may conclude that he was a gentleman of the old school.

4. Hilletje BECKER (See Hendrick Hendrickse Van WIE‘s page)

5. Storm Becker

Storm’s first wife Beerta Van Slyck was born 1697.  Her parents were Teunis Willemse Van Slyck and Jannetje Hendrickse Van Wie.  Her maternal grandparents were Hendrick Gerritse Van WIE and Eytje ARIAANSZ. Beerta died Nov 1735

Storm’s second wife Gertrude Klein was born 1712 in Albany, New York.   Her parents were Johann Herman Klein one of the Palatine refugees and Anna Magdalena [__?__].  Gertrude died in 1754.

6. Gerrit Becker

Gerrit’s wife Ariaentje van der Kar was born 3 Sep 1701 in Albany, Albany, New York. Her parents were Jan Dirkse Van Der Karr and Feytje Claasen Van Schaick.  Ariaentje died 19 Dec 1739 – Kinderhook, Columbia, New York.

7. Elizabeth Becker

Elizabeth’s husband Alexander (Sander) Van Woert was born in 1697 in Albany, New York.  His parents were Rutger Jacobse Van Woert and Elisabeth Willemse Groesbeck.

8. Albertus Becker

Albertus’ wife Catharine van der Zee was his first cousin.  She was born 1 Jan 1709 – Albany, Albany, New York. Her parents were Wouter Storm Van Der Zee and Jannetje Swart. Her grandparents were Storm Albertse Van Der ZEE (Bradt) and Hilletje LANSING.

10. Pieter Becker

Peter’s first wife Sara Slingerland was born Jul 1700 in Albany, New York.  Her parents were Arent Slingerland and Gertruy van Vorst Oct. Sara died before Nov 1739.

Peter’s second wife Annatie Vedder was baptized 21 Jun 1713 at Albany Reformed Church.  Her parents were Johannes Vedder and Maria Van Der Fort.  Annatie died in 1742 in New York.


Posted in 11th Generation, Line - Shaw, Tavern Keeper | Tagged | 5 Comments

Hendrick Gerritse Van Wie

Hendrick Gerritse Van WIE (1650 -1691) was Alex’s 9th Grandfather; one of 1,024 in this generation of the Shaw line.

Hendrick Gerritse Van Wie was born about 1646 in Netherlands; His father was Gerrit Van WIE.  He came to New Netherlands on the ship “de Endracht (Unity or Concord) which sailed from Holland on 17 Apr 1664 arrived New Amsterdam 19 Jul 1664, Captain Jan Bergen. .   Although neither he nor Gerrit Van Wie are mentioned on the ships list of passengers, it was noted that a Hendrick Van Wie paid 60 guilders to captain, and worked on ship to pay for his voyage over to New York State.

Van Wie Point Monument

Hendrick lived near Beverwyck (Albany) for the rest of his life.  He married Eytie ARIAANSZ about 1675.    He made his will in 1690, wherein he spoke of a wife and eldest son Gerrit.  He was one of the members of the expedition against Fort La Prairie in the French and Indian War; was wounded while attacking the fort and died as a result.   Hendrick died about 1691 in Albany NY.

Painting of Van Wie's Point

Eytie Ariaansz was born about 1654 in Albany, NY.   After Hendrick died, she married Andries Jacobsz Gerdenier on 13 Nov 1692 in Albany. Eytie died in 1704 in Albany, NY.

Andries Gardenier was born in 1658 in Albany, Albany, New York. His parents were Jacob Janse Gardenier and Josyna [__?__]. Andries died 1717 in Kinderhook, Albany, New York.

Children of Hendrick and Eytie:

Name Born Married Departed
1. Gerrit Hendricksz Van Wie 1676
Albany, NY
Anetje Casparse Conyn
17 Nov 1698 Albany
20 Dec 1746
2. Jannetje Van Wie 1678
Albany, New York
Teunis Willemse Van Slyck
5 Feb 1695/96
 4 Nov 1746
Coxsackie, Albany, New York,
3. Geesje Van Wie 1680
Albany, NY
Conrad Hendrickse Burghardt
12 Nov 1693
DRC, Kinderhook, Columbia, NY
4. Arientje Van Wie 1682
Albany, NY
Maes Hendricksen Van Buren
17 Sep 1699
3 Feb 1706
5. Alida Van Wie 1684
Albany, NY
6. Catrina Van Wie 1688
Albany, NY
John ‘De Bruer’ Hendrickse Burghardt (Bogaert)
5 Apr 1707
Kinderhook, Columbia, NY
7. Annatie Van Wie 1685
Albany, New York
8. Jan Hendrickse Van Wie 18 Aug 1686
Albany, NY
Catharine Huyck
c. 1708
Albany, NY
9. Hendrick Hendrickse Van WIE 17 Mar 1689 Albany, NY Hilletje BECKER
11 Mar 1715 in Albany, NY
20 Dec 1746

Children of Eytje and Andries Gardenier

Name Born Married Departed
10. Andries Gardenier 22 Oct 1693
Albany, NY
Josyna Gardenier (1st cousin)
31 Dec 1715 Albany, New York
Dec 1760
Kinderhook, New York,
11. Jacob Gardenier 1695
Albany, Albany, NY
12. Arie Gardenier 14 Aug 1698
Albany, NY
Lysbeth Van Slyck
8 Jan 1723

Hendrick Gerretse Van Wie, ancestor of Van Wie family, came to New Netherlands on ship “de Endracht (Unity) which sailed from Holland on 17 April 1664. Arrived at colony on or before 29 Aug 1664 as shown by receipt of his passage money among Rensselaerswych manuscripts in N.Y. State Library.   It’s interesting that the ship arrived in Rensselaerswyck  (Albany) instead of Manhattan.  The receipt of his passage money is included among Rensselaerswych manuscripts in N.Y. State Library.

‘I, the undersigned, acknowledge the receipt of Jeremias van Rensselaer of eighty guilders in beavers, or 8 whole and 4 half beavers, on account of Hendrick Gerretse van Wie, for his passage in the ship de Eendracht. This 29th day of August anno 1664, in Rensselaerswyck. Signed Jan Bergen, skipper of the ship de Eendracht.’

Van Wie Point and Dock

‘Hendrick Gerritsen Van Wie occupied a farm called Domine’s Hoeck, now known as Van Wie’s Point, as early as May 1, 1672, being charged from that date until 1 May 1, 1675 with rent of f50 per year, for Dominees Hoeckje and Bevers Eylandt.’  He built a house in Beverwyck (Albany)  in 1679 on the Town Road at Van Wie’s Point.  Van Wies Point Road is now right on the Hudson near Glenmont [not Glenmont Street] and Bethelhem, NY.

Van Wie's Pt Hudson River

View Google Map of Today’s Van Wie’s Point

Employed on various farms after arrival as these entries on account book show:

June 1670 & April 1673 paid for thatching the barns of Pieter Meesz and Jan Van Nes. And for doing others things with ‘kneghts’ (farmhands) miscellaneous work on latter’s farm.

13 Oct  1679 charged with 4 year’s rent from May 1st, 1676 to May 1st, 1679 at 50 guilders a year of farm called Domines Hoeck, now known as Van Wie’s Point, which was later leased to Ryck Rutgersen.

13 Oct 1679 charged with 30 merchants beavers for purchase of the (? word destroyed) according to July 19th, 1679 contract and with 6 beaver for 20 pine boards and the lumber of the old house of Eldert (Gerbertsen Cruy) at Bethlehem. Indicating that he bought land on which intended to build a house.

In 1691 Pieter Schuyler petitioned the governor for the relief of Hendrick Gerritse, “a volunteer in the late expedition to Canada, who was desperately wounded at Paray in Canada and was cared for at the house of the widow of Jacob Tys Van Der Heyden.”

Battle of La Prairie

During the summer of 1691 a force led by Major Peter Schuyler invaded the French settlements along the Richelieu River south of Montreal. Callières, the local French governor, responded by massing 700-800 French and allies at the fort at La Prairie, on the south shore of the Saint Lawrence River.

Schuyler surprised the much larger French force in a rainstorm just before dawn on August 11, inflicting severe casualties before withdrawing towards the Richelieu. Schuyler’s force might have remained intact but instead was intercepted by the force of 160 men led by Valrennes that had been detached to block the road to Chambly. The two sides fought in vicious hand-to-hand combat for approximately an hour, before Schuyler’s force broke through and escaped.

The French had suffered the most casualties during Schuyler’s initial ambush, but the casualties the Albany force suffered after Valrennes’ counterattack meant that they had incurred the greater proportion of loss. Instead of continuing his raids, Schuyler was forced to retreat back to Albany.

The battle was also the subject of a 19th-century poem by William Douw Schuyler-Lighthall.

Hendrick made his will about 1690 in which he is described as being ‘quite infirm’ and according to affidavit of the witnesses he died in that year. On November 13th, 1692, his widow, Eydje Airiaansz, marrried at Albany Andries Jacobsz Gardeneir.

Eydje’s second marriage is based on documents in NY colonial manuscripts. The last of these is a petition for an allowance presented by Henry Gerritse to the Council on October 15th, 1692 after the alledged death of Van Wie and but a few weeks before the marriage of his widow. Evidently documents relate to another man.”

The following is the will of Hendrick van Wie:

God be praised in the highest. Hendrick van Wie, being quite infirm, but in full possession of his mind, walking and standing, has declared to us his last and desire as follows:

First, Hendrick van Wie wills that his wife shall remain in full possession of his estate so long as she lives, on condition that she bring up the children to the best of her poor ability, and after her death the lawful heirs begotten of them shall share alike, except that the eldest son shall first of all have a horse. But whenever his wife shall marry again, an inventory shall be made of all there is, in order that the estate be not diminished. In witness hereto he has signed with his own hand.

This is the X mark of Hendrick van Wie
This is the X mark of Gerrit Gysbertse
II 1 by me Pieter WINNE

There appeared before mee Jonathan Cuyler and Peter van Brugh Esq. Justices of ye Peace Gerrit Gysbertse and Helmer Janse of ye County of Albany aforesaid wittnesses as above written who declare upon ye body Evangelist that some time about ye year of our Lord 1699 they saw ye signing of above mentioned Instrument by Hendrick van Wie of ye said County as his last will or Testament who Dyed in ye year 1699 as aforesaid.

Albany y 3d of June 1701

Then appeared before me Johannis Cuyler & Peter van Burgh Esq. Justices of y Peace Gerrit Gysbertse & helmer Janse of y County of Albany aforesaid witnesses as above written who declare upon y holy Evangelist that some time about y year of our Lord 1690 they saw signing of y abovementioned instrument by hendrik van wie of y said County as his last will or Testament who Dyed in y year 1690 as aforesaid.

Johannis Cuyler Justice
Peter van Brugh Justice
Recorded y 8th of octob. 1701


1. Gerrit Hendricksz Van Wie

Gerrit’s wife Anetje Casparse Conyn was baptized 1689 in Reformed Dutch Church, Albany, New York. Her parents were Casper Conyn and Aletta Winne.  Her grandparents were Pieter WINNE I and Tannatje Adams. Anteje died 20 Mar 1746 in Albany, Albany, New York.

Hendrick the immigrant built a house in 1679 on the Town Road at Van Wie’s Point. This area is now part of the town of Bethlehem, New York. This early house was replaced in 1732 with the “Van Wie House” which was built by Hendrick Van Wie, grandson of above mentioned Hendrick. His parents were Gerrit and Annatje (Conyn) Van Wie. The new house located on Town Road near William Gibson Road at Van Wie’s Point has housed six generations of the Van Wie family.

Van Wie Home Built by Hendrick's grandson in 1732.

The main portion of this house faces east and stands on ground that slopes from north to south. The slope of the ground occasioned a basement and also high steps up to the front door. Built of brick, the main structure has portholes and a granary door in the north gable. In both gables are iron beam-anchors in the shape of a fleur-de-lis. A wing of the stone house at the rear may have been the original dwelling, antedating the house of 1732. Neighborhood tradition tells of a stone building for slaves’ quarters, which formerly stood near by. Occupation in recent years (1929) by tenants of the laboring class has altered the house in many details. In 1929, the house was owned by the Knickerbocker Ice Company.

Hendrick Van Wie House Source: Library of Congress

In the 1930’s or 1940’s the roof caved in due to neglect.

Hendrick Van Wie House 3 Source: Library of Congress

The house was built with Holland bricks.  Ships would arrive in Albany ballasted with bricks.  The bricks would be exchanged for valuable beaver pelts for the voyage home.

This view of the northeast corner shows a connection to a brick addition at right. Wall anchors indicating a timber frame in the bricks are visible here and in other locations.

The kitchen was half a story down from the main level.

Van Wie Home Write up

2. Jannetje Van Wie

Jannetje’s husband Teunis Willemse Van Slyck was born 1665 in Albany, Albany, New York.  His parents were William Pieterse Van Slyke, of Amsterdam and Baertje Nieffens. Teunis died Nov 1748 in Coxsackie, Greene, New York.

He settled on a large tract of land in Greene county, and one mile south of New Baltimore built, in 1713, the stone mansion which was long the family seat. His family Bible, printed by hand, 1515-18, said to be the oldest printed Bible on earth, is owned by a descendant in Saginaw, Michigan. Children: Hendrick, Ida, Andries, Gerrit, of further mention, Pieter, Alida, Dirck, Agnietje, Willem.

3. Geesje Van Wie

Geesje’s husband Conrad Hendrickse Burghardt was born about 1670 in Claverack, Albany [now Columbia], NY. His parents were Hendrick Coenraetse Burghardt and Marya Janse Van Hoesen. Conrad died Abt. 1750 in Sheffield [now Great Barrington], Hampshire [now Berkshire] Co., Mass.

Conrad’s father was a commissioner for the Dutch West India company, and a resident of New Amsterdam before 1654, and afterward of Fort Orange and Beaverwyck. He was interested in shipping, and bought considerable real estate in the village and vicinity of Fort Orange, and also half the island opposite, which after his death, about 1667, was sold to Jeremiah Van Rennselaer.  On June 5th, 1662, he bought from the Indians, for five hundred guilders, in beavers, several hundred acres along the Hudson river, in the vicinity of Claverack, including the site of the present city of Hudson.

1699 Oath of Allegiance  – The name of Koenradt Bogart of Kinderhook was listed among the names of those pledging allegiance to King William of Orange.

Dec 1702 –  Conrad and some of his neighbors, were summoned to appear before the Governor and Council, in the City of New York, and answer the charge of having employed Paulus Van Vleck, a religious teacher, who had been forbidden to preach by the former.  As the season was unfavorable for traveling, Mr. Burghardt petitioned that the matter be postponed until spring, but it was not granted, so he, with the others, journeyed to New York, appearing before the proper authorities on March 11th, 1703, “acknowledged their error, and, submitting themselves thereon, were discharged, with a caution to be more careful for the future.”

1720 List of Freeholders of the City and County of Albany  The names of Coonrodt Burgaret and his brother, John Burgaret, of Kenderhook were included in this list.  Also listed in the 3rd Ward of Albany were: Isaac Borghaert, Cornelis Borghaert, Jacob Borghaert, and Jacob Borghaert, Junr. Isaac was undoubtedly a brother of Coonrodt and Jan; and the consistent spelling of the surname leads me to speculate that Cornelis and Jacob were probably also brothers [or relatives].

Conrad acted on behalf of the settling committee of Housatonic Colony [now the area around Great Barrington, Berkshire Co., MA] to buy the land from the Indians in or before 1724. He became a prominent landholder in the Upper Township of Sheffield [now Great Barrington] and raised a large family.

Location of Great Barrington in Berkshire County, Massachusetts

Conrad helped found Great Barrington, Berkshire, Massachusetts in 1726

‘Of the first settlers of Great Barrington, a majority were English, several of them from Westfield and that vicinity, a few more Dutch from the state of New York. We are unable to determine the towns from which some the families removed to this place. The earliest settlers of the town, south of the bridge, were Coonrod Burghardt; Samuel Dewey; Samuel Dewey, Jun’r; Asahel Dewey; Thomas Dewey; John Granger; Samuel Harmon; Moses Ingersoll; David King; Stephen King; Moses King; Israel Lawton; Joseph Noble; Thomas Pier; John Phelps; Joshua Root, Joseph Sheldon; Samuel Suydam; Lawrence Suydham; Joshua White; Samuel Younglove; Samuel Younglove, Jr. Most of these settled here from 1726-1730; it is probable that none of them came later than 1733. Above the bridge, the forty proprietary rights in the Upper Township were, in 1742, owned by sixteen individuals, several of whom were non-residents.

Both Coonrod Burghardt and his younger brother, John ‘De Bruer’ Burghardt were proprietors of land rights when the Upper Township [1722-1742] was finally laid out. Coonrod had 6 rights [2,400 acres]; and John had 4 rights [1,600 acres].

Mr. Burghardt was extensively engaged in the fur trade, with the Indians, along the New England path, which extended from Albany to Boston, and passed through Kinderhook and the southern part of the Housatonic valley, which he had undoubtedly explored at an early date, and he was on friendly terms with them and familiar with their language and customs.

In the spring of 1717 he and Elias Van Schaick applied to the Governor of New York for a license to purchase a tract of four thousand acres of land, south-east of Kinderhook, and west of the Westenhook patent, which latter included a large part of the Housatonic valley.

The land was laid out in the fall of the same year, by a government surveyor, but it was immediately claimed by Henry Van Rennselaer, of Claverack Manor, upon the strength of an alleged prior patent, and this circumstance was followed by a controversy, which continued many years, and finally resulted unfavorably for Mr. Burghardt, however, it was probably in consequence of this that he connected himself with the New England settlers, in the Housatonic valley, which alliance proved of great benefit to himself and his posterity, In 1724 he was employed by the Settling Committee, of the Housatonic Colony, to purchase, from the Indians, land in the southern portion of Berkshire County, for the formation of the Housatonic townships, and he was so successful that he reduced the money value from 1,200 pounds, the price asked, to 460 pounds, the price given.

On April 25th, 1724, Konkapot and twenty other Indian owners, met the committee at Westfield, Massachusetts, Mr. Burghardt acting as interpreter, and he was also one of the witnesses to the deed, which the former gave to the latter, with certain reservations, to a tract of land extending four miles east of the Housatonic River, bounded on the south by the Connecticut line, north on “Ye great mountain, known by ye name of Man-ska-fee-hunk,” supposed to be Rattlesnake Mountain, in Stockbridge, and west on the New York line, which at that time had not been permanently settled.

In 1725 the committee engaged Mr. Burghardt to measure the distance from the Hudson to the Housatonic rivers, at the nearest point, in the vicinity of the Housatonic Townships, but he was caused much annoyance by the Westenhook patentees, who claimed a large portion of Berkshire County. The history of this patent, which is too long to repeat here, was granted by the Governor of New York, which state, at an early period, before the line was established, claimed the western end of Massachusetts as far east as the Connecticut River. Mr. Burghardt went to Albany, and engaged a surveyor, but, as he did not appear on the appointed time, Mr. Burghardt again visited Albany, when he learned that the man had been bribed by the Westenhook patentees; he then went to Schnectady and employed another, but this one also disappointed him, for the same reasons, but nothing daunted, he went eighty miles farther, to Kings Township, and there secured the services of a third, by paying 5 pounds New York currency, and, with the assistance of Mr. Burghardt and one of his sons, the surveyor measured the line.

In 1726 some of the settlers in the Housatonic Townships were molested, and sued as trespassers, by the Westenhook patentees, and lost their suits in Albany. The Settling Committee requested Mr. Burghardt to give bonds, for the damages and costs, which he did, and in consequence he had the trouble and expense of several trips to Albany and Westfield, and eventually paid 70 pounds to satisfy his bonds.

Later he was employed by the committee to purchase a tract of land north of the Housatonic Townships, and for seventeen days he entertained “with great fatigue and trouble,” at his home in Kinderhook, thirty-one Indian owners, who came from the Susquehannah country, in Pennsylvania. In 1741 Mr. Burghardt petitioned the General Court of Massachusetts for reward for his services, in connection with the colonization of Southern Berkshire county, relating the various details pertaining to them, and although they showed that he had received some compensation, the presented him, in 1742, a tract of two hundred acres of land, in Richmond, north of Great Barrington. He removed from Kinderhook to the Housatonic settlement a little later than 1730, bringing nearly all his children with him. “The mansion house of the Burghardts, a log, Dutch looking structure, with a long sloping roof to the south,” was near the corner, north of the Mahaiwe or south cemetery, upon a plot of several acres. It was occupied by the Burghardts for about one hundred years, and was torn down about 1840.

Besides the house lands, he owned the meadow, now the Agricultural Grounds, two hundred acres in the town of Richmond, and several thousand acres of the finest lands in the present town of Great Barrington and Egremont, some being on the banks of the Green River. His six rights, of four hundred acres each, in the Upper Housatonic Township, he transferred as follows: Two to his son-in-law, Isaac Van Deusen, in 1743; three to his sons, Peter and Jacob, in 1746, and one to his son Hendrick, at an earlier date.

4. Arientje Van Wie

Arientje’s husband Maes (Maas) Hendricksen Van Buren was born 1665 in Albany, Albany, New York. His parents were Martin Van Buren and Elizabeth Van Slyck. Maes died 12 Apr 1734 in Schodack, Columbia, New York.

6. Catrina Van Wie

Catrina’s husband John ‘De Bruer’ Hendrickse Burghardt (Bogaert) was born 1658 in Albany, Albany, New York. He was Conrad’s younger brother and his parents were Cornelius Corneliszn Bogaert and Dirkje Pieterse Colymans. Jan died in 1764 in Kinderhook, Columbia, New York.

Both Coonrod Burghardt and his younger brother, John ‘De Bruer’ Burghardt were proprietors of land rights when the Upper Township of Great Barrington  [1722-1742] was finally laid out [see p. 26]. Coonrod had 6 rights [2,400 acres]; and John had 4 rights [1,600 acres].

‘John Burghardt [alias John De Bruer], said to have been called De Bruer by reason of his having been formerly engaged in brewing, and perhaps also to distinguish him from others of the same name, was originally from Kinderhook. He had settled, at an early date, above the mountain, in Stockbridge, but when that township was set apart for the Indians, he exchanged his possessions for four rights below the mountain and removed thither about 1736-1737. He settled where Deacon George Beckwith for a long time, and more recently Thomas H. Curtis, resided, on the road to Stockbridge. Here he had a home lot of two hundred acres and large tracts of meadow land along the river.

Mr. Burghardt was deceased before 1770, and his son, John, commonly known by this military title of ‘Ensign,’ built the Beckwith house, it is believed in 1773. Ensign John Burghardt was a man of character and influence, often serving the town in public offices and committees. He married, before the Revolution, Eleanor, daughter of Israel Dewey. His children were Andrew, who is said to have occupied the old Levi Hyde place; Hugo, a distinguished physician of Richmond; Catherine; and Lambert, who removed to Kinderhook, and who was the grandfather of the late Garrett Burghardt, Esq., of Van Deusenville. Ensign John Burghardt, perhaps seventy years ago, removed to Richmond and spent the latter years of his life with his son, Doctor Hugo Burghardt.’

In the Name of God, Amen, March 30, 1764

I, JAN BORGHART, of Kinderhook, in Albany County. “I leave to my eldest son, Hendrick, my large Dutch Bible and my cane, with silver head on, in right of his Primogeniture.” I also leave to my son, Hendrick, the 2 lots of land at Sheffield, in Hampshire County, Massachusetts, situate on the east side of
Housatonic river, and on the east side of the mountains, and now in his possession. I leave to my grandson, Jan Borghart, all the rest of my estate in Sheffield and Great Barrington, except 400 acres of wood land, which I leave to my granddaughter, the daughter of my son Hendrick. I leave to my grandson, Jan, a negro woman. I leave to my grandson, Lambert, son of my son Hendrick, 1/2 of all the right I now have in a tract of land I bought of Rykert Hansen, on the south side of Kinderhook, as by deed. Also 1/2 of my right in a stream, water course and sawmill, at a certain place called Poten Hoek, near Kinderhook, in partnership with Robert Van Dusen, with all the tools. I leave to the children of Fytie, wife of Andrew Kittell, deceased, all my real and personal estate in Kinderhook, and my right in the Town Patent, being 1/30. Also 1/2 of my right in the land bought of Rykert Hansen, and 1/2 of my right in the sawmill and stream at Poten Hoek. Also 2 negroes. I leave to my daughter, Eytie, widow of John Moore, late of Claverack, £200 out of the estate I have given to the children of my daughter, Fytie. I leave to my granddaughter Anna, who now lives with me (daughter of my son Hendrick) £35 and 2 cows. I leave to the children of my daughter, Maria, late wife of Jurge Van Hoesen, a negro man. To Jan, the son of my daughter, Fytie Kittell, my gun. My son-in-law, Andrew Kittell, is to have charge of my estate while he remains a widower and no longer. I make my grandsons, Jan and Lambert Borghart, and Peter B. Vosburgh, executors. As for my negro ‘Piet,’ I give him free of being anybody’s negro.

Witnesses, Lauris Goes, John Van Alstine, Laurens Van Dyck.
Proved, October 1, 1764… Abstracts of New York City Wills – Volume 6 page 350 … New York City Wills – Liber 24 page 495

8. Jan Hendrickse Van Wie

Jan’s wife Catharine Huyck was born 1683 in Albany, Albany, New York. Her parents were Andries Hanse Huyck and Catrym Lambertse Van Valkenburg. Catharine died 3 Sep 1748 in Albany, Albany, New York.

9. Hendrick Hendrickse Van WIE (See his page)

10. Andries Gardenier

Andries’ wife Josyna Gardenier, Andries’ first cousin was born 5 Nov 1691 in Kingston, Tryon, New York. Her parents were Hendrick Gardenier and [__?__]. Josyna died Oct 1756 in Kinderhook, New York.

12. Arie Gardenier

Arie’s wife Lysbeth Van Slyck was born 2 Feb 1690 in Kinderhook, Columbia, New York.


Dutch Settlers Society of Albany, 1929-30 Yearbook, p. 34

Posted in 11th Generation, Artistic Representation, Historical Monument, Historical Site, Immigrant - Continent, Line - Shaw, Missing Parents, Place Names, Veteran, Violent Death | Tagged , , , , | 14 Comments