Indian Kidnaps

Our popular imagination of Indian Kidnaps are framed by the red sands of Monument Valley in post Civil War times from movies like John Ford’s  The Searchers.   In reality, Indian kidnaps were common on the Massachusetts frontier two hundred years earlier.   I count at least 25 of our ancestral families that were impacted.

The French and Indian Wars is a name used in the United States for a series of intermittent conflicts between the years 1689 and 1763 in North America that represented colonial events related to the European dynastic wars.  For example,  King William’s War (1688–97) was the North American theater of the Nine Years’ War(1688–97, also known as the War of the Grand Alliance or the War of the League of Augsburg). It was the first of six colonial wars (see the four French and Indian WarsFather Rale’s War and Father Le Loutre’s War) fought between New France andNew England along with their respective Native allies before Britain eventually defeated France in North America in 1763.

Several kidnapped children converted to catholicism, married french and lived out their lives in Canada,  Some returned years later, only to be disowned by their brothers.

Natalie Wood as Debbie Edwards in The Searchers 1956

15 Sep 1655 Staten Island, New York  – As the representative of Baron Hendrick van der Capellen, Adriaen Crijnen Post led a group in settling a successful colony on Staten Island.   Captain Post  had cultivated friendly relations with the Indians and familiarized himself with their language, an acquisition which was destined to be of much service to him at a most critical period in his career.

The colony was attacked and burned by Hackensack Indians on 15 Sep 1655 as a result of the Peach Tree War. Among the sixty-seven prisoners were Adriaen, Claartje, their five children (Adrian, Maria (later daughter-in-law of Albert Andriessen BRADT), Lysbeth, and two unknown children) , and two servants of the Post family.

Chief Penneckeck sent Adriaen to bargain with Peter Stuyvesant for the prisoners’ release that October. Adriaen traveled to and from Manhattan and the Natives’ base at Paulus Hook, New Jersey several times before a negotiation was made. Many of the prisoners, including Claartje and the children, were exchanged for ammunition, wampum, and blankets.

By van der Capellen’s orders, Adriaen and the other survivors returned to Staten Island to build a fort. He gathered the cattle that had survived the attack, butchering some and using others for milk, in an effort to feed his group. By the next spring, Adriaen was too ill to perform his duties. Claartje asked that someone else be appointed agent to van der Capellen and, in April, she petitioned Stuyvesant to keep soldiers on the island. Stuyvesant decided against it since there were so few people there.

When Van der Capellen heard of the great havoc made by the Indians in his colony, he instructed Captain Post to gather together the survivors and to erect a fort on the Island and also  to keep the people provisioned. This, however, was impracticable, as the Captain with his starving family during the ensuing winter were obliged tocamp out under the bleak sky without any protection or means of defense. The authorities recognized the insurmountable difficulties in the way of protecting the colony, and decided to withdraw the soldiers and abandon him to his fate unless he would remove with his people and his patron’s cattle to Long Island.

The creditors of Van der Capelle, seeing the desperate condition of the colony, he began to harass Post for the payment of the Baron’s debts, and suit was brought by Jacob Schellinger and others against him as agent for the Baron for payment of a note; and Janneke Melyn claimed as hers some of the few cattle still in Post’s possession.

The attempt at colonizing Staten Island by individual enterprise having failed, the Island was purchased by the West India Company, to whom nineteen persons presented a petition, August 22, 1661, for tracts of land on the south side, in order to establish a village, which was allowed by the Company, Captain Post being one of the grantees. It is probable, however, that he did not avail himself of the grant, but removed to Bergen (now Jersey City)

21 Sep 1659 Esopus (Kingston), New York –Hildebrand PIETERSEN’S son  Pieter was kidnapped by Indians during the first Esopus War. Evert PEL’s son Hendrick was kidnapped,  adopted into the tribe, married among them and lived with the Indians the rest of his life.  (See my posts  Esopus War)

The city of Kingston was first called Esopus after a local Esopus tribe, then Wiltwijck (sometimes anglicized to Wiltwyck). Settled in 1651, it was one of the three large Hudson River settlements in New Netherland, the other two being Beverwyck, now Albany, and New Amsterdam, now New York City.

The city of Kingston was first called Esopus after a local Esopus tribe, then Wiltwijck  Settled in 1651, it was one of the three large Hudson River settlements in New Netherland, the other two being Beverwyck, now Albany, and New Amsterdam, now New York City.

The first Esopus War was a short-lived conflict between Dutch farmers and the Esopus, largely started by fear and misunderstanding on the part of the settlers. On Sep  20, 1659, several Esopus men were hired to do some farm work for the settlers. After they had finished and had received their pay in brandy, a drunken native fired a musket in celebration. Although no one was hurt, some the Dutch townsfolk suspected foul play. Although a group of soldiers investigated and found no bad intentions, a mob of farmers and soldiers attacked the offending natives. Most escaped, but one was killed. The next day they returned with hundreds of reinforcements, and Esopus forces destroyed crops, killed livestock, and burned Dutch buildings.

Completely outnumbered and outgunned, the Dutch had little hope of winning through force. But they managed to hold out and make some small attacks, including burning the natives’ fields to starve them out. They received decisive reinforcements from New Amsterdam. The war concluded July 15, 1660, when the natives agreed to trade land for peace and food. The peace, however, was tentative at best. Tensions remained between the Esopus and the settlers, eventually leading to the second war.

Dutch and Indians 1

Dutch and Indians 1

Sep 1659 – The bottle was passed twice, and the Indian said again, “Come, let us go; my heart is full of fears.” He went off and hid his goods in the bushes at a little distance. Coming back once more they heard the bushes crackle as the Dutch came there, without knowing who it was. Then this Indian went away, saying “Come, let us go, for we all shall be killed;” and the rest laid down together, whereupon the Dutch came and all of them fired into the Indians, shooting one in the head and capturing another. One drunken Indian was continually moving about, whereupon the Dutch fired upon him repeatedly, nearly taking his dress from his body.

Ensign Smith knew what the consequences of this outbreak would be, and he sought to ascertain who ordered the firing contrary to his express instructions. The Dutch cast all the blame on the Indians, saying that the latter fired first. The affairs of the colony being in such an unsatisfactory state, and finding the people would not respect his authority, Smith announced his intention of leaving for New Amsterdam next day. Great excitement was manifested when this became known. The people tried to dissuade him from his purpose by representing their exposed condition, and making assurances of future obedience on their part. Smith was intractable, and continued making preparations for his departure; but by an adroit measure of Stohl and Thomas Chambers [husband of Margriet HENDRICKSE] who hired all the boats in the neighborhood, he found himself unable to carry out his resolution. It was deemed expedient, however, to acquaint the Governor of the state of affairs, and accordingly Christopher Davis was dispatched down the river in a canoe for that purpose.

Davis was escorted to the river by a company of eight soldiers and ten citizens, under Sergeant Lawrentsen, Sept. 21st, 1659. On the return of the escort to the village they fell into an ambuscade near where now stands the City Hall; the Sergeant and thirteen men surrendered without firing a shot, the rest making their escape. War now began in earnest. More than five hundred Indians were in the vicinity of the fort, who kept up a constant skirmish with settlers. By means of firebrands they set fire to the House of Jacob Gebers; numbers of barracks, stacks and barns were in like manner destroyed. One day they made a desperate assault on the palisades which came near being successful. Failing in this, the Indians slaughtered all the horses, cattle and hogs they could find outside the defenses. Three weeks was a constant siege kept up so that “none dare go abroad.” Unable to take the town they vented their fury on the unfortunate prisoners.

Jacob Jansen Van Stoutenburgh, Abram Vosburg, a son of Cornelius B. Sleight, and five or six other were compelled to run the gauntlet; they were next tied to stakes, and, after being beaten and cut in the most cruel manner, were burned alive. Thomas Clapboard [Chambers], William the carpenter, Peter Hillebrants and Evert PELS‘ son Hendrick were among the captives.

These are the only names mentioned in the early records. Clapboard was taken by six warriors down the Esopus kill. At night he removed the cords by which he was bound, and successively knocked five of his captors in the head while they were asleep, killing the sixth before he could fly, and making good his escape. Another prisoner, a soldier, got home safely after a somewhat rough experience. Peter Laurentsen and Peter Hillebrants were ransomed; Hendrick Vosberg Pel, then a mere youth, was adopted into the tribe and married among them. Overtures were afterwards made to the Indians by the friends of the lad for his return; but the Indians answered that he “wished to stay with his squaw and pappoose, and he ought to.”

Dutch and Indians 2

Dutch and Indians 2

A  letter written by Derck Smit, Ensign, describes a try to ransom the boy of Evert Pels. It mentions that “the boy has a wife there and the wife is with child, who will not let him go and he will not leave her” It was written Feb. 24, 1660 at Esopus. He was taken captive Sept. 21, 1659. The announcement of the try at ransom would be five months later. So sometime in that time frame, there was a ceremony and then a conception.  Hendrick was not found until a year and a half later. By that time he had married an Indian girl and had a child. He lived among the Indians for the rest of his life.

7 Jun 1663 – Hurley, Ulster, New York – See my post Second Esopus War

Lambert Huybertse (BRINK)   who with his wife Hendrickje and children Huybert and Jannetje left The Netherlands 23 Dec 1660 aboard “de Trouw” (Faith). The entry upon the ship’s books is

” Lambert Huybertsen from Wagening [Wageningen], wife and two children.” To these must be added a son, CorneliusCornelis Lambertsen BRINK], born on the voyage..

Arriving at New Amsterdam Lambert  then his family traveled up the Hudson River to the Esopus (name of river and Algonquin Indian tribe) area to Wiltwyck (soon Kingston).   He was one of the first settlers at Nieuw Dorp (soon Hurley) and in 1662 signed a five year lease with the Dutch West India Company (GWC) Director Stuyvesant on land there west of the creek.

In the Spring of 1662, Peter Stuyvesant, Dutch Governor of Niew Amsterdam, established the village of Niew Dorp on the site of an earlier Native American Settlement. On 7 Jun 1663, during the Esopus Wars the Esopus Indians attacked and destroyed the village, and took captives who were later released. England took over the Dutch Colony on 6 Sep 1664. On 17 Sep 1669, the village, abandoned since the Esopus Indian attack, was resettled and renamed Hurley. It was named after Francis Lovelace, Baron Hurley of Ireland.

After Director Stuyvesant declared war on the Esopus Indians and attacked and killed and captured and shipped some out as slaves, the Indians retaliated with the 7 Jun 1663 destroying of Nieuw Dorp [Hurley] and Wiltwyck in which they burned and killed and took captives including Lambert’s wife Hendrickje (pregnant) and children Hytbert, Jannetje, and Cornelis who were rescued after about 3 months.

7 Jun 1663 – A band of two hundred Indians entered Wiltwyck and New Diep (now Kingston and Hurley) in the morning, from different points, and dispersed themselves among the dwellings in a friendly manner, having with them a little maize and a few beans; under pretense of selling these they went about from place to place to discover the strength of the men. After they had been in Kingston about a quarter of an hour, some people on horseback rushed through the mill-gate crying out-’ “The Indians have destroyed the New Village!”  And with these words the Indians immediately fired their guns, and made a general attack on the village from the rear, hewing down the whites with their axes and tomahawks. They seized what women and children they could and carried them prisoners outside the gates, plundered the houses, and set the village on fire to windward, it blowing at the time from the south. The remaining Indians commanded all the streets, firing from the corner houses which they occupied, and through the curtains outside along the highways, so that some of the inhabitants while on their way to their houses to get their arms were wounded and slain. When the flames had reached their height the wind veered to the west, otherwise the flames would have been much more destructive.  The attack was so rapid that those in different parts of the village were not aware of what was transpiring until they happened to meet the wounded in the streets. Few of the men were in the village, the rest being abroad at their field labors.

Sep 1775Theophilus SHATWELL’S son-in-law Charles Rundlet was captured by four Indians  and they left him in the custody of one of their number names James. Charles was successful in inducing him to connive at his escape.   That year in December Charles married Mary Smith , a widow, whose maiden name was Satchwell [Shatswell] Twins, Charles and Jane, were born to them on May 8, 1676 and according to the strict customs of those days, Charles and Mary had to confess to the sin of fornication before marriage and be forgiven by vote before they could partake of Communion and be members of the Church. They were taken to Court in Salem, Massachusetts and fined.

10 Feb  1675/76 Lancaster, Worcester, Mass.,  John PEARCE’S son-in-law John Ball  was killed in the Lancaster Indian massacre.

John Ball was a tailor. His first wife, Elizabeth Peirce, by whom he had four children, was insane in 1660 and probably had been for some time. In March of 1660/1661 John Ball resigned his three children to his father and mother “Peirse” as their own and gave them two oxen and two cows. He also yielded his wife to his in-laws and the use of his house and lands as long as she continued there, and if God took her before she returned to him, the said was property to be his children’s by his said wife, Elizabeth. The deed wasn’t recorded until 31 October 1664, which makes it likely that Elizabeth probably died shortly before that date.

On Oct 21, 1665, he sold his farm in Watertown and removed to Lancaster, where he was one of the earliest settlers. In the attack on the town by Indians, Feb. 20, 1676, he, his wife, and son Joseph were slain and two other children taken into captivity.

Lancaster, Worcester, Mass

Lancaster, Worcester, Mass

The town of Lancaster was destroyed by Indian attack on 10 Feb 1675/76 at the height of King Phillip’s War. Sholan had invited the English to the area and was their staunch friend. After his death, his nephew Matthew continued the friendship, but Matthew’s successor Shosanin apparently saw things a little differnetly. He was enlisted in Phillip’s cause to exterminate the colonists.

As a frontier town, Lancaster had no settlement between it and the Connecticut River. Groton was 15 miles to the north and Stow and Marlborough were on the east and south, respectively, making it a good candidate for attack. The townspeople had made some preparations for trouble during the Indian War. Four or five of the houses had been designated as garrisons. These were centrally located buildings that had been fortified. One of these garrisons was the house of Rev. Joseph Rowlandson, the minister of the town. The town was clearly fearful of the Indians and on the 10th of February, Rev. Rowlandson and two others were in Boston trying to get the General Court to send soldiers for the defense of the town.

On the morning of February 10th, 1500 Indians are said to have attacked the town in five different places at once. The Rowlandson garrison came under strong attack and was the only garrison overrun. Mary Rowlandson, wife of the minister, was taken prisoner and some weeks later ransomed back to her family.

Mary Rowlandson Mary Rowlandson from A Narrative of the Captivity, Sufferings and Removes of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson, Boston: Nathaniel Coverly, 1770

Mary Rowlandson Mary Rowlandson from A Narrative of the Captivity, Sufferings and Removes of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson, Boston: Nathaniel Coverly, 1770

Mary (White) Rowlandson (c. 1637 –  1711) was  held for 11 weeks before being ransomed. After her release, she wrote a book about her experience, The Sovereignty and Goodness of God: Being a Narrative of the Captivity and Restoration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson, which is considered a seminal American work in the literary genre of captivity narratives. It went through four printings in a short amount of time and garnered widespread readership, making it in effect the first American “bestseller.”

In it she writes, “Quickly it was the dolefullest day that ever mine eyes saw.” After some hours and several attempts, the garrison was finally set on fire with forty-two people inside. Many were shot or tomahawked as they tried to escape the flames. Those women and children who got out alive were herded off into the woods to be later sold for ransom if they did not die from their wounds or were killed for traveling too slowly.

Very early in the attack a house was overrun by the Indians before the inhabitants could escape to the garrison. “There were five persons taken in one house. The father and the mother and a sucking child they knocked on the head; the other two they took and carried away alive.” This was the family of a tailor named John Ball. John Ball’s estate was administered by his son John of Watertown 1 Feb 1677/78. The Ball homestead and the Rowlandson garrison were in the south part of Lancaster. John’s lands were never described in the town’s Book of Lands although he was one of the first inhabitants. His lands were sold in 1682 to Thomas Harris.

3 May 1676, Rowley, Mass,,  the house in Rowley Richard KIMBALL’S son Thomas Kimball received of another of our ancestors  George HADLEY was burned by the Indians, Kimball was killed and his wife and 5 children carried into captivity.

Rowley, Essex, Mass

Rowley, Essex, Mass

George Hadley came to this country previous to 1639; he resided. in Ipswich, Mass., until Dec 1655, when he moved to Rowley on the Merrimack River near Haverhill, Mass. In this remote frontier home he spent eleven years and without doubt had the hard experiences of New England settlers.  In Nov of 1666, he exchanged his Rowley farm with Thomas Kimball   of Ipswich and immediately removed there.  The Kimball farm was in the westerly part of Ipswich known as the Line Brook Parish near Topsfield.

24 Jan 1691/92 York, York,MaineSamuel WEBBER’s daughter-in-law Magdalene Hilton  first married 1691 in York, York, Maine to Nathaniel Adams (b. 1660 in York – d. 1692 in York) On 24 Jan 1691/92 Nathaniel was killed and Magdalene was captured by Indians. She was redeemed in 1695, and next married Apr 1697 in York, York, Maine. to Elias Weare (b. 5 Apr 1672 in York – d. 10 Aug 1707 in York) The next attack occurred about two years later, August 10, 1707, was a Sabbath evening. Sergeant Smith and Elias Weare, returning from evening service together with Mrs. Elizabeth (Hilton) Littlefield and her young son, were slain by the Indians between York Harbor and Cape Neddick. Joshua Hilton, brother of Mrs. Littlefield was taken captive. John Webber was her third husband. Magdalene died on 4 Feb 1725/26 in York, Maine.

18 Jul 1694 at present-day Durham, New Hampshire.  A force of about 250 Indians under command of the French soldier, Claude-Sébastien de Villieu, and “the fighting priest” Fr. Louis-Pierre Thury attacked settlements in this area on both sides of the Oyster River, killing or capturing approximately 100 settlers, destroying five garrison houses and numerous dwellings. It was the most devastating French and Indian raid on New England during King William’s war.  See my post Oyster River Massacre.

Durham, Strafford, New Hampshire

Durham, Strafford, New Hampshire

In all, 104 inhabitants were killed and 27 taken captive, with half the dwellings, including the garrisons, pillaged and burned to the ground. Crops were destroyed and livestock killed, causing famine and destitution for survivors.

Many genealogies say John DAVIS was killed in  Raid on Oyster River Massacre.  John actual died a few years earlier in 1686.   The actual toll to his family is bad enough; daughter Sarah, son John Jr, daughter-in-law Elizabeth, grandson James and grandson Samuel all killed, two to four grandchildren carried off to Canada, one to live for fifty years as a French nun. Another son and grandson were killed by Indians in 1720 and 1724.

Mary Smith Freeman

Mary Smith was born  24 May 1685 in Oyster River, Stafford,  New Hampshire.  Her parents were James Smith and Sarah Davis.   Her parents were killed in King William’s War,  her father in 1690 and her mother and two brothers in the Oyster  River Massacre  18 Jul 1694 in Durham, New Hampshire. Her grandparents were our ancestors Ensign John DAVIS and Jane PEASLEE.

She married 13 Nov 1707 Eastham, Barnstable, Mass to Thomas Freeman Jr. (b. 12 Oct 1676 Harwich, Barnstable, Mass – d. 22 Mar 1715/16 Orleans, Barnstable, Mass) His parents were our ancestors Thomas FREEMAN and Rebecca SPARROW.  Thomas had married first Bathsheba Mayo, but she died four months after their marriage.  After Thomas died, Mary married again aft. Mar 1717 in Eastham, Barnstable, Mass. to Hezekiah Doane (1672 – 1752) Mary died in  1732 in Eastham, Barnstable, Mass.

I wonder how Mary came the 150 miles from New Hampshire to marry and live in Eastham on Cape Cod. Around 1700, most marriages were within the same towns.

Here’s a romanticized version I found where Thomas was a mariner who had business at Oyster River where he met Mary, fell in love and brought her home to the Cape to be married.  I’m not sure of the author,but,  I’ve updated a little of the florid 19th Century language and omitted incorrect details like their mother scooping babes Samuel and James into her arms since they were actually 11 and 13 years old.

In the days of the French and Indian Wars, the  town of Durham,  [today home to the University of New Hampshire], was called Oyster River. The scattered farmhouses were guarded by six or eight garrison houses. Nothing lay between the settlements and Quebec, but the unbroken wilderness known only to the Indians, the fur traders and the marauding war parties which were sent out against each other by Catholic Canada and Protestant New England.

Mary Smith lived at the Inn which was kept by her father James Smith and her mother Sarah Davis in Oyster River N.H.  The people lived in constant terror of attack. Mary’s father was killed by the Indians, and Mary’s mother took her five children and moved into the garrison house near by with her brother Ensign John Davis.

July 18, 1694 some 200 Indians led by 20 French Canadians and 2 Catholic Priests burst, without warning, on the sleeping village.  The garrison house of Ensign Davis, Mary’s Uncle, was quickly surrounded. One of the French leaders and a Catholic priest promised safety for him and his household if he surrendered. He took them at their word, realizing all too well, that alone he could not hold out long. The instant he unbolted the door, he was rushed upon by the Indians, tomahawked and scalped, together with is wife and two of their children while the two older girls were seized as captives. When Mary’s mother saw what was happening, she  shouted for her  children to run for their lives out the back door. Somehow, Mary, her sister Sarah, and brother John made their escape and hid in the woods.  [Mary’s brothers James (1681 – 1694) and Samuel (1683 – 1694) were not so lucky.]

Twenty-eight of Mary’s closest relatives met death that morning.  In all, 104 inhabitants were killed and 27 taken captive,  with half the dwellings, including the garrisons, pillaged and burned to the ground. But Mary was not to be taken captive. In a few days Captain Tom Freeman from Cape Cod was heading his lumber schooner in toward Oyster River for a load of sawn boards. He found several frightened, bewildered people who told him of the massacre. He loaded no lumber that trip but began to search along the bank and in the woods for all those he could possibly save.

Among this group was our ancestor Mary Smith. She was taken to Tom Freeman’s father’s home which was in Harwich, Mass. Mary was reared and educated by those fine people and when she grew up she married the youthful sea captain who had rescued her – Captain John Freeman _ Mary Smith Freeman.

From the family Bible – we read in Mary’s own precise handwriting –

Mary Smith born May 24, 1685 Md Tom Freeman November 13, 1707

In a short ten years her husband was dead and she a widow at thirty-three with four little children. The final line of the record reads – My husband Thomas Freeman deceased March 22, 1718.

Mary’s sister Sarah came to Eastham to marry Joshua Harding in 1702. So a more likely scenario is that Mary came to visit, or even live, with Sarah and met Thomas then.

Judith Davis

Ensign John DAVIS‘ daughter  Judith, wife of Captain Samuel Emerson, was also taken by the Indians and remained in captivity five years.

Judah Emerson -- From - New England Captives Carried to Canada Between 1677 and 1760  By Emma Lewis Coleman

Judah Emerson — From – New England Captives Carried to Canada Between 1677 and 1760
By Emma Lewis Coleman

Mary Ann Davis

Ensign John DAVIS”s granddaughter, daughter of John Davis is one the most interesting of the captives taken at Oyster River, July 18, 1694.  According to a constant tradition in Durham, became a nun in Canada and refused to return home at the redemption of captives in 1699. This was Sister St. Benedict, of the Ursuline convent, Quebec, the first native of New Hampshire, if not of New England, to embrace the conventional life.

Mary Anne Davis was seven years old when the Indians, on the above-mentioned day, burnt her father’s house and killed him and his wife and several children, as well as his widowed sister and two of her sons. They spared, however, his two young daughters,- whom they carried into captivity, but who, unfortunately, were separated.

One of them, named Sarah, was afterwards redeemed, and was living at Oyster River October 16, 1702, on which day her maternal uncle, Jeremiah Burnham, was appointed her guardian and the administrator of her father’s estate. She afterwards married Peter Mason, but was left a widow before 1747.  Sarah inherited her father’s land at Turtle Pond and also his homestead on the south side of the Oyster River.  With true Davis tenacity to life she was still living in 1771, when she sold part of her homestead lands toJohn Sullivan (afterwards General  in the Revolutionary army, delegate in the Continental Congress, Federal judge,  and Governor of New Hampshire). How much longer she lived does not appear. She left one daughter, at least, whose descendants can still be traced.

Though John Davis was killed in 1694 no attempt was made to administer on his estate till after his daughter Mary Anne’s religious profession, September 25, 1701, when all hope of her return home was renounced.

But to return to her sister, who chose the better part. Mary Anne was carried away by the Abenaki Indians, but was rescued not long after by Father Rale, who instructed and baptized her and conveyed her to Canada. In 1698 she entered the boarding-school at the Ursuline convent, Quebec. At her entrance into this “Maison des Vierges” of which she had heard among the Abenakis, she was transported with joy. “This is the house of the Lord,” she cried; “it is here I will henceforth live; it is here I will die.” She entered the novitiate of that house on St. Joseph’s day, March 19, 1699; and received the religious habit and white veil, with the name of Sister St. Benedict, the fourteenth of September following—the feast of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross. She took the black veil and made her vows September 25, 1701. Mademoiselle de Varennes, whose father was governor of Trois Rivieres for twenty-two years, took the white veil with her and made her vows at the same time. The latter was only fourteen years of age when she entered the novitiate.

Sister St. Benedict is said not to have known her own age, but was supposed to be a few years older. The trials she had undergone, however, must have given her an air of maturity beyond her years The Durham tradition does not mention her age, but speaks of her as “young” when taken captive. She died March 2, 1749. Her death is entered in the convent records as follows:

“The Lord has just taken from us our dear Mother Marie Anne Davis de St. Benoit after five months’ illness, during which she manifested great patience. She was of English origin and carried away by a band of savages, who killed her father before her very eyes. Fortunately she fell into the hands of the chief of a village who was a good Christian, and did not allow her to be treated as a slave, according to the usual practice of the savages towards their captives. She was about fifteen years old when redeemed by the French, and lived in several good families successively in order to acquire the habits of civilized life and the use of the French language. She everywhere manifested excellent traits of character, and appreciated so fully the gift of Faith that she would never listen to any proposal of returning to her own country, and constantly refused the solicitations of the English commissioners, who at different times came to treat for the exchange of prisoners. Her desire to enter our boarding-school in order to be more fully instructed in our holy religion was granted, and she soon formed the resolution to consecrate herself wholly to Him who had so mercifully led her out of the darkness of heresy. Several charitable persons aided in paying the expenses of her entrance, but the greater part of her dowry was given by the community [i.e., by the Ursulines themselves] in view of her decided vocation and the sacrifice she made of her country in order to preserve her faith.

Her monastic obligations she perfectly fulfilled, and she acquitted herself with exactness of the employments assigned her by holy obedience. Her zeal for the decoration of the altar made her particularly partial to the office of sacristan. Her love of industry, her ability, her spirit of order and economy, rendered her still very useful to the community, though she was at least seventy years of age.

“She had great devotion to the Blessed Virgin and daily said the rosary. Her confidence in St. Joseph made her desire his special protection at the hour of death—a desire that was granted, for she died on the second of March of this year 1749, after receiving the sacraments with great fervor, in the fiftieth year of her religious life.”

Sarah Davis 1

New England Captives Carried to Canada Between 1677 and 1760 During the …
By Emma Lewis Coleman 1926

Sarah Davis 2
Sarah Davis 3
Sarah Davis 4

There was another Mary Ann Davis who became a nun in Canada in early times. She was, likewise, a captive from New England. She became a nun at the Hotel Dieu, Quebec, in 1710, under the name of Sister St. Cecilia. She was taken to Canada by the Rev. Father Vincent Bigot, S.J., who had ransomed her from the Indians at St. Francis. She is mentioned as leading ” a holy life” for more than fifty years in the religious state. She died in 1761, at the age of seventy-three. There is no record of her birthplace or parentage. She may have been the daughter mentioned by the Rev. John Pike, of Dover, N. H., in his journal:

“August 9, 1704, The wife, son, and daughter of John Davis, of Jemaico, taken by ye Indians in yr house or in yr field.” [Jemaico was part of Scarborough, Maine.]

7 Oct 1695 Newbury, Essex, Mass – In the afternoon, a party of Indians, not more than five or six in number, secreted themselves near John BROWN’S house; and, after the male members of the family had departed with a load of farm produce, the Indians left their place of concealment, and, stealthily approaching the house, tomahawked a girl standing at the front door, seized such articles of household furniture and wearing apparel as they could conveniently take away, and hastily departed with nine captives, all women and children. The names and ages of the children of John and Ruth Brown at this time were as follows:

John, born Oct. 27. 1683, twelve years old.
Isaac, born Feb. 4. 1685, ten years, eight months old. (died on that date)
Thomas BROWN, born Jan. 1, 1689, five years, ten months old.
Joseph, born Nov. 5, 1690, nearly five years old.
Abel, born April 4, 1693, two years, six months old.
Ruth, born July, 1695, three months old.

Only one inmate of the house, a girl, escaped capture; and, after the departure of the Indians, she gave the alarm. Colonel Daniel Pierce, of Newbury, immediately notified Colonel Appleton and Colonel Wade, of Ipswich, that assistance was needed, and requested that men be sent to range the woods toward Bradford and Andover, to prevent the escape of the Indians, if possible.

According to tradition, the captives were recovered on the northwesterly side of Pipe Stave Hill, near a small stream that empties into the Merrimack, now known as Indian River. The number killed or seriously injured is somewhat uncertain, as the reports of the attack and pursuit are contradictory and confusing.

Cotton Mather, in volume 2, book 7, article 23, of the ” Magnalia,” says : —

The Indians entered the house of one John Brown at Newbury, carrying away nine persons with them. Captain [Stephen] Greenleaf, [grandson of Edmund GREENLEAF] pursuing the murderers, was wounded by them, but retook the captives. The Indians, however, had beaten them so unmercifully that they all afterward died except one lad who was only hurt in the shoulder. Some of them lingered for six months, and some for more than a year, suffering from their wounds.

Judge Samuel Sewall in his diary says :  Oct. 7, 1695. Jn” Brown’s family of Turkey hill are led captive. All are brought back save one boy that was killed; knock’d the rest on the head, save an infant.

Rev. John Pike in his journal says, “The captives were all retaken, but some died of their wounds.”

Oct. 8, 1695, Colonel Thomas Wade wrote from Ipswich as follows: —

Honored Sir,
Just now Captain Wicom brings information that the last night Captain Greenleaf with a party of men met with the enemy by the river side, have redeemed all the captives but one, which they doubt is killed. Three of the Indians got into a canoe and made escape, and the other two ran into the woods. Captain Greenleaf is wounded in the side and arm, how much we know not, which is all at present from your servant.
Thomas Wadk.

On the 5th of March, 1695-6, Captain Greenleaf [grandson of our ancestor Capt. Edmund GREENLEAF] addressed the following petition to the General Court:

To the Honh1* William Stoughton Esqr Lieu’ Governr &c. the Council and Representatives of his Ma*” Province of the Massachusetts Bay in New England, convened in General Assembly, March 5″‘ 1695-6.
The Petition of Cap* Stephen Greenleafe of Newbury Humbly sheweth That upon the 7″‘ of October last, about three o’clock in the afternoon, a party of Indians surprised a Family at Turkey hill in sd town, captivated nine persons, women and Children, rifled the house, carrying away the Bedding and other Goods. Only one person in the House escaped; and gave notice to the next Family and they to the Town. Upon the Alarm your Petr with a party of men pursued after the Enemy, endeavoring to line the River Merrimack to prevent their passing over, by which meanes the Captives were recovered and brought back.
The Enemy lay in a Gully hard by the Highway, and about nine at night made a shot at your Petitioner and shot him through the Wrist between the bones, and also made a large wound in his side, Which wounds have been very painful and costly to your Pet’ in the cure of them and have in a great measure utterly taken away the use of his left hand, and wholly taken him off from his Imployment this Winter.
Your Petitioner therefore humbly prayes this HonrI,K’ Court that they would make him Such Compensation as shall seem fit, which he shall thankfully acknowledge, and doubts not but will be an Encouragemen’ to others speedily to relieve their Neighbours when assaulted by so barbarous an Enemy.
And your Petr shall ever pray, &c.
Stephen Greenleaf.*

In answer to this petition a vote was passed and approved March 7, 1695-6, and embodied in Chapter 63 of the Laws of the Province of Massachusetts Bay, as follows: —

Upon reading the petition of Capt” Stephen Greenleaf of Newbury, lately wounded and maimed in his maj’-vs service, praying some allowance and compensation for his smart, cure, loss of time and of the use of his left hand,—
Voted, a concurrance with the representatives, that the said Captain Stephen Greenleaf be paid, out of the province treasury, the sum of forty pounds, which shall be in full of what he hath been out upon cure and what yearly pension he might have expected had not this been granted.

Coffin, in his History of Newbury, says, “This is the only instance in which the Indians either attacked, captivated, or killed any of the inhabitants of the town of Newbury.

15 Mar 1697 Haverhill, Mass, George CORLISS (1617 – 1686)’s daughter Mary Neff was 15 nursing Hannah Dustin who had given birth the week before.  They taken prisoner by the Indians in an attack on Haverhill and carried towards Canada.

Haverhill, Essex, Mass

Haverhill, Essex, Mass

Hannah Duston (1657 – 1736) was a colonial Massachusetts Puritan woman who escaped Native American captivity by leading her fellow captives in scalping their captors at night. Duston is the first woman honored in the United States with a statue.

Hannah Dustin Statue Penacook New Hampshire

Hannah Dustin Statue Penacook New Hampshire

Today, Hannah Dustin’s actions are controversial, with some  calling her a hero, but others calling her a villain, and some Abenaki leaders saying her legend is racist and glorifies violence. As early as the 19th Century, Hannah’s legal argument had lost its Old Testament authority and came to be interpreted, or misinterpreted, as a justification for vengeance.  See my post Hannah Dustin – Heroine or Cold Blooded Killer


9 May 1698 Kittery, Maine – Enoch HUTCHINS  was killed by Indians at Spruce Creek,  near Oyster River Plantation (Kittery, York County, Maine.)  as he was at work in his field, and 3 of his sons carried away. The same day Joseph Pray of York was wounded.”

Hutchins Cove Road, Kittery Maine

Hutchins Cove Road, Kittery Maine

Tradition says the wife of Hutchins was also taken, but she was back in time to show his estate to appraisers on 7 June 1698.   Apparently she kept house for the next thirty years for Rowland Williams, for she billed his estate for this care after his death. Benjamin returned from Canada before May 29, 1701. Samuel returned in January 1699, and Jonathan returned in 1705.

Spruce Creek, Kittery, Maine

Spruce Creek, Kittery, Maine — Enoch was killed “in his own door” by Indians. He resided on the Eastern Branch of Spruce Creek, Kittery, in a garrison house

Enoch Hutchins bought of Thomas Withers, 7 July 1675, a tract of land “the one end facing upon Spruce Cricke, being twenty foure pooles in breadth, & runneng up by a brooke on the South side of It, one hundred & sixty pooles.” It thus contained twenty-four acres. Its location is more definitely stated in Hutchins’ will, wherein he speaks of his Garrison house and “about thirty acres more or less fronting the maine Creeck Bounded in breadth by Rowland Williams and Martins Cove.” This was in 1693. Enoch Hutchins was killed by Indians in his own door, 9 May 1698, and his wife, who was Mary Stevenson of Dover, was carried into captivity. This seems to locate Hutchins’ lot between Peter Lewis on the north and Nicholas Weeks and John Phoenix on the south, at Martin’s Cove, just south of Pine Point.

Old Kittery and her families By Everett Schermerhorn Stackpole

This long war [where Enoch Hutchins was killed]  reduced the population of Kittery to extreme poverty. The houses and barns of many were burned and their cattle killed. The schools were discontinued for fear that the children in going and coming would be exposed to hostile attacks. If religious services were held, they were attended by armed men. Petitions were sent to the General Court every year from 1694 to 1697, asking for relief from taxation and aid in paying the minister at Berwick. The following represents as well as any the sad conditions of the inhabitants.

To the Right Honorable William Stoughton Esqr Leiftt Governr & Commandr in cheif of his Maj ties Prouince of the Massachusetts Bay in New-England, Together with ye Honorable Council of the said Province. The Selectmen of Kittery humbly Petition That yor honors would Condescend to take thought concerning our poor Estate and accordingly be helpful to us. Tis more difficult abundantly plainly to represent our Calamity to yor Honors than solembly here to groan under it; the latter during Gods good pleasure we must endure; which we hope by your sensible acquaintance therewith may in some measure be alleviated, if it might please yor Honors to abate the whole set proportion in that Province Rate which was Granted Novbr 18 1696 amountting to 36 lbs according to ye Treasurers Warrant Mar. 17 1696/7 which (severall things considered) we think scarce possible to be collected within our precincts

1. May it be thought on the Town in Generall are allmost overcome & discouraged by the tediousness of the Warr finding their Estate daily decaying and Expecting Poverty to come upon them like an armed man.

2. As indeed (blessed be God) some and those very few that can wth much adoe Get a Comfortable livelyhood, so very many are in the greatest extremity not having a days Prouison to live upon nor any thing where by to procure sustenance insomuch that it’s wonderfull yt some do not perish for want, and they are destitute of money wherewithall to assist ymselues with things necessary, so we yor Honors humble supplicants cannot (with conscience) impose any burthen upon ym except yor honors after Consideration of ye Circumstances are pleased not to release yr Taxes.

Genealogical Dictionary of Maine and New Hampshire, by Sybil Noyes; Charles T. Libby, and Walter G. Davis, 1928-1939:

Like his father, Enoch Hutchins Jr. had trouble with the Indians. The house he inherited from his father was attacked by Indians for the second time on May 4, 1705. Enoch was left wounded and helpless, probably later dying from his wounds. His wife was taken captive with 3 sons; was in Canada in 1706, gave birth to her fourth child while in Canada, but was back by Jan 13, 1706/7.  His son, William, born Aug 1, 1694 (called Nicholas in Canada), returned unexpectedly in Jan 1732 to be disowned by brothers, but accepted by mother. His son, Thomas, born Sep 20, 1696, and his brother Enoch were also captured but how and when they returned is unknown

History of the Town of Durham, New Hampshire (Oyster River Plantation) by Everett Stackpole & Lucien Thompson, 1913:

Enoch appears first in Maine as a signer of the Kittery Petition in 1662. Enoch and his brother John settled at Spruce Creek, Kittery in 1667. They were two of the first settlers of Kittery. He bought land of Thomas Withers at Spruce Creek on Jul 7, 1675 and built a garrison house and lived there the rest of his life. He made his will Jun. 7, 1693. In January 1690 the settlements of the English and French were encroaching on each other, and the French organized Indian war parties to attach these English settlements. This action started the King William’s War which was not settled until 1698, but not before Kittery, Maine was attached and Enoch Hutchins was killed.

He was called an old man when killed by Indians at Kittery while he was at work in his field, and three sons taken into Canada on May 9, 1698.

His son Benjamin was captured and returned before May 29, 1698, His son Samuel was captured but returned the next January. His son Jonathan was captured but still in Canada May 1701.

Feb 1703 Worcester, Worcester, Mass, Abenaki indians attacked the Sargent home, scalped Digory and killed him inside the home. They then took Digory’s wife and their 6 kids captive to Canada.   Supposedly the wife was to weak to travel and just outside town they scalped and killed her as well as the infant of the children. the 5 remaining siblings (John, Daniel, Martha, Mary, Thomas) were taken back to Canada. John, Thomas and Martha were ransomed back to the colony, while Daniel and Mary remained in Canada.

Digory Sargent Mural

Mural of the Indian attack on the Digory Sargent Family in Worcester, Mass. This mural was painted by artist Will S. Taylor in the main entry of Vernon Hill School in Worcester, Mass.

In his will, Digory Sargent (1651 – 1704) granted his entire estate to George PARMENTER of Sudbury to dispose of as he saw fit to raise Digory’s children.   Digory was scalped and killed by the Indians in Worcester and buried somewhere on his land at the foot of an oak tree by his belated rescuers.  A committee divide the estate into six equal parts.Sixty arce lot and another 150 arces .  Sudbury where George lived is about 25 miles away from Worcester.  There must not have been very many close neighbors on the frontier in those days.

Digory’s son Daniel Sargeant b. Aug 1699 in Worcester, Mass,  lived for a while with the Abenaki  Indians. It is said that they “gave” him to the governor,Philippe de Rigault Vaudreuil (or was perhaps “redeemed” by the him).

Philippe de Rigaud, Marquis de Vaudreuil (1643-1725) Governor General of New France (1703-1725)  redeemed Daniel Sargent from the Indians

Daniel was baptized  6 Nov 1707 Age: 9 in  Notre Dame Basilique, Montreal, Quebec, Canada as Louis Phillippe Sargent.   This became corrupted to Serien, which is how it would have been pronounced.   He had been given by this time, by the governor, to Robert Poitier to raise and he grew up in Poitier’s household. Naturalized May 170 Age: 12 Quebec, Canada Louis Phillippe Sargent; Inventaire des Insinuations du Conseil Souverain de la Nouvelle France by Pierre Georges Roy.   Later in time he begain using a “dit” name of Langlais which is French for “The Englishman” and thats the name he passed on to his children. He lived in Riviere Ouelle, Kamouraska Co., PQ and his “Langlais” descendants in number probably far surpass that of his brother, John.

; m. 22 Jan 1718 Riviere Ouelle, Kamouraska, Quebec, Canada to Marguerite Lavoie (1693 – 1773); d. bef. 3 Aug 1728 in Rivière Ouelle,Kamouraska, Quebec, Canada

Qc Kamouraska.png

Daniel Sargent became Louis-Philippe Serien Langlois and raised a family in Kamouraska Quebec

13 May 1704  Easthampton, Mass.  At daybreak, a combined attack was made on Pascommuck by the French and their Indian allies.  Amongst the first settlers in Pascommuck (now Easthampton), were  Thomas SEARLE’S grandson John and John’s second wife, Mary, with their large family. The only surviving son of his first marriage, John Jr., was now thirty, married to Abigail (Pomeroy), and had a family.

Easthampton, Hampshire, Mass

Easthampton, Hampshire, Mass

There was no watch at the garrison, and although the house of Benoni Jones was fortified, the Indians were able to creep up, put their guns through the port-holes, and fire on the sleeping inhabitants. In the ensuing massacre, John(3) Searle and three of his four children (Abigail, 6; John, 4; and Caleb, 18 months) were killed. John’s wife, Abigail was dragged off, but when the Indians discovered that she was pregnant, and would not survive the journey to Canada, they knocked her on the head, and left her for dead. Fortunately, she was not scalped (as was another survivor!) but was rescued and four months later gave birth to John’s fifth child, a girl named Submit.

The remaining child of John(3) and Abigail, nine-year-old Elisha, also survived the Massacre, but was captured by the Indians. Seeing that the Indians were systematically murdering the children, Elisha grabbed a pack, and ran off. At this, the Indians decided he might be useful, and recaptured him and took him off to Canada, where he was adopted by a French family, and brought up as a Catholic.

Benoni Jones, [who had been indentured as a young man to our ancestor  Lt. William CLARK ] and his two youngest children were also killed.

Years later Elisha Searle returned to Pascommuck to claim his inheritance but not intending to stay. With him came an Indian guide, but the local people persuaded Elisha to remain in Pascommuck, and after some months the Indian returned to Canada alone. Elisha married a local girl, Rebecca Danks, and had six children, one of whom he called Catherine, in remembrance of a French girl, his “Katreen”, who he had left behind in Canada.

1704 Pascommuck Monument

1704 Pascommuck Monument

In Easthampton, Hampshire,. Mass. (formerly Pascommuck), there stands a boulder  recording the 1704 Massacre, in which 19 of the 33 people there were killed. From this account it must be assumed that John (2) Searle, and the rest of his family escaped the attack, or were outside the area chosen by the attackers.

4 May 1705 Kittery Maine – Like his father,  Enoch HUTCHINS (See above) Enoch Hutchins Jr.  had trouble with the Indians. The house he inherited from his father was attacked by Indians for the second time on May 4, 1705. Enoch was left wounded and helpless, probably later dying from his wounds Apr 3, 1706.

His wife was taken captive with 3 sons; was in Canada in 1706, gave birth to her fourth child while in Canada, but was back by Jan 13, 1706/7.

His son, William, born 1 Aug  1694 (called Nicholas in Canada), returned unexpectedly in Jan 1732 to be disowned by brothers, but accepted by mother. His sons, Thomas, born Sep 20, 1696, and Enoch were also captured but how and when they returned is unknown.

No provision was made for son William. if he should return. His mother  deposed in 1732 that he was in his 12th yr. when captured,  in his 14th yr. when she left him in Canada. He won against his brothers in Court and in  Dec 1736, of Kittery, sold a double portion in father’s 1694 grant.  He married in 17 Oct. 1734  to Mary Keene.

Pike records the following,

4 May 1705: “Many persons surprised by the Indians at Spruce Creek and York. John Brown, H. Bams, a child of Dodavah Curtis and a child of Enoch Hutchins slain,—rest carried captive by ten or a dozen Indians. Also Mrs. Hoit [Hoel it should be], running up the hill to discern the outcry, fell into their hands and was slain.” Penhallow speaks of Mrs. Hoel as a “gentlewoman of good extract and education.” He says also, “The greatest sufferer was Enoch Hutchins in the loss of his wife and children.” The Dennett manuscripts afford further particulars. This Mrs. Hutchins is called the great-grandmother of Col. Gowen Wilson. The family were surprised by the Indians, her husband shot at the door and she was ordered to prepare to march with them. She pulled her husband’s body into the house and shut the door, and then with her two little boys was compelled to march. One of the boys was soon unable to keep up, when one of the Indians, thinking perhaps that the boy would be killed, kindly caught him up in his arms and ran away with him. Several days afterward the mother and boy were under the care of this kind Indian. One of the Hutchins boys is said to have split a wooden shoe from his foot with a hatchet, which feat won the admiration of the Indians. The other shoe was brought home from captivity and is still preserved. It was in the possession of Col. Gowen Wilson in 1869.

22 Apr 1708 Wells, York, Maine – John LITTLEFIELD’S son Josiah led a life beset by Indians. On 10 Aug 1707 on their way from Boston to Wells, with a four person escort and $200,  his wife, Lydia Masters and her group were set upon, robbed.  , Lydia Masters, and Josiah Jr. were killed.   His second wife Elizabeth was killed by Indians in 1738.

Josiah was captured by the Indians Apr 22, 1708 and taken to Canada.  He spent two years in Canada, writing letters arranging for his release, and returned in Apr 1710 to Wells.  On the 18 Apr 1712 (or 26 Apr 1713), he was shot down while working in his cornfield. He is buried in a small private lot on the easterly side of the Boston Post Road (Rt #1).which is now the Willow Tree Restaurant in Wells, Maine.   Samuel and Elizabeth Cole adopted the children of Josiah which were brought for baptism.  There were eight children surviving, three sons and five daughters.

April 22, 1708, Lieutenant (in the York militia) Josiah Littlefield and Joseph Winn were beset by Indians.  Josiah was captured and taken to Montreal, where he was allowed to write his family in Wells and Governor Dudley in Boston to petition a hostage swap (he and a white child for two Indians taken captive by the settlers).  He also wrote to his best friend  Joseph [Josiah?] Winn, asking him to take care of his estate and his minor children until Josiah could be rescued or if he died in captivity.  Neither the French nor the Indians were in a hurry to exchange Josiah, for they discovered his “mechanical services” and knowledge of mills and water courses most useful to their own needs.  While in captivity the court ordered that his estate and children be placed in charge of Josiah Winn, who had married his sister Lydia.

In the autumn of 1709, a prisoner swap was finally agreed upon, and Josiah was released into the wilderness to make his own way home.  In poor health, he hadn’t gone far when he was captured by another group of Indians who then sold him to an individual Indian.  This new master nursed Josiah back to health and agreed to help him broker a deal with the English for his release.  (Apparently, Josiah had convinced him his family had the means to buy him back.)  He was taken to the fort near Canso, but the governor had made it a policy not to buy back prisoners.  Thwarted, Josiah tried to go behind the governor’s back, appealing directly to his Wells relatives in hopes they might privately purchase his release…but his letter was intercepted and sent to the governor, thus setting back negotiations.

In the spring of 1710, the Indian surrendered Josiah to the fort in the hopes that Josiah, whom he had come to view as an honorable man, might do the right thing and compensate him after the fact.  Personal letters reveal that he did.

Having returned to Wells, Josiah’s troubles were not over.  Joseph Winn had taken good care of his friend’s estate, providing well for his second wife Elizabeth and his minor children…but Elizabeth was sorely put out that she had not been put in charge and accused Joseph of mismanagement of funds.  She used her marital position to cast seeds of doubt in Josiah’s mind about the fiscal loyalty of his best friend, and the friendship was ruined.  After Josiah’s death–he was killed by Indians as he and a party of men were working their fields–Elizabeth carried on the feud with Joseph by suing him.  She eventually married the lawyer representing her, and their children carried on the suit.  It came to be known as the longest running litigation and family feud in colonial Maine history.

Josiah's River at Logging Road, Cape Neddick, Maine

Josiah’s River at Logging Road, Cape Neddick, Maine

The Josias River is a 2.7-mile-long river in southern Maine in the United States. The river enters the Gulf of Maine in the town of Ogunquit where it and the Ogunquit River come together at Perkin’s Cove, a popular artist and tourist area.   Josiah Littlefield owned considerable property along the river, and he built and operated a saw mill at the falls on the river for several years.   The river was named in Josiah Littlefield’s memory.

26 Jul 1708 Westfield, Mass –   Seven or eight Indians rushed into the house of Lt Abel WRIGHT of Skipmuch (Skepmuck, later to become the present town of Westfield) in Springfield, and killed two soldiers, Aaron Parsons of Northampton and Benjah Hulbert of Enfield; scalped the wife of Lt Wright, who died Oct 19; took Hannah, the wife of Lt.Wright’s son Henry, and probably slew her; killed her infant son Henry in a cradle and knocked in the head of her daughter Hannah, aged 2 years, in the same cradle; the latter recovered.

Westfield, Hampden, Mass

Westfield, Hampden, Mass

The farm and residence of Abel and Martha was still on the exposed west side of the river, near a place bearing the indian name of Skepmuck, later to become the present town of Westfield. Apparently at least one of their sons, Henry, lived nearby with his own family. On 26 July 1708, indians again came upon the town and its outlying farms. After they had gone, Martha was found lying unconscious in the yard beside their ransacked house. She had been scalped. Martha lingered on until the 19th of October of that year, then died of her wounds. The indians also had killed in this attack an infant of Abel’s son, Henry, and captured Henry’s wife, who died soon after. Henry and his wife, Hannah, had been married only three years before.

The attack on the Wright family was part of  Queen Anne’s War (1702–1713),  the North American theater of the War of the Spanish Succession  fought between  France  and England in North America for control of the continent. The War of the Spanish Succession was primarily fought in Europe. In addition to the two main combatants, the war also involved numerous Native American tribes allied with each nation, and Spain, which was allied with France.

10 Jun 1724 Dover, NHEnsign John DAVIS’ son  Moses escaped the massacre of 1694 and accompanied his brother James in some of the expeditions to Maine and Port Royal. He lived in a clearing of the forest about a mile from Oyster river falls, where, 10 Jun 1724, he and his son Moses Jr. were killed by a party of Indians, who lay in ambush to attack the settlement. He was then sixty-seven years of age. A negro slave of his avenged their murder by pursuing the Indians and shooting one of the leaders.

Love Davis, daughter of Moses, in view of the fidelity of this slave, gave orders that at his death he should be buried at her feet. This was done, and their graves are still pointed out at a short distance from Durham village.

The Indian thus slain by the servant of Moses Davis is now generally supposed to have been a son of the Baron de St. Castin, who had married the daughter of an Indian sagamore of Maine. Dr. Belknap, whose account of the affair was derived from the Rev. Hugh Adams * —a man of extreme malevolence— His equipment, moreover, proves that he held the rank of a chief. Dr. Belknap thus describes him : ” The slain Indian was a person of distinction, and wore a kind of coronet of scarlet-dyed fur, with an appendage of four small bells, by the sound of which the others might follow him through the thickets. His hair was remarkably soft and fine, and he had about him a devotional book and a muster-roll of one hundred and eighty Indians.”  The scalp of this young chief was presented to the New Hampshire General Assembly at Portsmouth June 12, 1724, by Robert Burnham, son of Jeremiah before-mentioned, and a bounty of one hundred pounds was ordered to be paid to the slayer.

A few weeks later Father Rale himself, the deliverer of Mary Anne Davis from the Indians, was slain at the foot of his mission-cross in the attack on Norridgewock by the Massachusetts forces, August 12, 1724, and his chapel pillaged and burnt to the ground.

Love Davis may be considered an important link in the chain of  Davis  traditions, for she did not die till 1805, when she was about one hundred years ot age. Her nephew, Jabez Davis, furnished Dr. Belknap, the New Hampshire historian, with considerable information concerning his native town.

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Genealogy and the 2nd Ammendment

When I first started this genealogy project, I was thrilled to find our ancestors David WINGJohn COLEMAN and Seth RICHARSON “marched on the alarm of April 19, 1775”  celebrated today as the civic holiday Patriots’ Day in Massachusetts and Maine.

The rebellion’s leaders, Samuel Adams and John Hancock made a stop at our ancestor Francis WYMAN’S  home on the outskirts of Woburn, now part of Burlington on their flight from Lexington, ahead of the British troops, but that’s a different story.

As I continued the project I found more and more relatives who also “marched on the alarm of April 19.”  So far the count is up to 27 ancestors, sons and grandsons who “dropped their plows in their furoughs” and rushed to Lexington and Concord.  Maybe having minutemen in your family tree isn’t so unusual.  Maybe everyone from a hundred miles around rallied to surround Boston.

See my post Minutemen – April 19, 1775

I had a mental picture of a single company of Patriots meeting a regiment of redcoats at Lexington Green.  Indeed,  the engagement at Lexington was a minor skirmish. As the regulars’ advance guard under Pitcairn entered Lexington at sunrise on April 19, 1775, 77 Lexington militiamen emerged from Buckman Tavern and stood in ranks on the village common watching them.   Their leader was Captain John Parker, a veteran of the French and Indian War.  Of the militiamen who lined up, nine had the surname Harrington, seven Munroe (including the company’s orderly sergeant, William Munroe), four Parker, three Tidd, three Locke, and three Reed; fully one quarter of them were related to Captain Parker in some way.  This group of militiamen was part of Lexington’s “training band”, a way of organizing local militias dating back to the Puritans, and not what was styled a minuteman company

There were 77 militiamen at Lexington, 400 at Concord and 3,800 at the end of Battle.  By the next morning,  Boston was surrounded by a huge militia army, numbering over 15,000, which had marched from throughout New England.

Second Amendment

There are several versions of the text of the Second Amendment, each with capitalization or punctuation differences. Differences exist between the drafted and ratified copies, the signed copies on display, and various published transcriptions.  The importance (or lack thereof) of these differences has been the source of debate regarding the meaning and interpretation of amendment, particularly regarding the importance of the prefatory clause, especially since the first clause implies a collective right and the second clause implies an individual right.

A well regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed.

My genealogical insight is that in Colonial times, there wasn’t much of a distinction between the collective and individual rights to keep and bear arms.

Freeman – Initially, anyone first entering into a colony, or just recently having become a member of one of the local churches, was formally not free. Such persons were never forced to work for another individual, per se, but their movements were carefully observed, and if they veered from the Puritanical ideal, they were asked to leave the colony. If they stayed or later returned to the colony, they were put to death.There was an unstated probationary period that the prospective “freeman” needed to go through, and if he did pass this probationary period of time – usually one to two years – he was allowed his freedom.

Initially, all persons seeking to be free needed to take the Oath of a Freeman, in which they vowed to defend the Commonwealth and not to conspire to overthrow the government.

Captain- Each town  contained a company of soldiers. The soldiers of each town chose their own Captain and subalterns by a majority vote. The officers, when chosen, were installed into their place by the Major of the regiment.  The Court order, that all the souldiers belonging to the twenty-six bands in the Mattachusetts government, shall be exercised and drilled eight daies in a yeare, and whosoever should absent himself, except it were upon unavoidable occasions, should pay 5s. for every daie’s neglect.  Each regiment is to be exercised once a year.

Trainbands – Companies of militia, first organized in the 16th century and dissolved in the 18th. In the early American colonies the trainband was the most basic tactical unit. However, no standard company size ever existed and variations were wide. As population grew these companies were organized into regiments to allow better management. But trainbands were not combat units. Generally, upon reaching a certain age a man was required to join the local trainband in which he received periodic training for the next couple of decades. In wartime military forces were formed by selecting men from trainbands on an individual basis and then forming them into a fighting.  The exact derivation and usage is not clear.   The issue is whether the men “received training” in the modern sense, or whether they were “in the train” or retinue or were otherwise organized around a military “train” as in horse-drawn artillery.

At 16, males became eligible for military duty and were also considered adults for legal purposes, such as standing trial for crimes. Age 21 was the youngest at which a male could become a freeman, though for practical purposes this occurred sometime in a man’s mid-twenties.  Service was mandatory until age 60.  Genealogists use these dates to calculate birth years by counting backwards sixty years from when some one was excused from military service.

Lexington and Concord

The ride of Revere, Dawes, and Prescott triggered a flexible system of “alarm and muster” that had been carefully developed months before, in reaction to the colonists’ impotent response to the Powder Alarm. This system was an improved version of an old network of widespread notification and fast deployment of local militia forces in times of emergency. The colonists had periodically used this system all the way back to the early years of Indian wars in the colony, before it fell into disuse in the French and Indian War. In addition to other express riders delivering messages, bells, drums, alarm guns, bonfires and a trumpet were used for rapid communication from town to town, notifying the rebels in dozens of eastern Massachusetts villages that they should muster their militias because the regulars in numbers greater than 500 were leaving Boston, with possible hostile intentions. This system was so effective that people in towns 25 miles  from Boston were aware of the army’s movements while they were still unloading boats in Cambridge.  These early warnings played a crucial role in assembling a sufficient number of colonial militia to inflict heavy damage on the British regulars later in the day.

In the morning, Boston was surrounded by a huge militia army, numbering over 15,000, which had marched from throughout New England.

History of the Second Amendment

There was substantial opposition to the new Constitution, because it moved the power to arm the state militias from the states to the federal government. This created a fear that the federal government, by neglecting the upkeep of the militia, could have overwhelming military force at its disposal through its power to maintain a standing army and navy, leading to a confrontation with the states, encroaching on the states’ reserved powers and even engaging in a military takeover.

James Madison’s initial proposal for a bill of rights was brought to the floor of the House of Representatives on June 8, 1789, during the first session of Congress. The initial proposed passage relating to arms was:

1. The right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed; a well armed and well regulated militia being the best security of a free country but no person religiously scrupulous of bearing arms shall be compelled to render military service in person.

On July 21, Madison again raised the issue of his Bill and proposed a select committee be created to report on it. The House voted in favor of Madison’s motion,[106] and the Bill of Rights entered committee for review. The committee returned to the House a reworded version of the Second Amendment on July 28. On August 17, that version was read into the Journal:

2. A well regulated militia, composed of the body of the people, being the best security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed; but no person religiously scrupulous shall be compelled to bear arms.

The Second Amendment was debated and modified during sessions of the House in late August 1789. These debates revolved primarily around risk of “mal-administration of the government” using the “religiously scrupulous” clause to destroy the militia as Great Britain had attempted to destroy the militia at the commencement of the American Revolution. These concerns were addressed by modifying the final clause, and on August 24, the House sent the following version to the Senate:

3. A well regulated militia, composed of the body of the people, being the best security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed; but no one religiously scrupulous of bearing arms shall be compelled to render military service in person.

The next day, August 25, the Senate received the Amendment from the House and entered it into the Senate Journal. However, the Senate scribe added a comma before “shall not be infringed” and changed the semicolon separating that phrase from the religious exemption portion to a comma, as highlighted in green below:

4. A well regulated militia, composed of the body of the people, being the best security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed, but no one religiously scrupulous of bearing arms shall be compelled to render military service in person.

By this time, the proposed right to keep and bear arms was in a separate amendment, instead of being in a single amendment together with other proposed rights such as the due process right. As a Representative explained, this change allowed each amendment to “be passed upon distinctly by the States.”  On Sep 4, the Senate voted to change the language of the Second Amendment by removing the definition of militia, and striking the conscientious objector clause:

5. A well regulated militia, being the best security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed.

The Senate returned to this amendment for a final time on September 9. A proposal to insert the words “for the common defence” next to the words “bear arms” was defeated.  An extraneous comma added on August 25 was also removed.  The Senate then slightly modified the language and voted to return the Bill of Rights to the House. The final version passed by the Senate was:

6. A well regulated militia being the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed.

The House voted on September 21, 1789 to accept the changes made by the Senate, but the amendment as finally entered into the House journal contained the additional words “necessary to”:

7. A well regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the People to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed.

On Dec 15, 1791, the Bill of Rights  was adopted, having been ratified by three-fourths of the States.

In the 21st century, a debate centered on whether the prefatory clause (“A well regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free State”) declared the amendment’s only purpose or merely announced a purpose to introduce the operative clause (“the right of the People to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed”).

The question of a collective right versus an individual right was progressively resolved with the Fifth Circuit ruling in United States v. Emerson (2001), along with the Supreme Court’s rulings in District of Columbia v. Heller (2008), and McDonald v. Chicago (2010). These rulings upheld the individual rights model when interpreting the Second Amendment. In Heller, the Supreme Court upheld the Second Amendment as protecting an individual right   Although the Second Amendment is the only Constitutional amendment with a prefatory clause, such constructions were widely used elsewhere.

The majority opinion in Heller held that the amendment’s prefatory clause (referencing the “militia”) serves to clarify the operative clause (referencing “the people”), but does not limit the scope of the operative clause, because “the ‘militia’ in colonial America consisted of a subset of ‘the people’….”

The term “well regulated” means “disciplined” or “trained”.   In Heller, the U.S. Supreme Court stated that “[t]he adjective ‘well-regulated’ implies nothing more than the imposition of proper discipline and training.”  Alexander Hamilton wrote “A tolerable expertness in military movements is a business that requires time and practice. It is not a day, or even a week, that will suffice for the attainment of it. To oblige the great body of the yeomanry, and of the other classes of the citizens, to be under arms for the purpose of going through military exercises and evolutions, as often as might be necessary to acquire the degree of perfection which would entitle them to the character of a well-regulated militia, would be a real grievance to the people, and a serious public inconvenience and loss.”

Nowhere else in the Constitution does a “right of the people” refer to anything other than an individual right. What is more, in all six other provisions of the Constitution that mention “the people,” the term unambiguously refers to all members of the political community, not an unspecified subset. .

The “militia” comprised all males physically capable of acting in concert for the common defense. The Antifederalists feared that the Federal Government would disarm the people in order to disable this citizens’ militia, enabling a politicized standing army or a select militia to rule. The response was to deny Congress power to abridge the ancient right of individuals to keep and bear arms, so that the ideal of a citizens’ militia would be preserved.

Posted in History | 4 Comments

Freck Latta

Robert Ray “Freck” Latta (1836 – 1925)  is Alex’s first cousin, six times removed in the Miner line.

“Freck” Latta was born 4 Mar 1836 in Jamestown, Crawford, Pennsylvania.  His parents were John A. Latta and Mary McConahey..  His paternal grandparents were William L. LATTA and Elizabeth RANKIN and his maternal grandparents were Robert McCONAHEY and Margaret STORY.  He married  7 Apr 1857 Weldon Grove, Missouri to Mary Anna Cain.   Freck died  18 Sep 1925 in Garrison, Christian, Missouri;

Robert Ray (Freck) Latta

Mary Anna Cain was born  18 May 1822 Beaver County, Pennsylvania.  Mary Anna first married Nelson Edson (1820 – 1857) and had seven children including George Chandler Edson (1845-1932) who married Freck’s cousin Margaret J McConahey (See Margaret’s grandfather Robert McCONAHEY’s page for his story) Mary Anna’s brother Pressley married Freck’s sister Margaret.  Her parents were James Cain (1787 Beaver County, Pennsylvania – 27 Aug 1850 Meigs County, Ohio) and Nancy “Agnes” McElhaney.  Mary Anna died 20 Jun 1909 Garrison, Christian County, Missouri)

Nelson and Mary’s children

i. James Edson b. 1844
ii. George “Chan” Edson 1845-1932
iii. Newell Wesley Edson 1847-1939
iv. Nancy Edson b. 1849
v. Sarah Lucinda Edson b. 1852
vi. Laura S Edson b. 1853
vii. Mary Nelva “Molly” Edson b. 1856

Children of Freck and Mary Anna:

Name Born Married Departed
1. Rose Isabelle Latta 6 Apr 1858 Walden’s Grove, MO Thomas Wilkens
Rosita, Colorado
Aft. 1920 census, Santa Cruz, California
2. Elizabeth Alice Latta 4 May 1860 Montgomery County, Iowa John A. James
Rosita, Colorado
23 Oct 1910 Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California
3. William Ray Latta 26 Apr 1862
Rock Bluffs, Nebraska
Anna May Rupp
Daisy Bryant
26 Sep 1941 Fort Laramie, Goshen, Wyoming
4. Margaret Florence Latta  22 Jun 1864
Mills County, Iowa
Dr. Albert B. Wright
Jun 1889
William R. “Bob” Skehan
3 Aug 1897
Colorado Springs, CO
James Pressley Cain
27 Nov 1937
5. Robert “Robbie” Pressley Latta 7 Sep 1866
Mills County, Iowa
26 Dec 1894 
Fell down a shaft in the New Zealand mine, near Airman, Cripple Creek Mining District, Colorado

Mary and her husband, Nelson, her mother Agnes, and two brothers were traveling in Keokuk, Iowa on their way west when Nelson died from Cholera. Mary was pregnant with their youngest child at the time. She married Freck in April 1857 in Page Co., Iowa and they had five more children. They eventually settled in Christian County in south Missouri, and they are buried in Garrison.

In the 1880 census, Robert R. was a lumber dealer living in Rosita, Custer, Colorado with Mary A.  and five children ages 13 to 21.

Freck wrote a book entitled “Reminiscences of Pioneer Life” published in 1912 by Franklin Hudson, Kansas City, MO.(no longer in print) The following is an excerpt from the book, page 162:

“Freck, like thousands of others, surely lost his head over holes in the ground, which were called “mines.” In the process Mary and Freck’s babies all married, except their “baby boy” and Florence, the sweet little baby girl who was born in the dark, shady woods while the cannon down in the South-land belched forth fires of death and a loaded musket stood by the bedside. For twenty years Freck trailed over the ranges, and up and down the canyons and the gulches, at times working for a “grub-stake,” and again digging holes in the ground and panning dirt by the streams,, and living in cabins and tents and covered wagons. And Mary stayed with Freck through all these long and weary years, and shared his discouragements, his failures, his hopes, his cabins, his tents, and his covered wagon homes in the Rocky Mountains. And in the evenings, while the mountain wind sobbed and moaned in the pines or shivered through the aspen groves, with a miner’s glass they would examine the bits of rock and be almost persuaded that the hidden treasure was almost within their grasp. From the far north to the far south end of the Rocky Mountains, thousands of men were doing as Freck was doing, and meeting with the same disappointments; and many grew discouraged and reckless, and became dissolute gamblers and drunkards, and went to the dogs. But during all these years Freck never stood at the bar and drank a glass of whiskey, nor played a game of cards, nor crossed the threshold of a dance-hall; no, thank God! not once; because Mary stayed with him and was his guardian angel.

For three years Freck worked in a lumbering-camp in the Rocky Mountains and dug no holes in the ground, and had gotten together fifteen hundred dollars in gold and three teams; for Freck and Mary worked with their might and early, and late.

Then they, by a schemer, were induced to turn their faces to the south and take up land under the great Toas…..”

Freck and Mary eventually settled in southern Missouri, in Garrison, Christian County where it is believed, but not proven, that Freck had family. They are buried in the Garrison cemetery, their graves being one of the oldest..

In the 1880 census, Robert R was a lumber dealer in Rosita, Custer, Colorado.

Freck’s Boyhood Home from Reminiscences of Pioneer Life by R Latta – Google Books

Robert Ray “Freck” (on account of his freckles) got a job in 1852 at the age of 16,  carrying the United States mail by horseback between Washington and Bloomfield, Iowa, a distance of 80 miles.  The round trip had to be made in four days, a ride of 40 miles a day and the compensation was $480 a year.  He noted that he rode through prairie and gloomy woods 84 times and only met one horseman, one team and a band of Indians.  A few years later Freck and his family moved by wagon train across the  State to Page County, Iowa, where they built a log cabin and settled in.   In 1860 they went to Cass Co., Neb. and in 1861 to Mills Co., Iowa and in 1870 to Silver Cliff, Colo.  He was a miner.  In 1898 lived at Colorado Springs, Colo.  Wrote a book, “Reminiscences of Pioneer Life – Google Books“, published in 1912.  Click here for a review and excerpt.  It’s a fun read in a jaunty style as you can see from the preface.

Reminiscences of pioneer life – Preface.

In the late fall of 1856, another prairie schooner arrived with Pressley Martin Cain (Press), his widowed mother Nancy Agnes Cain and his sister, Mary Anna Cain Edson. His father, James Cain, had been a Scotch seceder and a soldier who fought under General Harrison in the War of 1812. With winter approaching, Freck’s mother invited the Cains to move into their cabin until they could build their own home in the spring.

According to information, Mary was eleven years older than Freck and had four children by her first husband, named Edson, who had died of cholera. m. Mrs. Mary A. Edson, nee Cain, sister to his sister Margaret’s husband, April 7, 1857, in Page Co., Iowa. She died on a farm on Ozark Mts. June 20, 1909. They were the first couple married in Valley Township., Iowa. In 1860 they went to Cass Co., Neb. and in 1861 to Mills Co., Iowa and in 1870 to Silver Cliff, Colo. Miner. In 1898 lived at Colorado Springs, Colo. Wrote a book, Robert and Mary are buried in the Garrison Cemetery, Christian County, Missouri. Their tombstones read: Mary Latta, 1824-1909, and Robert R. Latta, March 4, 1836 – Sept. 1925. In the 1920 Census, Robert was listed as living in Garrison, Christian County, MO. He was 83 years old. He was living with his daughter, Florence M. Cain, age 56, and his grandson, James R. Cain, age 14…

Reminiscences of pioneer life – By Freck Latta

Jim was Freck’s brother James McConahey Latta,  Will was Freck’s brother William McCobb Latta who died 6 Oct 1863 in Little Rock, Arkansas, Press was Freck’s brother-in-law Pressley Martin Cain  Eck was Freck’s brother John Erskine Latta


1. Rose Isabelle Latta

Rose Isabelle Latta Portrait

Rose’s husband Thomas Wilkens was born in Jul 1852 in England. He immigrated in 1873.

In 1904 lived at Tacoma, Wash. Three children: Fern, Irene and Leola.

In the 1920 census, Thomas was a building contractor, living in Santa Cruz, California with Rose, Irene and Leola who was now a Latham.

2. Elizabeth Alice Latta

Elizabeth’s husband John A. James was born Jun 1854 in Connarwell, Cornwall, England. His parents were William James and Christiana Andre Wartha. John died 13 Feb 1936 in Cook County, IL

Children: Raleigh, Grace, and Geneva.

3. William Ray Latta

William’s first wife Anna M Rupp was born Jan 1866 in Iowa.  William and Anna had three children: William Ray Jr (b. 1887), Harry Eldridge S (b. 1892) and Thomas Clifford (b. 1895).  Anna died in 1945 and is buried Fort Laramie Cemetery, Fort Laramie, Goshen, Wyoming

William’s second wife Pearl “Daisy” Briant was born in 2 Sep 1883 in Missouri. William and Pearl had three children: William Alexander (b. 1902), Robert H D Latta (b. 1905) and Jackson Joaquin (b. 1907).    Pearl died 23 Apr 1946 in Wyoming

William Ray Latta Gravestone -  Fort Laramie Cemetery,  Fort Laramie Goshen, Wyoming, Find A Grave Memorial# 20477490

William Ray Latta Gravestone – Fort Laramie Cemetery,
Fort Laramie
Goshen, Wyoming,, Find A Grave Memorial# 20477490

4. Margaret Florence Latta

Margaret Florence Latta Portrait

Florence’s first husband Dr. Albert B. Wright was born 15 July 1853 in Colorado.  His parents were Robert H. Wright (1824 – ) and Sophronia Meade (1830 – 1909).    Florence and Albert had two children: Florita Latta Wright and Alice Carrie Wright.   Dr. Wright was the primary doctor in Antonita, Colorado, and he owned drugstores there and in Alamosa, Colorado.   Dr. Wright died of a heart attack 14 Feb 1893 in Colorado.

Albert B. Wright Portrait

Florence’s second husband William R. “Bob” Skehan was born in 1864 in Brooklyn, New York.  Bob died in 1897.

Florence’s third husband James Pressley Cain died about 1931.

After Albert died, Margaret  moved to Colorado Springs with her two young daughters where she met and married William Skehan on August 3, 1897.   They had one son, William R. “Bob” Skehan, but William, Sr. also died shortly thereafter.

Florence then married James Pressley Cain, and they had two daughters and a son, Marguerite (who never married), born in Colorado Springs, Jean Cain Gauthier and Richard Cain, both born in Denver.  Florence died November 27, 1937, at the age of 73.

5. Robert “Robbie” Pressley Latta

Robbie fell down a shaft in the New Zealand mine, near Airman, Cripple Creek Mining District, Teller County, Colorado  26 Dec 1894 and was killed. He was buried in Evergreen Cemetery, Colorado Springs, Colo.

Robert Pressly Latta Gravestone - Evergreen Cemetery  Colorado Springs El Paso County Colorado,  Find A Grave Memorial# 15680842

Robert Pressly Latta Gravestone – Evergreen Cemetery
Colorado Springs, El Paso, Colorado,
Find A Grave Memorial# 15680842


Posted in Artistic Representation, Line - Miner | 1 Comment

Thomas Perkyns

Thomas Perkyns (1525 – 1592) was Alex’s 13th Great Grandfather through his great grandson John in the Shaw line and Alex’s 13th Great Grandfather through his great granddaughter Elizabeth; also in the Shaw line.

Perkins – Coat of Arms

Thomas Perkyns was born about 1525 in Hillmorton, Warwickshire, England.  His parents were Henry PERKINS and Alice WEDEN.  He married Alice KEBBLE. Henry died on 11 May 1592 at Hillmorton, Warwickshire, England.

Alice Kebble was born about 1534 at Hillmorton, Warwickshire, England.  Her parents were Henry KEBBLE ((b. 1508 in Warwick, Warwickshire, England) and [__?__].  Alice died on 20 Aug 1613 at Hillmorton, Warwickshire, England.

Children of Thomas and Alice:

Name Born Married Departed
1. Henry PERKINS 1655 Hillmorton, Warwickshire, England Elizabeth SAWBRIDGE
29 Nov 1579 Hillmorton
11 Mar 1608/09 at Hillmorton, Warwickshire, England
2. John Perkins Elizabeth Shaw Will proved
6 Jun 1601/2 (sic)
Hillmorton, Warwickshire, England
3. William Perkins Elizabeth [__?__] 1 Apr 1590 Hillmorton, Warwickshire, England
4. Thomas Perkins Mary Bates
16 Oct 1586
7 Dec 1629
Hillmorton, Warwickshire, England
5. Edward Perkins Sara Smyth
22 Jul 1605
18 Aug 1619
Hillmorton, Warwickshire, England
6. Frances Perkins bapt.
20 Apr 1565
 Not living in 1588
7. Luke Perkins bapt.
20 Sep 1568
 4 Jun 1638
Hillmorton, Warwickshire, England
8. Isaac Perkins  bapt.
20 Dec 1571
 Alice [__?__]
Hillmorton, Warwickshire, England
1 Dec 1629 England

As Thomas leaves a legacy in his will to his “brother Kebble’s wife”, his wife Alice may have been Alice Kebble, but there are other possibilities.  Four wills of the period and locality have been abstracted without indentifyng her.

Thomas’ will was made Sep 15, 1588 and proved May 11, 1592.  He asked to be buried in the parish church or churchyard, and gave for the relief of the poor of Hilmorton 10s.  To every godchild, 6d.  To his son John and his heirs male, his house,, messuage or tenement in Hillmorton late in the tenure of Thomas Bassett, with an orchard, a close, one back-side of the tenement and one half-yard of arable land with meadows, pastures and commons thereto belonging with successive remainders to his sons Edward and his heirs male, his son Luke and his heirs male and a final remainder to his own right heirs.  To his eldest son Henry Perkyns, all the residue of his houses, lands, tenements and hereditaments.  To Alice “now my wife”, all his household stuff, furniture in the parlor or chamber where we used to lie (one coffer with his evidences excepted) and the use of the said chamber during her widowhood.

To his son Edward Perkyns L40 four years after his death.  To his son Luke Perkyns L40 six years after his death.  To his son Isacke Perkyns L40 ten years after his death.  To Kebble’s wife, a ewe and a lamb.  To Thomas Kebble, a lamb.  To his brother William Perkins, a ewe and a lamb.  Residue to so Henry Perkyns, sole executor.

Witnesses Edward Tomson, Edward Heres, Thomas Bottre, Nicholas Duell, William Kebell, Thomas Heres.  The inventory was in the sum of L192 10s. 0d. and was taken Mar 29, 1592 by Edward Compton, Richard Smyth and Thomas Garfield.



1. Henry PERKINS (See his page)

8. Isaac Perkins

Isaac’s wife Alice [__?__]’s origins are not known.

Isaac’s sons Abraham and Isaac, Jr., both emigrated from Hillmorton, England to America sometime before 1636.

Their uncle John Perkins also immigrated to America about this time. John settled in Ipswich, Mass. while Isaac and Abraham moved on and settled in the vicinity of Hampton and Seabrook, New Hampshire. Isaac became a Quaker and since they were being persecuted at the time, his group was forced to move to what is now Seabrook, NH. Isaac and Abraham married sisters, Mary and Susanna Wise, daughters of Humphrey Wise of Ipswich, Mass.

In 1637 there was an Isaac Perkins in Ipswich where he owned “land lying above the street called Brook street, six acres.”  He was dead before 15 Jun 1639, when his widow Alice Perkins sold the lot to Joseph Morse.  It is tempting to believe that he was also of the Hillmorton stock.  John Perkins did not have a brother Isaac, but he had an uncle Isaac only eleven years older than he, while other Isaacs were baptized in Hillmorton in 1597/98 and 1611/12.
If Isaac Perkins of Ipswich was a man of middle age, which we have no means of knowing, he and Alice may have been the parents of Abraham and Isaac Perkins who turned up in Hampton, not far down the coast, where Abraham took the Freeman’s Oath in 1640 and Isaac in 1642.  These men are presumed to have been brothers.  Abraham named a son Luke, not a common name, and John Perkins of Hillmorton and Ipswich had an uncle Luke, a brother Luke, and a grandson Luke.

Children of Isaac and Alice

i.  Sarah Perkins , b. 03 Feb 1595, Hillmorton, Warwickshire, England; m.  Humphrey Ermondes, 04 Aug 1624, Hillmorton, Warwickshire, England.

ii. Flora Perkins , b. 01 Jan 1606, Hillmorton, Warwickshire, England.

iii. Abigail Perkins , b. Nov 1607, Hillmorton, Warwickshire, England.

iv. Abraham Perkins b. 28 Jan 1608, Hillmorton, Warwickshire, England; d. 31 Aug 1683, Hampton, Rockingham, NH; m.  bef. 1639 to Mary Wise.  (aka Mary Wyeth) (b. ~ 1618 England – d. 29 May 1706 Hampton, Rockingham, NH) Mary’s sister Susannah married Abraham’s brother Isaac. Their parents were Humphrey Wise and Susan Tidd.   Abraham and Mary had fourteen children born between 1639 and 1661.

Abraham was a  miller, clerk of the market, constable, and tavern keeper.

Abraham Perkins, age 60 in 9/1663. Hampton 1639, freeman 5/13/1640. In 1648 he and Henry Green, apparently a relative, had a grant near the Falls to build a water mill. Clerk of the market 1650; constable, commissioner to end small causes 1651; ordinary license 1651 and later; license to still and sell by quart 1665; marshal of Hampton 1654; often of jury and grand jury (foreman 1676-7, 1679). A good penman, he did business for others and the town.   That she and Susanna wife of Isaac, were daughters of Humphrey Wyeth, as often claimed, though not true of Susanna, may have been true of Mary who had two sons Humphrey and knew about Em Wyeth’s affairs, perhaps only as Benjamin Wyeth was her husband’s apprentice. His will, 22 August (died 31 August, aged 70) 1683, names wife, 7 children, grandson John Perkins and granddaughter Mary Fifield living with him. Widow died 29 May 1706, aged 88.

v. Isaac Perkins bapt. 26 Jun 1611, Hillmorton, Warwickshire, England; d. 13 Nov 1685, Seabrook, Rockingham, NH;  m. 1638 Ipswich, Mass to Susannah Wise (aka Susannah Wyeth) (b. 1614 in Hillmorton – d. 17 Jul 1699 in Newcastle, New Castle, Delaware.) ;   Susannah’s sister Mary married Isaac’s brother Abraham.  Their parents were Humphrey Wise and Susan Tidd.  Isaac and Susannah had twelve children born between 1648 and 1661.

Isaac was a ship carpenter.

Isaac and Susanna  are first found in New England, settling at Ipswich, Essex, Massachusetts in 1637 and then at Hampton, Rockingham, New Hampshire in 1638, where Isaac became a freeman 18 May 1642. He became a keeper of a herd of cattle in 1648 and bought a farm from Timothy DALTON, Jr. in June of 1652. Isaac was the constable in 1650 and served in juries numerous times. He was listed as an owner of a share in the cow common in 1663 and a member of Mr. Cotton’s congregation in full communion in 1671. He made a deed to his son Ebenezer “for support of self and wife Susanna”. Isaac died in November 1685. Susanna moved with her son Ebenezer to Brandywine Hundred, New Castle, Delaware. Her estate was administered there by her son-in-law John Hussey in 1699.

Isaac and Susan Perkins were Quakers.

Our ancestos’ lots are underlined in red. Isaac Perkin’s lot was on today’s Winnacunnet Road. — Map of the homes of the original settlers of Hampton, NH, recreated from published maps and ancient records in 1892

  • Lafayette Road, and Winnacunnet Road, Hampton, NH on Google Maps
  • The main road going horizontally across the top of the map then, at right, angling down to the right corner, is today’s Winnacunnet Road. At the bottom right corner it leads “To The Sea”.
  • Today’s Lafayette Road/Route One starts in the top left and goes vertically down (south) into the thicker road, then about 2/3 of the way down angles sharply off to the left corner in the small road reading “To Salisbury”. That road today is pretty much straight as an arrow north to south.
  • Midway down that same road a small road angles off to the left that reads “To Drake Side”. That is today’s Drakeside Road.
  • The fat road leading from the point where Route One angles off “To Salisbury” to the right and its meeting with Winnacunnet Road, is today’s Park Ave.
  • The two roads leading off the bottom of the map both say “To the Landing”, and at the time were both ends of a single road that went in a loop. Today they are still there, called Landing Road, but are cut off in the middle by a new highway.
  • Lastly the small road in the top right is Mill Road.

First called the Plantation of Winnacunnet, Hampton was one of four original New Hampshire townships chartered by the General Court of Massachusetts, which then held authority over the colony. “Winnacunnet” is an AlgonquianAbenaki word meaning “pleasant pines” and is the name of the town’s high school.

In March 1635, Richard Dummer and John Spencer of the Byfield section in Newbury, came round in their shallop, came ashore at the landing and were much impressed by the location. Dummer, who was a member of the General Court, got that body to lay its claim to the section and plan a plantation here. The Massachusetts General Court of March 3, 1636 ordered that Dummer and Spencer be given power to “To presse men to build there a Bound house”.

The town was settled in 1638 by a group of parishioners led by Reverend Stephen Bachiler, who had formerly preached at the settlement’s namesake:Hampton, England.  Incorporated in 1639, the township once included SeabrookKensingtonDanvilleKingstonEast KingstonSandownNorth Hampton and Hampton Falls.

vi. Hannah Perkins b. 09 Oct 1614, Hillmorton, Warwickshire, England.

vii. Trial Perkins , b. 01 Jan 1616, Hillmorton, Warwickshire, England.

viii. Lydia Perkins , b. 01 Jan 1618, Hillmorton, Warwickshire, England; d. 03 Mar 1648, Hampton, Rockingham, NH.

Not sure if this is right death information for Lydia. Possibly she came to America, also. Some WFT entries have her as marrying Francis Peabody, b. St. Albans, Hertford, England, d. 19 Feb 1698 Topsfield, Essex, Mass. Hampton Area Families shows Francis as marrying Lydia Unknown.

ix. Mary Perkins, bapt. 16 Sep 1621 in Hillmorton, Warwick, England, may very likely have been the Mary who married Henry Green of Hampton, Rockingham, New Hampshire and died 26 Apr 1690.


From Dudley Wildes, 1959 by Walter Goodwin Davis

From Dudley Wildes, 1959 by Walter Goodwin Davis

Perkins 2
Perkins 3
Perkins 4


Posted in Line - Shaw | Tagged | 1 Comment

Henry Perkins

Henry PERKINS (1555 – 1609) was Alex’s 12th Great Grandfather through his grandson John ; one of  8,192) in this generation of the Shaw line and Alex’s 12th Great Grandfather through his granddaughter Elizabeth; another of 8,192 in this generation of the Shaw line.

Perkins – Coat of Arms

Henry Perkins was born in 1555 at Hillmorton, Warwickshire, England. His parents were Thomas PERKYNS and Alice KEBBLE.  He married 29 Nov 1579 at Hillmorton to Elizabeth SAWBRIDGE    Henry was buried 11 Mar 1608/09 at Hillmorton, Warwickshire, England.

Elizabeth Sawbridge born about 1555 at Hillmorton, Warwickshire, England.  Ancestral File also lists birth date as 1541.  Her parents were William SAWBRIDGE and Elizabeth [__?__].   Elizabeth died in 1603 at Hillmorton, Warwickshire, England.

Children of Henry and Elizabeth:

Name Born Married Departed
1. Alice Perkins bapt.
17 Mar 1580/81
Hillmorton, Warwickshire, England
2. Thomas Perkins bapt.
24 Jul 1582
Hillmorton, Warwickshire, England
Elizabeth [__?__] Will Proved
10 Feb 1658/59
3. John PERKINS 23 Dec 1583 Hillmorton, Warwick, England. Judith GATER
9 Oct 1608 Hillmorton, Warwickshire, England
btw.28 Mar 1654, when he wrote his will, and 26 Sep 1654, when his will was probated;
Ipswich, Essex, Mass
4. Frances Perkins bapt.
1 Nov 1585
Hillmorton, Warwickshire, England
3 Dec 1585
5. Frances Perkins 18 Sep 1586
Hillmorton, Warwickshire, England
7 Jan 1586/87
6. Margaret Perkins  9 Nov 1588
Hillmorton, Warwickshire, England
Living in 1608/09
7. Edward Perkins  12 Dec 1590
Hillmorton, Warwickshire, England
Living in 1608/09
8. Agnes Perkins  16 Oct 1592
Hillmorton, Warwickshire, England
Edmund Collyson
29 Jun 1618
9. Sara Perkins  25 Aug 1594
Hillmorton, Warwickshire, England
Humphrey Edmonds
4 Apr 1624
10. Frances Perkins  8 Feb 1596/97
Hillmorton, Warwickshire, England
Living in 1608/09
11. William Perkins  13 Jan 1598/99
Hillmorton, Warwickshire, England
Living in 1608/09
12. Luke Perkins  27 Nov 1600
Hillmorton, Warwickshire, England
 Living in 1608/09
13. Elizabeth Perkins 28 Nov 1602
Hillmorton, Warwickshire, England
25 Dec 1602
14. Elizabeth Perkins  4 Oct 1604
Hillmorton, Warwickshire, England
 Living in 1608/09
15. Jacob Perkins  26 Jul 1607
Hillmorton, Warwickshire, England
Living in 1608/09

The Sawbridge family originated in the hamlet of Sawbridge in the parish of Wolfhamcot in Warwick, which is about six miles from Hillmorton. Several Sawbridge wills exist, but they throw scant light on Elizabeth Sawbridge’s parentage. The will of George Sawbridge, undoubtedly Elizabeth’s brother was madeMar 13 1636 and proved Oct 21 1637. The legatees are his wife Agnes, his mother Elizabeth, his sons William (executor), John, George, Thomas and Isaac, his daughters Agnes and Marie. His brothers Richard Turville and Edward Bassett are mentioned and with Turville, “cozen [nephew] Thomas Perkins” is name ann overseer.

Henry’s inventory dated Mar 22, 1608/09 was taken by Rowland Wilcox, gentleman, Thomas Perkins, John Sawbridge, Thomas Compton and William Burnam, yeomen. It was in the sum of L336 8s 8d.

Letters of administration were granted on Apr 5, 1609 to a son Thomas, and a bond was given for the tuition of Margaret, Edward, Anne [Agnes], Sarah, Francis, William. Lucy [Luke], Elizabeth, and James [Jacob], “the other children” Thus the son John, of age and married, is not mentioned.

2. Thomas Perkins

The will of Thomas Perkins of Hillmorton, gentleman, was mad Nov 12 1655 and proved Feb 10, 1658/59. He left to his wife Elizabeth L10 and a joined bed in the chamber over the old parlor. To his son Francis, L10 and to Francis’ son Francis 30s. To his daughter Anne Hanslop L5 and to all her sons and daughters 30 s. each at age of 21. To his daughter Marie Bromich L5 and to her sons and daughters 30s each at age 21.. To the sons and daughters of his son Henry, such portions as his executors shall think fit to raise them. Carts, plows, etc. to his grandson Thomas, heir of his son Henry, deceased provided he help the executors to bring up his brothers and sisters. To the poor of Hullmorton, 20s. Residue to his sons Francis Perkins and Nicholas Hanslope, the executors. Overseer Thomas Marriott, gentleman.

3. John PERKINS (See his page)



From Dudley Wildes, 1959 by Walter Goodwin Davis

Perkins 6

Posted in 14th Generation, Line - Shaw | 2 Comments

Job Chase

Job Chase (1776 – 1865) was Alex’s cousin eight times removed in the Shaw line.

Job Chase Portrait

Job Chase was born 8 Aug 1776 in Harwich, Barnstable, Mass;  His parents were Job Chase and Hope Sears.  His paternal grandparents were William CHASE III and Dorcas BAKER.  He married 25 Nov 1796 to Polly Eldredge.   Job and Polly had nine children born between 1797 and 1813.  After Polly died, he married again 22 Feb 1816 in Brewster, Barnstable, Mass to Phebe Winslow.    Job and Phebe had eight more children born between 1817 and 1831,  Finally,  Job married in 1842 to Eunice Crosby.   Job died  12 Jan 1865 in Harwich.

Job Chase Monument Pine Grove Cemetery  West Harwich, Barnstable , Mass, Find A Grave Memorial# 67294723

Job Chase Monument Pine Grove Cemetery
West Harwich, Barnstable , Mass, Find A Grave Memorial# 67294723

Job Chase Monument

Job Chase Monument

Polly Eldredge  was born 18 May 1778 in Harwich, Barnstable, Mass.  Polly died 26 May 1816 in West Harwich.

Phebe Winslow was born 16 Feb 1795 in Brewster, Barnstable, Mass.    Her parents were Joseph Winslow (1772 – 1816) and Abigail Snow (1766 – 1844).  Phebe died 25 Aug 1839 in  Harwich.

Eunice Crosby  was born 19 Apr 1797 in Holden, Worcester, Mass.  Eunice first married [__?__] Drury.  Eunice died 11 Jun 1863 in Harwich,

The 17th and youngest son  Caleb lived until 1908, most likely the last surviving second cousin of Alex’s fifth great grandfather Isaac HAWES (1765 – 1840) or any second cousin from his generation for that matter.  Caleb’s coffee brand Chase & Sanborn lives on today (See below)

Children of Job and Polly:

Name Born Married Departed
1. Hope Chase 5 May 1797
Harwich, Barnstable, Mass
Isaiah Baker
7 Jan 1815
29 Aug 1839
2. Job Chase 12 Jan 1799 Harwich, Barnstable, Mass Hannah Nickerson
21 Sep 1820
Lost at Sea
Jan 1825 out of Harwich
3. Jonathan Chase 4 Oct 1800 Harwich, Barnstable, Mass Hannah Burgess
24 Dec 1825
Lost at Sea
27 Dec 1877
4. Sears Chase 2 May 1802  Harwich, Barnstable, Mass Anna Knowles Lost at Sea
22 Dec 1831 out of Harwich
5. Ozias Chase 18 Jun 1804  Harwich, Barnstable, Mass Lost at Sea
20 Oct 1822 out of Harwich
6. Whitman Chase 26 May 1806 Harwich, Barnstable, Mass Lost at Sea
6 Jul 1827 out of Harwich
7. Darius B. Chase 11 Nov 1808 Harwich, Barnstable, Mass Mary Louisa Gardner*
20 Nov 1833
Enfield, Hampshire, Mass.
Annie Merriman
Baltimore, Maryland
1 Dec 1894
Harwich, Barnstable, Mass
8. Ziba Chase 12 May 1811 Harwich, Barnstable, Mass Lost at Sea
6 Jul 1835 out of Harwich
9. Judah Eldridge Chase 6 Mar 1813 Harwich, Barnstable, Mass Emily Fish 1893

Children of  Job and Phebe:

Name Born Married Departed
10. Joseph Winslow Chase 5 May 1817  Harwich, Barnstable, Mass Rose B Kelley 29 Oct 1897 in Harwich
11. Alfred Chase 28 Mar 1819  Harwich, Barnstable, Mass Azubah Taylor
20 Nov 1844 – Chatham, Barnstable, Mass
Pine Grove Cemetery
West Harwich
12. Mary Eldridge Chase 27 Apr 1822 Harwich, Barnstable, Mass George Nickerson
19 Jan 1843
1900 Census
Dennis, Barnstable, Mass
13. Joshua Snow Chase 23 Jun 1824 Harwich, Barnstable, Mass 20 Oct 1825 Harwich
14. Erastus Chase 29 May 1826 Harwich, Barnstable, Mass Sarah Abbey Trevett
10 Nov 1850
Wiscassett, Maine
21 Jan 1905
West Harwich
15. Joshua Snow Chase 27 Feb 1830 Harwich, Barnstable, Mass Abby Ewer Fish 27 Dec 1888
Boston, Mass
16. James Winslow Chase Nov 1831
Harwich, Barnstable, Mass
EWster A. [__?__]
After 1900 Census
Scott Valley, Siskiyou, California
17. Caleb Chase 11 Dec 1831 Harwich, Barnstable, Mass Salome Salley Boyles 23 Nov 1908
Brookline, Norfolk, Mass
18. Infant Daughter 9 Aug 1839 Harwich, Barnstable, Mass 9 Aug 1839 Harwich

1850  Census Harwich, Barnstable, Massachusetts
Job Chase Age 70
Eunice D Chase 55
James W Chase 20
Joshua S Chase 15
Cabot Chase 16

From  The History of Barnstable County Massachusetts published 1890

Job Chase [Jr.]  was born August 8, 1776, at the ancestral home, near which, on the west bank of the river, he subsequently reared a home, where he died January 12, 1865. The limited means for obtaining an education in his boyhood were scarcely improved when he embarked upon his business career, in which he must rely upon a retentive memory and a keen perception for his measure of success. He engaged in a fishing and mercantile business in which he attained a high point among those of the south shore, owning the controlling interest in as many as fifteen vessels at a time.

In 1831 he erected, on the river, a store which was used by him and his sons until a few years ago, and in this he kept the first post office of West Harwich. In 1842 he built the wharf which is still in use, and also built the schooner Job Chase, of eighty-five tons, from timber cut upon his own lands, lands now robbed of their trees, but where, before his time, his father, Job, had also cut the timber for vessels which he built there. Other vessels were built for his use at Hamden, Me., and at Dartmouth. In his fishing business he fitted out a large fleet.

He was largely interested in public affairs, also in affairs of the church, and in both was an important factor. He served his town as a selectman, and was a representative from Harwich in the legislature. In the erection of the West Harwich Baptist church he was a large contributor, continuing’ substantial material and spiritual aid during his life.

He was one of the original stockholders in the old Yarmouth bank, and was among the foremost in all the public enterprises of his day, giving employment to a large number of men ‘in building up the interests of West Harwich. In his death the town sustained a severe check to its growing business and a great loss in its social and religious circles.


[I usually don’t continue to great grandchildren, but will make an exception here to show how dangerous fishing was in the 19th Century.  Six of Job’s first eight boys were lost at sea]

1. Hope Chase

Hope’s husband Isaiah Baker was born 6 Mar 1793 in Dennis, Barnstable, Mass. His parents were Isaiah Baker (1771 – 1854) and Abigail Burgess (1773 – 1804). Hope and Isaiah had five children born between 1820 and 1837. After Hope died, Isaiah married Aug 1839 to Hannah Nickerson and had one more child. Isaiah died 4 Sep 1873 in Harwich, Barnstable, Mass

In the 1850 census, Isaiah and Hannah were farming in Harwich with five children at home.

2. Job Chase

Job’s wife Hannah Nickerson was born 8 Jan 1799 in Dennis, Barnstable, Mass. Her parents were Jonathan Nickerson (1774 – 1862) and Mehitable Berry (1776 – 1852). Job and Hannah had three children born between 1821 and 1824. Hannah died 19 May 1869

As a shipmaster, Job was lost at Sea Jan 1825 out of Harwich

3. Jonathan Chase

Jonathan’s wife Hannah Burgess was born 16 Jul 1804 in Harwich, Barnstable, Mass. Her parents were Joshua Burgess (1774 – 1808) and Hannah Smith (1774 – 1838). Jonathan and Hannah had three children born between 1826 and 1851. Hannah died 13 May 1881 in Harwich, MA, cause of death-Scrofula (lymphadenitis of the cervical lymph nodes associated with tuberculosis)

While acting as master, lost at Sea 27 Dec 1877

4. Sears Chase

Sear’s wife Anna Knowles’ was list as “Of Orleans” in their marriage intentions.

As master, Sears was lost at Sea 22 Dec 1831 out of Harwich

Sears Chase has a stone at Baptist Church Cemetery, West Harwich: Sears
Chase lost at sea 1831 aged 29y. Infant son aged 17d, Ann M. aged 4 years,
Sears W. (unreadable), Annie S. wife of Rev. W. Willey, Dwight Mission, d.
1861 aged 35y, Jessie B. their dau. The stone is broken, recemented and hard
to read. (From Burt Derick’s book on Dennis Cemetery Inscriptions).

5. Ozias Chase

While in command of a vessel, lost at Sea at age 18 on 20 Oct 1822 out of Harwich

6. Whitman Chase

Also lost at Sea at age 21 on 6 Jul 1827 out of Harwich

7. Darius B. Chase

Darius’ first wife Mary Louisa Gardner was born 20 Jul 1812 in Bolton, Worcester, Mass. Her parents were Stephen Partridge Gardner (1766 – 1841) and Achsah Moore (1774 – 1837). Darius and Mary had two children Charles (b. 1836) and Elizabeth (b. 1838). I haven’t found a divorce record, but Mary died 24 Oct 1902 in Cambridge, Middlesex, Mass.

Darius’ second wife Sarah Annie Merryman was born 15 Jan 1838 in Baltimore, Maryland. Her parents were John Buck Merryman (1814 – 1861) and Sarah Baker Ensor (1817 – 1905). Darius and Annie had two children: Lillie (b. 1859) and Darius (b. 1861) Annie died 30 Dec 1910 in Somerville, Middlesex, Mass.

Darius was an artist and a restorer of oil paintings. He worked in Boston as a restorer from 1844 and 1848. In 1851 he was living in Philadelphia. Some time during the 1850’s he moved to Charleston, South Carolina where he ran a gallery and worked as a restorer. A register of his gallery from 1857 to 1858 is included in the The Joseph Downs Collection at the Winterhur Library. The 44 page volume includes a list of people who visited the gallery and a list of artists whose works he supposedly exhibited. Also included are remarks that Chase made on the techniques of painting restoration.

Here are a few of the paintings Darius restored that are in the collection of the Massachusetts Historical Society. It looks like Darius worked for the society in the 1840’s.

John Wentworth. Born at Portsmouth, Jan. 16, 1672. Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of New Hampshire, from 1717 to 1730. Died, Dec. 12, 1730. This painting (25 x 30) was given by Sir John Wentworth, Governor of Nova Scotia, February, 1798. It was restored by Darius Chase, 1845.

John Wentworth Portrait  Restored by Darius Chase 1845

John Wentworth Portrait Restored by Darius Chase 1845

Jonathan Belcher Born at Cambridge, Jan. 8, 1682. Governor of the Province of Massachusetts Bay and New Hampshire, from 1730 to 1741. Governor of the Province of New Jersey, from 1747 to 1757. Died at Elizabethtown, Aug. 31, 1757. Painted at London by F. Liopoldt, in 1729, while Mr. Belcher was Agent of the Province at the British Court. (25 X 30.) Restored by Darius Chase, 1845. Inscribed: “Given before 1838.”

This portrait was formerly identified as Governor Jonathan Belcher (1682-1757) by Franz Lippoldt, 1729, because of extensive overpainting. The painting was conserved in 1977 and the extensive overpainting that matched John Faber’s 1734 mezzotint of the 1729 portrait of Belcher by Richard Philips was removed. After the conservation treatment (and the removal of the overpainting) the circa 1760 portrait of the unidentified gentleman was revealed. (Bad Job Darius!)

Former John Belcher Portrait

Former John Belcher Portrait

Rev. John Wilson, D.D. Born at Windsor, England, 1588. First Minister of Boston. Pastor of the First Church, from 1632 to 1667. Died, Aug. 7, 1667. A supposed (doubtful) original portrait. (25 x 30.) Given by Henry Bromfield, Esq., February, 1798. Restored by Darius Chase, 1845.

Rev. Increase Mather, D.D. Born at Dorchester, June 21, 1639. Pastor of the Old North or Second Church, from 1664 to 1723. President of Harvard College, from 1685 to 1701. Died, Aug. 23, 1723. Painted by John Vanderspriet, London, 1688. (41 x 49.) Restored
by Darius Chase, 1845. Inscribed: ” iCtatis • suae • 49 1688.” ” Joh. Vanderspriet; 1688.” Given by Mr. John Dugan, Jan. 30, 1798.

Increase Mather by by John van der Spriet 1688,  Restored by Darius Chase 1845

Increase Mather by by John van der Spriet 1688, Restored by Darius Chase 1845

Berkeley, Rev. George. Born at Kilerin, Ireland, March 12, 1684. He was Dean of Derry, and afterwards Bishop of Cloyne. He came to Newport, R. I., in 1729, where he remained two and one half years, when he returned to England. He died at Oxford, England, Jan. 14, 1753. Painted by Smibert, on his passage to Newport, R. I., in 1728. Restored by Darius Chase, 1845. Given by Thomas Wetmore, Esq.

George Washington A copy from the original, painted by Peale in 1779, and captured by
Admiral Keppel while on its way as a present to the Stadtholder of Holland, and now belonging to Keppell’s descendant, the Earl of Albemarle, Quiddenham Park, Norfolk. (60 x 96.) Given by Alexander Duncan, Esq., Sept. 10, 1874. The first portrait by Peale is in possession of Charles S. Ogden, Esq., of Philadelphia. Painted by Joseph Wright, Philadelphia, 1784. Restored by Darius Chase, 1845. (30 x 37.) Given by Israel Thorndike, Dec. 31, 1835.

Marquis de Lafayette. Commissioned in Paris by Thomas Jefferson in 1790 for his gallery of American heroes, this Joseph Boze painting represents Marie-Joseph Paul Yves Roch Gilbert du Motier, the Marquis de Lafayette, at the pinnacle of his career. Restored by Darius Chase, 1844-45, and again by George Howorth, 1858. (28 Ji x 36.) Given by Mrs. J. W. Davis, Aug. 25, 1835 When President Jefferson died and his estate proved insolvent, his collection of paintings was exhibited in New York and at the Boston Athenaeum prior to a sale at Chester Harding’s Boston gallery in 1835. This portrait was purchased at that sale and presented to the Massachusetts Historical Society the same year.

Lafayette Portrait  - Commissioned by Thomas Jefferson 1790, Restored by Darius Chase 1845

Lafayette Portrait – Commissioned by Thomas Jefferson 1790, Restored by Darius Chase 1845

Peter Faneuil. Born at New Rochelle, N. Y., June 20, 1700. He gave Faneuil Hall to the town of Boston, Sept. 10, 1742. Died, March 3, 1742-3. Painted by Smibert. Restored by Darius Chase, 1845. Given by the heirs of Edward Jones, Oct. 29, 1835. A copy of this, painted by Henry Sargent, is in Faneuil Hall.

8. Ziba Chase

Lost at Sea 6 Jul 1835 out of Harwich

9. Judah Eldridge Chase

Judah’s wife Emily Fish was born in 1814. Her parents were Daniel Fish (1795 – ) and Thankful Ewer (1790 – 1875). Emily died in 1895 and is buried in the Pine Grove Cemetery, West Harwich.

Judah was a merchant

10. Joseph Winslow Chase

Joseph’s wife Rose B Kelley was born 29 Sep 1821 in Harwich, Barnstable, Mass. Her parents were Joseph Kelley (1787 – 1869) and Didamia Chase (1790 – 1869). Rose died 4 Feb 1906 in Mattapoisett, Mass.

Joseph chose the occupation of a farmer, in which he was prominent. In the 1860 census, Joseph and Rose were farming in Harwich with three children at home.

11. Alfred Chase

Alfred’s wife Azubah Taylor was baptized 29 Dec 1819 in Chatham, Barnstable, Mass. Her parents were John Taylor and Hannah Harding. Azubah was a school teacher in Chatham, Mass when they married in 1845. Alfred and Azubah had six children born between 1846 and 1862. Azubah died 16 Nov 1899 – Leominster, Worcester, Mass.

In the 1860 census, Alfred was a merchant living with Azubah, four children and an Irish domestic in Harwich.

12. Mary Eldridge Chase

Mary’s husband Capt. George Nickerson was born 30 Sep 1817 in South Dennis, Barnstable, Mass. His parents were Eleazer Nickerson (1776 – 1856) and Mercy Taylor Weldon (1785 – 1859)

George was a sea captain.

14. Erastus Chase

Erastus’ wife Sarah Abbey Trevett was born 29 Jun 1826 in Wiscassett, Lincoln, Maine. Her parents were Robert Trevett (1806 – ) and [__?__]. Erastus and Sarah had two sons born in 1859 Frank and Herbert. Sarah died 8 Feb 1895 in Harwich, Barnstable, Mass.

Sarah Abbey Trevett Portrait

Sarah Abbey Trevett Portrait

Erastus was in mercantile business at West Harwich near Herring river—a continuation in part of his father’s business—having kept the post office twenty-four years and acted as deputy collector of internal revenue a period of four years.

Erastus Chase Portrait

Erastus Chase Portrait


Erastus Chase House

Erastus Chase House  — West Harwich, Mass.

15. Joshua Snow Chase

Joshua’s wife Abby Ewer Fish was born 29 Sep 1823 in Sandwich, Barnstable, Mass. Her parents were Daniel Fish (1795 – ) and Thankful Ewer (1790 – 1875). Abby died 9 Mar 1892 in Boston, Essex, Mass

Joshua  originated the manufacturing firm known as the Union Paste Company of Boston, which is continued by his son-in-law, Anthony Kelley. The wonderful fish product called Chase’s Liquid Glue has become celebrated.

16. James Winslow Chase

James’ wife Esther Amanda Weston was born 8 May 1840 in Mass James and Esther had six children born between 1859 and 1875.

James and Esther moved to California. In the 1860 census, he was a miner in Liberty, Klamath, California.

17. Caleb Chase

Caleb’s wife Salome Salley Boyles was born in Apr 1839 in Maine. Salome died in Boston.

Caleb Chase Portrait

Caleb Chase (1831 – 1908)

Caleb was not content with the opportunities offered in the business of his ancestors, at the age of twenty-three went to Boston, where he entered the employ of Anderson, Sargent & Co., a leading wholesale dry-goods house.

Chase & Sanborn Coffee

He traveled in the interests of this house on the Cape and in the West until September, 1859, when he connected himself with the grocery house of Claflin. Allison & Co., which connection was severed January 1, 1864, and soon after the firm of Carr, Chase & Raymond was formed. It 1871 the firm of Chase, Raymond & Ayer was organized, which existed until 1878, when the present firm of Chase & Sanborn commenced business. Mr. Chase is now the head of this house, than which save one other, there is no larger concern in the coffee trade in America. They have branch houses in Montreal and Chicago. He owns the homestead at West Harwich where his summer vacations are spent.

Chase & Sanborn building at 87 Broad St., Boston

Chase & Sanborn building at 87 Broad St., Boston

The Chase and Sanborn Hour was the umbrella title for a series of US comedy and variety radio shows,  usually airing Sundays on NBCf rom 8pm to 9pm during the years 1929 to 1948.

The series began in 1929 as The Chase and Sanborn Choral Orchestra, a half-hour musical variety show heard Sundays at 8:30pm on NBC. When Maurice Chevalier became the show’s star, he received a record-breaking salary of $5000 a week. Violinist David Rubinoff  became a regular in January 1931, introduced as “Rubinoff and His Violin.”

With Chevalier returning to Paris, Eddie Cantor was chosen as his replacement and the new 60-minute program, The Chase and Sanborn Hour, was launched September 13, 1931, teaming Cantor with Rubinoff and announcer Jimmy Wallington. The show established Cantor as a leading comedian, and his scriptwriter, David Freedman, as “the Captain of Comedy.” When Jimmy Durante stepped in as a substitute for Cantor, making his first appearance on September 10, 1933, he was so successful that he was offered his own show. Then the world’s highest paid radio star, Cantor continued as The Chase and Sanborn Hour’s headliner until November 25, 1934.

Chase and Sanborn found a gold mine with a wooden dummy when Edgar Bergen and Charlie McCarthy began an 11-year run, starting May 9, 1937. Initially this incarnation of the program also featured as regulars master of ceremonies Don Ameche, singers Dorothy Lamour and Nelson Eddy, and (for the first few weeks) comedian W.C. Fields, accompanied by a different guest star each week. Perhaps the most infamous of the latter was Mae West, whose appearance on the program of Dec 12, 1937 was highlighted with a sexually suggestive “Adam and Eve” sketch that caused a public outcry and resulted in West being banned from the radio airwaves for many years thereafter.

Although the series ended December 26, 1948, it was followed by a compilation show on NBC, The Chase and Sanborn 100th Anniversary Show (November 15, 1964), assembled by writer Carroll Carroll and narrated by Bergen. This became an annual event with The Chase and Sanborn 101st Anniversary Show (November 14, 1965), a Fred Allen tribute, followed by The Chase and Sanborn 102nd Anniversary Show(November 13, 1966), which turned out to be the last of the series.

Chase & Sanborn Coffee is an  American   coffee  brand  created  by the coffee roasting and tea and coffee importing company of the same name, established in 1862 in Boston,Massachusetts. It claims to be the first coffee company to pack and ship roasted coffee in sealed tins.

When Standard Brands was formed in 1929, it acquired Chase & Sanborn, where it remained until 1981 when the company merged into NabiscoKraft Foods sold the brand to Sara Lee in 2002, and the Chase & Sanborn, Hills Bros., MJB, and Chock Full O’ Nuts brands were sold to Massimo Zanetti Beverage Group in 2006.


Posted in Artistic Representation, Line - Shaw, Sea Captain | 1 Comment

Solomon Kendrick

Solomon Kendrick (1706 – 1790) was Alex’s first cousin, nine times removed in the Shaw line. 

Solomon Kendrick was born in 1706 in Harwich, Barnstable, Mass. His parents were Edward Kendrick (1680 – 1743) and Elizabeth Snow (1683 – 1713). His maternal grandparents were our ancestors Jabez SNOW  and Elizabeth SMITH. He married in 1735 Chatham, Barnstable, Mass. to Elizabeth Atkins. Solomon died in 1790 in Barrington, Shelburne, Nova Scotia, Canada

Elizabeth Atkins was born in 1715 in Chatham, Barnstable, Mass. Elizabeth’s sister Anna married Solomon’s brother Thomas. Their parents were Samuel Atkins (1679 – 1768) and Emeline “Emblem” Newcomb (1685 – 1768) Their grandparents were our ancestor Andrew NEWCOMB Jr. and his second wife Anna Bayes.  She first married 31 Jan 1731 in Eastham to Daniel Eldredge (1702 – 1732). Elizabeth died in 1790 in Sherose Island, Shelburne, Nova Scotia, Canada

Their son John Kendrick (wiki)  (c. 1740–1794) was the first ship master who went on a voyage to the Northwest coast of the United States and discovered the Columbia River. Kendrick Bay on Prince of Wales Island near the southern tip of the Alaskan panhandle and Kendrick Islands, at the mouth of the bay are named for John Kendrick.

Children of Solomon and Elizabeth

Name Born Married Departed
1. Solomon Kendrick 1731
Harwich, Barnstable, Mass
Martha Godfrey
Chatham, Barnstable, Mass
2. Elizabeth Kendrick 29 Aug 1736
Chatham, Barnstable, Mass
Elkanah Smith
17 Nov 1753 in Harwich, Barnstable, Mass
Sambro, Nova Scotia, Canada
3. John Kendrick 
Harwich, Barnstable, Mass
Huldah Pease
28 Dec 1767
Edgartown, Dukes, Mass.
12 Dec 1793
Honolulu Harbor, Hawaii
4. Eunice Kendrick 1744 Rueben Cahoon 24 Feb 1777
Barrington, Nova Scotia, Canada
5. Benjamin Kendrick 13 Aug 1751
Harwich, Barnstable, Mass
Jedidah Nickerson
Clarks Harbour, Shelburne, Nova Scotia, Canada
6. Joseph Kendrick 1755
Barrington, Nova Scotia, Canada
Hannah Horner

1770 census of Barrington, Solomon indicates that he is living just with his wife and that they are Protestant Americans.
Solomon was engaged primarily in the Whale Fishery at “the passage”. His descendants settled mainly at “the passage”, where his namesake, Solomon, son of John, continued the whaling voyages until the mid 1850s.


1. Solomon Kendrick

Solomon’s wife Martha Godfrey’s origins are not known.

Solomon was a mariner and went with his father’s family to Barrington, Nova Scotia where he was a propriater in 1768.  He married twice, but no record of his first wife has been found.

2. Elizabeth Kendrick

Elizabeth’s husband Elkanah Smith was born 6 Dec 1729 in Chatham, Barnstable, Mass.  His parents were David Smith (1691 – ) and Sarah Higgins (1699 – 1795)Elkanah died 25 Jun 1731 in Sambro, Nova Scotia, Canada

3. John Kendrick  (wiki)

John’s wife Huldah Pease was born 29 Apr 1744 in Edgartown, Dukes, Mass.  Her parents were Theophilus Pease (1705 – 1783) and Jedidah Butler (1711 – ).  Huldah died Jan 1824 in Rochester, Plymouth, Mass

John Kendrick (wiki)  (c. 1740–1794) was the first ship master who went on a voyage to the Northwest coast of the United States and discovered the Columbia River. Kendrick Bay on Prince of Wales Island near the southern tip of the Alaskan panhandle and Kendrick Islands, at the mouth of the bay are named for John Kendrick.

[This story is  a little much for a 2nd cousin, but it’s a rousing adventure tale  and he is our cousin two different ways, so I’m including the long version]  Here’s video biography

Kendrick was born about 1740 in what was then part of the Town of Harwich, Massachusetts (now Orleans, Massachusetts), according to official town records in Orleans, his last name was originally Kenrick, but later adopted the “d”. John Kendrick came from a long family line of seamen. Solomon Kenrick, his father, was a humble seaman and this fact gave young John the ambition of becoming a sea captain. He had a common education, like most people at the time. At age 20, he joined a whaling crew, working on a schooner owned by Captain Bangs.

John Kendrick later joined Captain Jabez Snow’s company during the French and Indian War in 1762. Like most Cape Codders of the time, he served for only eight months and did not re-enlist. All that is known about him between 1762 and the 1770s is that he owned a few merchant ships and married Huldah Pease of Edgartown on Martha’s Vineyard.

Kendrick was reputed to have participated in the Boston Tea Party on December 16, 1773. He was an ardent Patriot, going on to serve as commander of the privateer Fanny, the first ship of what became the Continental Navy during the American Revolution. He was commissioned May 26, 1777.

The Fanny had 18 guns and a crew of 100 as she captured a few British ships, gaining some money on the side and taking possession of items needed by the Americans defending themselves from the British. Some items also helped build Kendrick’s house in Wareham, Massachusetts. HMS Brutus and HMS Little Brutus captured Kendrick in November, 1779. He was soon traded in a prisoner exchange. Upon release, he commanded a sixteen-gun-armed, hundred-man-crewed brigantine named the Count d’Estang in 1780. Then, he commanded another brigantine called the Marianne later that same year.

When the war ended in 1783, Kendrick returned to whaling and coastal shipping until he became commander of the first American ship the discovery.

Not much is known about what happened to John Kendrick between the Revolution’s end and his voyage to the Pacific Northwest. A syndicate led by Boston merchant Joseph Barrell financed the Columbia Expedition in 1787. The vessels included were the ship Columbia Rediviva and the sloop Lady Washington.

The command of the larger Columbia was given to Captain Kendrick, then 47 years old, and 32-year-old one-eyed Robert Gray was given Washington. Overall command of expedition was given to Kendrick.  The combined crews of the two ships numbered about 40 men, one of them being 19-year-old Robert Haswell, the only one in the crew who kept an account of the voyage that survives today and who came to dislike Kendrick. Second Officer of Columbia was 25-year-old Joseph Ingraham, a veteran of the Massachusetts State Navy and POW during the Revolution, later captain of the Hope that sailed in 1790 to compete in the fur trade, and admirer of Kendrick. The oldest man on the voyage was Simeon Woodruff, who had sailed with James Cook aboard the HMS Resolution on his famous third voyage around the world.

The Columbia Expedition set sail from Boston Harbor on the morning of October 1, 1787, after a brief party with family and friends. The vessels reached the Cape Verde Islands on November 9, where Simeon Woodruff, after a fight with Kendrick, left the Columbia and went onto the islands with all his baggage. A Spanish captain passing by the islands offered to take Woodruff to Madeira and the old man, bitter at Kendrick’s treatment of him, accepted. He eventually returned to America and lived in Connecticut most of the remainder of his life.

Kendrick continued the journey on December 21 and reached Brett’s Harbor on the western side of the Falkland Islands on Feb 16 1788. While at sea, an argument between Kendrick and Haswell, the 2nd Officer, a friend of the dismissed Woodruff, had arisen over the disciplining of a seaman. He was apparently demoted, but attributed it to Kendrick’s wish to hasten the ascent of his own son, John Kendrick, Jr., who was serving as Fourth Officer of Columbia. Haswell also claimed that Captain Kendrick gave the young man permission to take passage on a European- or American-bound ship at the Falklands. But finding none there, Haswell agreed to transfer to the Washington. Kendrick considered wintering in the Atlantic, but was convinced to leave the islands on February 28, heading around Cape Horn instead of through the Strait of Magellan, and into the Pacific Ocean.   On April 1, after Kendrick gave the order to at last turn Columbia from a southwesterly course toward Antarctica and to the north, signaling a successful passage around the Horn, the two vessels lost sight of each other, to the relief of Captain Gray.

Kendrick survived the storm and stopped at the Juan Fernández Islands with two men dead and some others sick with scurvy. The Columbia continued sailing north and eventually settled down at Friendly Cove in Nootka Sound. The Washington had arrived at Nootka Sound a few weeks before Kendrick. Gray found himself again under Kendrick’s command. The Americans found two British ships anchored in Nootka Sound. They were part of a fur trading venture under John Meares—the Iphigenia, under William Douglas, and the North West America, under Robert Funter. Meares had left with his command ship, the Felice Adventurer, after Gray had arrived but before Kendrick had. On October 26, 1788, the British ships left for Hawaii and China.

Once they were gone Kendrick announced that he had decided the expedition would spend the winter in Nootka Sound. They would befriend the native Nuu-chah-nulth people and gain an advantage in the fur trade over the competing British ships.  During the winter Kendrick met and established friendly relations with the Nuu-chah-nulth chiefs Maquinna and Wickaninnish.

Kendrick sent the Washington under Gray out on a short trading voyage on March 16, 1789. Gray was to visit Wickaninnish in Clayoquot Sound and cruise south to look for the Strait of Juan de Fuca. He collected many sea otter pelts in Clayoquot Sound and found the entrance of the Strait of Juan de Fuca before returning to Nootka Sound on April 22. Gray found the Iphigenia under William Douglas anchored at Friendly Cove. Kendrick had moved the Columbia to a cove known as Mawina (today called Kendrick Inlet), six miles deeper into Nootka Sound. He had built a fortified a small island and built an outpost on it, with a house, gun battery, blacksmith forge, and outbuildings. Kendrick called it Fort Washington. He had decided that the Columbia was too unwieldy for close sailing on the Pacific Northwest coast. The smaller, more maneuverable  Washington was better suited for trading.

Immediately upon arrival the Washington was readied for another voyage. On May 2, days after the British ship Iphigeniaset off northward to trade for furs, Gray took the Washington north as well. On the way out of Nootka Sound Gray encountered the Princesa, under Spanish naval officer Esteban José Martínez, who had come to take possession of Nootka Sound for Spain. Martínez informed the officers of the Washington that they were trespassing in Spanish waters and demanded to know their business. Gray and his officers showed him a passport and made weak excuses for being on the Northwest Coast. Martínez knew they were dissembling but let them go, knowing that the command ship Columbia was trapped in Nootka Sound.

Gray returned to Nootka Sound on June 17 to find the Spanish in control, Fort San Miguel built, and the British ships Iphigenia and North West America captured. Martínez had let the Iphigenia leave but kept the North West America. A third British ship, the Princess Royal had arrived and was being detained by the Spanish. The British command shipArgonaut under James Colnett would soon arrive, triggering the Nootka Crisis. The situation on the Northwest Coast was changing rapidly.

On July 15 the Columbia and Washington, under Kendrick and Gray, left Nootka Sound. They sailed south to Clayoquot Sound, where they stayed for two weeks. There, switching vessels, Kendrick ordered Gray to take the Columbia to China, and Kendrick would take the Washington north. Kendrick recognized that with the British driven off out of the trade due to the Nootka Crisis the Americans had a window of opportunity on the Northwest Coast. All the furs in the Washington were transferred to the  Columbia  and the crews were divided so Kendrick would have a full complement of experienced sailors on the Washington. On July 30 Gray sailed the Columbia out of Clayoquot Sound, making for Hawaii and China.

The reason for this exchange of ships remains unknown, but one reason could be that Kenrick thought the Washington was easier to handle because she was smaller. Whatever the reason, Gray returned to Boston via Canton, later taking a second expedition in the Columbia that would enter the Columbia River on the modern Washington-Oregon border, and result in its naming for the ship.

Kendrick sailed up the coast of Vancouver Island at the end of June. He traded with the Haida and their chief, Coyah, on the Queen Charlotte Islands. One day, some clothes were stolen from the ship. Kendrick had Coyah locked up until the clothes were returned. Coyah was released at the stolen clothes’ return, but he was deeply bitter about the incident. This incident has been cited as the basis for the hatred of the Haida of the “Boston Men” as all American traders were then called. An account of the incident has it that Kendrick had clamped two chiefs to the base of a cannon and threatened to kill them both unless the Indians let him have all of their skins for the price that Kenrick set on the pretext that laundry had been stolen.

Two years later, when Kendrick returned, the Haida had not forgotten this treatment and a battle ensued. The natives captured the arms chest of the Washington. Kendrick and his crew had to retreat below decks. He and his officers fought off the attack. Kendrick, seeking revenge, killed a native woman who had encouraged the attack in the water after her arm had been severed by a cutlass and killed many other natives with cannon and small arms fire as they retreated.

Kendrick went to the Sandwich Islands (now Hawaii) and then he reached Macau in January, 1790. He eventually left Macau in March, 1791, along with William Douglas, formerly captain of theIphigenia but now of an American ship called Grace. Kendrick and Douglas reached Japan on May 6, probably becoming the first official Americans to meet the Japanese. The next day a typhoon came and forced Kendrick’s ship northeast to Kashinoura Harbor. Kendrick soon ran into trouble with the Japanese, who kept some samurai to make sure things did not get out of hand. Kendrick finally left on May 17. He and Douglas parted ways at a group of islands that they called the Water Islands.

Kendrick landed on the shores of the Haida village, Ce-uda’o Inagai, again on June 13. Kendrick began trading with about 50 Haida aboard his ship, half of whom were women, and another 100 in canoes alongside the Washington. It was when Kenrick had a fight with a crew member that Coyah’s grudge against Kenrick that had smoldered for two years was revealed.

The Haida seized the arms chests and overran the decks of the ship. One of Coyah’s men held a fierce-looking weapon at Kendrick’s face, ready to kill when the order was given. As the men were taken to the hold, they quietly and secretly grabbed any weapons left in unnoticeable places. Kendrick found an iron bar and when Coyah came into sight, he leaped on top of the Haida chief, who non-fatally slashed the captain’s belly with his knife. The chief fled when he saw the other Americans armed as well. Kendrick and his men charged the Haida, shooting at them and grabbing whatever weapons were around. One Haida woman tried to urge the fight on, even though she had lost an arm and had a few other wounds. She was the last one to retreat, jumping into the water and trying to swim away. A crewman shot her as she swam towards the shore. About 40 Haida were killed that day, including Coyah’s wife and two children. Coyah was wounded as well as his two brothers and another chief named Schulkinanse.

Coyah was soon removed from chief to ahliko. The Haida decreased in numbers and they became dirty, their faces painted black and their hair cut short. They would, in later months or years, have some successful ship captures along with human slaughters.

Kendrick left immediately and arrived in Marvinas Bay on July 12.  Kendrick built a small fort called Fort Washington in Clayoquot Sound in late August. By this time Gray had returned to the Northwest Coast, and built his own winter quarters on the sound, Fort Defiance. He continued trading furs, returning to Macau in December. The Chinese refused to buy his furs that year because of a quarrel with the Russians. Kenrick eventually found someone who would buy his furs in March 1792. Problems with the weather forced him to remain in Macau until the Spring of 1793. He sailed back and forth between the Sandwich Islands and Clayoquot Sound until October, 1794, after a brief reunion with his son John Kendrick, Jr., who commanded a Spanish ship called the Aranzazú.

Kendrick arrived in Honolulu (then called Fair Haven) on December 3, 1794. There were also two other British vessels: the Jackal under Captain William Brown and the Prince Lee Boo under a Captain Gordon.

This was coincidentally when a Kaeokulani, the chief of Kauai, invaded Oahu, meeting little resistance from his nephew Kalanikūpule. Brown sent eight men and a mate to aid Kalanikūpule’s forces. Kendrick also probably sent some of his men to help the Hawaiian chief in what was later called the Battle of Kalauao. The muskets of the sailors drove Kaeo’s warriors into some hills that overshadowed Honolulu. They finally retreated into a little ravine. Kaeo tried to escape, but Brown’s men and Kenrick’s men saw his ʻahuʻula, his feather cloak, and fired at the enemy chief from their boats in the harbor to show his position to Kalanikūpule’s men. The Oahu warriors killed Kaeo along with his wives and chiefs. The battle ended with Kalanikūpule as the victor.

At 10:00 the next morning, December 12, 1794, Kendrick’s brig fired a thirteen-gun salute, to which the Jackal answered with a salute back. One of the cannons was loaded with real grapeshot, though, and the shot smashed into the Washington, killing Captain Kenrick at his table on deck along with several other men. Kendrick’s body and the bodies of his dead men were taken ashore and buried on the beach in a hidden grove of palm trees. John Howel, Kendrick’s clerk, read the ship’s prayer book for the captain’s funeral.

4. Eunice Kendrick

Eunice’s husband Reuben Cahoon was born in 1738 in Chatham, Barnstable, Mass

5. Benjamin Kendrick

Benjamin’s wife Jedidah Nickerson was born 13 Aug 1751 in Chatham, Barnstable, Mass.  Her parents were Nathan Nickerson (1739 – 1793) and Abigail Eldredge (1728 – 1761)  Jedidah died in  Clarks Harbour, Shelburne, Nova Scotia, Canada

6. Joseph Kendrick

Joseph’s wife Hannah Horner was born in 1755.


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