Job Chase

Job Chase (1776 – 1865) was Alex’s cousin eight times removed in the Shaw line.

Job Chase Portrait

Job Chase was born 8 Aug 1776 in Harwich, Barnstable, Mass;  His parents were Job Chase and Hope Sears.  His paternal grandparents were William CHASE III and Dorcas BAKER.  He married 25 Nov 1796 to Polly Eldredge.   Job and Polly had nine children born between 1797 and 1813.  After Polly died, he married again 22 Feb 1816 in Brewster, Barnstable, Mass to Phebe Winslow.    Job and Phebe had eight more children born between 1817 and 1831,  Finally,  Job married in 1842 to Eunice Crosby.   Job died  12 Jan 1865 in Harwich.

Job Chase Monument Pine Grove Cemetery  West Harwich, Barnstable , Mass, Find A Grave Memorial# 67294723

Job Chase Monument Pine Grove Cemetery
West Harwich, Barnstable , Mass, Find A Grave Memorial# 67294723

Job Chase Monument

Job Chase Monument

Polly Eldredge  was born 18 May 1778 in Harwich, Barnstable, Mass.  Polly died 26 May 1816 in West Harwich.

Phebe Winslow was born 16 Feb 1795 in Brewster, Barnstable, Mass.    Her parents were Joseph Winslow (1772 – 1816) and Abigail Snow (1766 – 1844).  Phebe died 25 Aug 1839 in  Harwich.

Eunice Crosby  was born 19 Apr 1797 in Holden, Worcester, Mass.  Eunice first married [__?__] Drury.  Eunice died 11 Jun 1863 in Harwich,

The 17th and youngest son  Caleb lived until 1908, most likely the last surviving second cousin of Alex’s fifth great grandfather Isaac HAWES (1765 – 1840) or any second cousin from his generation for that matter.  Caleb’s coffee brand Chase & Sanborn lives on today (See below)

Children of Job and Polly:

Name Born Married Departed
1. Hope Chase 5 May 1797
Harwich, Barnstable, Mass
Isaiah Baker
7 Jan 1815
29 Aug 1839
2. Job Chase 12 Jan 1799 Harwich, Barnstable, Mass Hannah Nickerson
21 Sep 1820
Lost at Sea
Jan 1825 out of Harwich
3. Jonathan Chase 4 Oct 1800 Harwich, Barnstable, Mass Hannah Burgess
24 Dec 1825
Lost at Sea
27 Dec 1877
4. Sears Chase 2 May 1802  Harwich, Barnstable, Mass Anna Knowles Lost at Sea
22 Dec 1831 out of Harwich
5. Ozias Chase 18 Jun 1804  Harwich, Barnstable, Mass Lost at Sea
20 Oct 1822 out of Harwich
6. Whitman Chase 26 May 1806 Harwich, Barnstable, Mass Lost at Sea
6 Jul 1827 out of Harwich
7. Darius B. Chase 11 Nov 1808 Harwich, Barnstable, Mass Mary Louisa Gardner*
20 Nov 1833
Enfield, Hampshire, Mass.
Annie Merriman
Baltimore, Maryland
1 Dec 1894
Harwich, Barnstable, Mass
8. Ziba Chase 12 May 1811 Harwich, Barnstable, Mass Lost at Sea
6 Jul 1835 out of Harwich
9. Judah Eldridge Chase 6 Mar 1813 Harwich, Barnstable, Mass Emily Fish 1893

Children of  Job and Phebe:

Name Born Married Departed
10. Joseph Winslow Chase 5 May 1817  Harwich, Barnstable, Mass Rose B Kelley 29 Oct 1897 in Harwich
11. Alfred Chase 28 Mar 1819  Harwich, Barnstable, Mass Azubah Taylor
20 Nov 1844 – Chatham, Barnstable, Mass
Pine Grove Cemetery
West Harwich
12. Mary Eldridge Chase 27 Apr 1822 Harwich, Barnstable, Mass George Nickerson
19 Jan 1843
1900 Census
Dennis, Barnstable, Mass
13. Joshua Snow Chase 23 Jun 1824 Harwich, Barnstable, Mass 20 Oct 1825 Harwich
14. Erastus Chase 29 May 1826 Harwich, Barnstable, Mass Sarah Abbey Trevett
10 Nov 1850
Wiscassett, Maine
21 Jan 1905
West Harwich
15. Joshua Snow Chase 27 Feb 1830 Harwich, Barnstable, Mass Abby Ewer Fish 27 Dec 1888
Boston, Mass
16. James Winslow Chase Nov 1831
Harwich, Barnstable, Mass
EWster A. [__?__]
After 1900 Census
Scott Valley, Siskiyou, California
17. Caleb Chase 11 Dec 1831 Harwich, Barnstable, Mass Salome Salley Boyles 23 Nov 1908
Brookline, Norfolk, Mass
18. Infant Daughter 9 Aug 1839 Harwich, Barnstable, Mass 9 Aug 1839 Harwich

1850  Census Harwich, Barnstable, Massachusetts
Job Chase Age 70
Eunice D Chase 55
James W Chase 20
Joshua S Chase 15
Cabot Chase 16

From  The History of Barnstable County Massachusetts published 1890

Job Chase [Jr.]  was born August 8, 1776, at the ancestral home, near which, on the west bank of the river, he subsequently reared a home, where he died January 12, 1865. The limited means for obtaining an education in his boyhood were scarcely improved when he embarked upon his business career, in which he must rely upon a retentive memory and a keen perception for his measure of success. He engaged in a fishing and mercantile business in which he attained a high point among those of the south shore, owning the controlling interest in as many as fifteen vessels at a time.

In 1831 he erected, on the river, a store which was used by him and his sons until a few years ago, and in this he kept the first post office of West Harwich. In 1842 he built the wharf which is still in use, and also built the schooner Job Chase, of eighty-five tons, from timber cut upon his own lands, lands now robbed of their trees, but where, before his time, his father, Job, had also cut the timber for vessels which he built there. Other vessels were built for his use at Hamden, Me., and at Dartmouth. In his fishing business he fitted out a large fleet.

He was largely interested in public affairs, also in affairs of the church, and in both was an important factor. He served his town as a selectman, and was a representative from Harwich in the legislature. In the erection of the West Harwich Baptist church he was a large contributor, continuing’ substantial material and spiritual aid during his life.

He was one of the original stockholders in the old Yarmouth bank, and was among the foremost in all the public enterprises of his day, giving employment to a large number of men ‘in building up the interests of West Harwich. In his death the town sustained a severe check to its growing business and a great loss in its social and religious circles.


[I usually don’t continue to great grandchildren, but will make an exception here to show how dangerous fishing was in the 19th Century.  Six of Job’s first eight boys were lost at sea]

1. Hope Chase

Hope’s husband Isaiah Baker was born 6 Mar 1793 in Dennis, Barnstable, Mass. His parents were Isaiah Baker (1771 – 1854) and Abigail Burgess (1773 – 1804). Hope and Isaiah had five children born between 1820 and 1837. After Hope died, Isaiah married Aug 1839 to Hannah Nickerson and had one more child. Isaiah died 4 Sep 1873 in Harwich, Barnstable, Mass

In the 1850 census, Isaiah and Hannah were farming in Harwich with five children at home.

2. Job Chase

Job’s wife Hannah Nickerson was born 8 Jan 1799 in Dennis, Barnstable, Mass. Her parents were Jonathan Nickerson (1774 – 1862) and Mehitable Berry (1776 – 1852). Job and Hannah had three children born between 1821 and 1824. Hannah died 19 May 1869

As a shipmaster, Job was lost at Sea Jan 1825 out of Harwich

3. Jonathan Chase

Jonathan’s wife Hannah Burgess was born 16 Jul 1804 in Harwich, Barnstable, Mass. Her parents were Joshua Burgess (1774 – 1808) and Hannah Smith (1774 – 1838). Jonathan and Hannah had three children born between 1826 and 1851. Hannah died 13 May 1881 in Harwich, MA, cause of death-Scrofula (lymphadenitis of the cervical lymph nodes associated with tuberculosis)

While acting as master, lost at Sea 27 Dec 1877

4. Sears Chase

Sear’s wife Anna Knowles’ was list as “Of Orleans” in their marriage intentions.

As master, Sears was lost at Sea 22 Dec 1831 out of Harwich

Sears Chase has a stone at Baptist Church Cemetery, West Harwich: Sears
Chase lost at sea 1831 aged 29y. Infant son aged 17d, Ann M. aged 4 years,
Sears W. (unreadable), Annie S. wife of Rev. W. Willey, Dwight Mission, d.
1861 aged 35y, Jessie B. their dau. The stone is broken, recemented and hard
to read. (From Burt Derick’s book on Dennis Cemetery Inscriptions).

5. Ozias Chase

While in command of a vessel, lost at Sea at age 18 on 20 Oct 1822 out of Harwich

6. Whitman Chase

Also lost at Sea at age 21 on 6 Jul 1827 out of Harwich

7. Darius B. Chase

Darius’ first wife Mary Louisa Gardner was born 20 Jul 1812 in Bolton, Worcester, Mass. Her parents were Stephen Partridge Gardner (1766 – 1841) and Achsah Moore (1774 – 1837). Darius and Mary had two children Charles (b. 1836) and Elizabeth (b. 1838). I haven’t found a divorce record, but Mary died 24 Oct 1902 in Cambridge, Middlesex, Mass.

Darius’ second wife Sarah Annie Merryman was born 15 Jan 1838 in Baltimore, Maryland. Her parents were John Buck Merryman (1814 – 1861) and Sarah Baker Ensor (1817 – 1905). Darius and Annie had two children: Lillie (b. 1859) and Darius (b. 1861) Annie died 30 Dec 1910 in Somerville, Middlesex, Mass.

Darius was an artist and a restorer of oil paintings. He worked in Boston as a restorer from 1844 and 1848. In 1851 he was living in Philadelphia. Some time during the 1850’s he moved to Charleston, South Carolina where he ran a gallery and worked as a restorer. A register of his gallery from 1857 to 1858 is included in the The Joseph Downs Collection at the Winterhur Library. The 44 page volume includes a list of people who visited the gallery and a list of artists whose works he supposedly exhibited. Also included are remarks that Chase made on the techniques of painting restoration.

Here are a few of the paintings Darius restored that are in the collection of the Massachusetts Historical Society. It looks like Darius worked for the society in the 1840’s.

John Wentworth. Born at Portsmouth, Jan. 16, 1672. Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of New Hampshire, from 1717 to 1730. Died, Dec. 12, 1730. This painting (25 x 30) was given by Sir John Wentworth, Governor of Nova Scotia, February, 1798. It was restored by Darius Chase, 1845.

John Wentworth Portrait  Restored by Darius Chase 1845

John Wentworth Portrait Restored by Darius Chase 1845

Jonathan Belcher Born at Cambridge, Jan. 8, 1682. Governor of the Province of Massachusetts Bay and New Hampshire, from 1730 to 1741. Governor of the Province of New Jersey, from 1747 to 1757. Died at Elizabethtown, Aug. 31, 1757. Painted at London by F. Liopoldt, in 1729, while Mr. Belcher was Agent of the Province at the British Court. (25 X 30.) Restored by Darius Chase, 1845. Inscribed: “Given before 1838.”

This portrait was formerly identified as Governor Jonathan Belcher (1682-1757) by Franz Lippoldt, 1729, because of extensive overpainting. The painting was conserved in 1977 and the extensive overpainting that matched John Faber’s 1734 mezzotint of the 1729 portrait of Belcher by Richard Philips was removed. After the conservation treatment (and the removal of the overpainting) the circa 1760 portrait of the unidentified gentleman was revealed. (Bad Job Darius!)

Former John Belcher Portrait

Former John Belcher Portrait

Rev. John Wilson, D.D. Born at Windsor, England, 1588. First Minister of Boston. Pastor of the First Church, from 1632 to 1667. Died, Aug. 7, 1667. A supposed (doubtful) original portrait. (25 x 30.) Given by Henry Bromfield, Esq., February, 1798. Restored by Darius Chase, 1845.

Rev. Increase Mather, D.D. Born at Dorchester, June 21, 1639. Pastor of the Old North or Second Church, from 1664 to 1723. President of Harvard College, from 1685 to 1701. Died, Aug. 23, 1723. Painted by John Vanderspriet, London, 1688. (41 x 49.) Restored
by Darius Chase, 1845. Inscribed: ” iCtatis • suae • 49 1688.” ” Joh. Vanderspriet; 1688.” Given by Mr. John Dugan, Jan. 30, 1798.

Increase Mather by by John van der Spriet 1688,  Restored by Darius Chase 1845

Increase Mather by by John van der Spriet 1688, Restored by Darius Chase 1845

Berkeley, Rev. George. Born at Kilerin, Ireland, March 12, 1684. He was Dean of Derry, and afterwards Bishop of Cloyne. He came to Newport, R. I., in 1729, where he remained two and one half years, when he returned to England. He died at Oxford, England, Jan. 14, 1753. Painted by Smibert, on his passage to Newport, R. I., in 1728. Restored by Darius Chase, 1845. Given by Thomas Wetmore, Esq.

George Washington A copy from the original, painted by Peale in 1779, and captured by
Admiral Keppel while on its way as a present to the Stadtholder of Holland, and now belonging to Keppell’s descendant, the Earl of Albemarle, Quiddenham Park, Norfolk. (60 x 96.) Given by Alexander Duncan, Esq., Sept. 10, 1874. The first portrait by Peale is in possession of Charles S. Ogden, Esq., of Philadelphia. Painted by Joseph Wright, Philadelphia, 1784. Restored by Darius Chase, 1845. (30 x 37.) Given by Israel Thorndike, Dec. 31, 1835.

Marquis de Lafayette. Commissioned in Paris by Thomas Jefferson in 1790 for his gallery of American heroes, this Joseph Boze painting represents Marie-Joseph Paul Yves Roch Gilbert du Motier, the Marquis de Lafayette, at the pinnacle of his career. Restored by Darius Chase, 1844-45, and again by George Howorth, 1858. (28 Ji x 36.) Given by Mrs. J. W. Davis, Aug. 25, 1835 When President Jefferson died and his estate proved insolvent, his collection of paintings was exhibited in New York and at the Boston Athenaeum prior to a sale at Chester Harding’s Boston gallery in 1835. This portrait was purchased at that sale and presented to the Massachusetts Historical Society the same year.

Lafayette Portrait  - Commissioned by Thomas Jefferson 1790, Restored by Darius Chase 1845

Lafayette Portrait – Commissioned by Thomas Jefferson 1790, Restored by Darius Chase 1845

Peter Faneuil. Born at New Rochelle, N. Y., June 20, 1700. He gave Faneuil Hall to the town of Boston, Sept. 10, 1742. Died, March 3, 1742-3. Painted by Smibert. Restored by Darius Chase, 1845. Given by the heirs of Edward Jones, Oct. 29, 1835. A copy of this, painted by Henry Sargent, is in Faneuil Hall.

8. Ziba Chase

Lost at Sea 6 Jul 1835 out of Harwich

9. Judah Eldridge Chase

Judah’s wife Emily Fish was born in 1814. Her parents were Daniel Fish (1795 – ) and Thankful Ewer (1790 – 1875). Emily died in 1895 and is buried in the Pine Grove Cemetery, West Harwich.

Judah was a merchant

10. Joseph Winslow Chase

Joseph’s wife Rose B Kelley was born 29 Sep 1821 in Harwich, Barnstable, Mass. Her parents were Joseph Kelley (1787 – 1869) and Didamia Chase (1790 – 1869). Rose died 4 Feb 1906 in Mattapoisett, Mass.

Joseph chose the occupation of a farmer, in which he was prominent. In the 1860 census, Joseph and Rose were farming in Harwich with three children at home.

11. Alfred Chase

Alfred’s wife Azubah Taylor was baptized 29 Dec 1819 in Chatham, Barnstable, Mass. Her parents were John Taylor and Hannah Harding. Azubah was a school teacher in Chatham, Mass when they married in 1845. Alfred and Azubah had six children born between 1846 and 1862. Azubah died 16 Nov 1899 – Leominster, Worcester, Mass.

In the 1860 census, Alfred was a merchant living with Azubah, four children and an Irish domestic in Harwich.

12. Mary Eldridge Chase

Mary’s husband Capt. George Nickerson was born 30 Sep 1817 in South Dennis, Barnstable, Mass. His parents were Eleazer Nickerson (1776 – 1856) and Mercy Taylor Weldon (1785 – 1859)

George was a sea captain.

14. Erastus Chase

Erastus’ wife Sarah Abbey Trevett was born 29 Jun 1826 in Wiscassett, Lincoln, Maine. Her parents were Robert Trevett (1806 – ) and [__?__]. Erastus and Sarah had two sons born in 1859 Frank and Herbert. Sarah died 8 Feb 1895 in Harwich, Barnstable, Mass.

Sarah Abbey Trevett Portrait

Sarah Abbey Trevett Portrait

Erastus was in mercantile business at West Harwich near Herring river—a continuation in part of his father’s business—having kept the post office twenty-four years and acted as deputy collector of internal revenue a period of four years.

Erastus Chase Portrait

Erastus Chase Portrait


Erastus Chase House

Erastus Chase House  — West Harwich, Mass.

15. Joshua Snow Chase

Joshua’s wife Abby Ewer Fish was born 29 Sep 1823 in Sandwich, Barnstable, Mass. Her parents were Daniel Fish (1795 – ) and Thankful Ewer (1790 – 1875). Abby died 9 Mar 1892 in Boston, Essex, Mass

Joshua  originated the manufacturing firm known as the Union Paste Company of Boston, which is continued by his son-in-law, Anthony Kelley. The wonderful fish product called Chase’s Liquid Glue has become celebrated.

16. James Winslow Chase

James’ wife Esther Amanda Weston was born 8 May 1840 in Mass James and Esther had six children born between 1859 and 1875.

James and Esther moved to California. In the 1860 census, he was a miner in Liberty, Klamath, California.

17. Caleb Chase

Caleb’s wife Salome Salley Boyles was born in Apr 1839 in Maine. Salome died in Boston.

Caleb Chase Portrait

Caleb Chase (1831 – 1908)

Caleb was not content with the opportunities offered in the business of his ancestors, at the age of twenty-three went to Boston, where he entered the employ of Anderson, Sargent & Co., a leading wholesale dry-goods house.

Chase & Sanborn Coffee

He traveled in the interests of this house on the Cape and in the West until September, 1859, when he connected himself with the grocery house of Claflin. Allison & Co., which connection was severed January 1, 1864, and soon after the firm of Carr, Chase & Raymond was formed. It 1871 the firm of Chase, Raymond & Ayer was organized, which existed until 1878, when the present firm of Chase & Sanborn commenced business. Mr. Chase is now the head of this house, than which save one other, there is no larger concern in the coffee trade in America. They have branch houses in Montreal and Chicago. He owns the homestead at West Harwich where his summer vacations are spent.

Chase & Sanborn building at 87 Broad St., Boston

Chase & Sanborn building at 87 Broad St., Boston

The Chase and Sanborn Hour was the umbrella title for a series of US comedy and variety radio shows,  usually airing Sundays on NBCf rom 8pm to 9pm during the years 1929 to 1948.

The series began in 1929 as The Chase and Sanborn Choral Orchestra, a half-hour musical variety show heard Sundays at 8:30pm on NBC. When Maurice Chevalier became the show’s star, he received a record-breaking salary of $5000 a week. Violinist David Rubinoff  became a regular in January 1931, introduced as “Rubinoff and His Violin.”

With Chevalier returning to Paris, Eddie Cantor was chosen as his replacement and the new 60-minute program, The Chase and Sanborn Hour, was launched September 13, 1931, teaming Cantor with Rubinoff and announcer Jimmy Wallington. The show established Cantor as a leading comedian, and his scriptwriter, David Freedman, as “the Captain of Comedy.” When Jimmy Durante stepped in as a substitute for Cantor, making his first appearance on September 10, 1933, he was so successful that he was offered his own show. Then the world’s highest paid radio star, Cantor continued as The Chase and Sanborn Hour’s headliner until November 25, 1934.

Chase and Sanborn found a gold mine with a wooden dummy when Edgar Bergen and Charlie McCarthy began an 11-year run, starting May 9, 1937. Initially this incarnation of the program also featured as regulars master of ceremonies Don Ameche, singers Dorothy Lamour and Nelson Eddy, and (for the first few weeks) comedian W.C. Fields, accompanied by a different guest star each week. Perhaps the most infamous of the latter was Mae West, whose appearance on the program of Dec 12, 1937 was highlighted with a sexually suggestive “Adam and Eve” sketch that caused a public outcry and resulted in West being banned from the radio airwaves for many years thereafter.

Although the series ended December 26, 1948, it was followed by a compilation show on NBC, The Chase and Sanborn 100th Anniversary Show (November 15, 1964), assembled by writer Carroll Carroll and narrated by Bergen. This became an annual event with The Chase and Sanborn 101st Anniversary Show (November 14, 1965), a Fred Allen tribute, followed by The Chase and Sanborn 102nd Anniversary Show(November 13, 1966), which turned out to be the last of the series.

Chase & Sanborn Coffee is an  American   coffee  brand  created  by the coffee roasting and tea and coffee importing company of the same name, established in 1862 in Boston,Massachusetts. It claims to be the first coffee company to pack and ship roasted coffee in sealed tins.

When Standard Brands was formed in 1929, it acquired Chase & Sanborn, where it remained until 1981 when the company merged into NabiscoKraft Foods sold the brand to Sara Lee in 2002, and the Chase & Sanborn, Hills Bros., MJB, and Chock Full O’ Nuts brands were sold to Massimo Zanetti Beverage Group in 2006.


Posted in Artistic Representation, Line - Shaw, Sea Captain | 1 Comment

Solomon Kendrick

Solomon Kendrick (1706 – 1790) was Alex’s first cousin, nine times removed in the Shaw line. 

Solomon Kendrick was born in 1706 in Harwich, Barnstable, Mass. His parents were Edward Kendrick (1680 – 1743) and Elizabeth Snow (1683 – 1713). His maternal grandparents were our ancestors Jabez SNOW  and Elizabeth SMITH. He married in 1735 Chatham, Barnstable, Mass. to Elizabeth Atkins. Solomon died in 1790 in Barrington, Shelburne, Nova Scotia, Canada

Elizabeth Atkins was born in 1715 in Chatham, Barnstable, Mass. Elizabeth’s sister Anna married Solomon’s brother Thomas. Their parents were Samuel Atkins (1679 – 1768) and Emeline “Emblem” Newcomb (1685 – 1768) Their grandparents were our ancestor Andrew NEWCOMB Jr. and his second wife Anna Bayes.  She first married 31 Jan 1731 in Eastham to Daniel Eldredge (1702 – 1732). Elizabeth died in 1790 in Sherose Island, Shelburne, Nova Scotia, Canada

Their son John Kendrick (wiki)  (c. 1740–1794) was the first ship master who went on a voyage to the Northwest coast of the United States and discovered the Columbia River. Kendrick Bay on Prince of Wales Island near the southern tip of the Alaskan panhandle and Kendrick Islands, at the mouth of the bay are named for John Kendrick.

Children of Solomon and Elizabeth

Name Born Married Departed
1. Solomon Kendrick 1731
Harwich, Barnstable, Mass
Martha Godfrey
Chatham, Barnstable, Mass
2. Elizabeth Kendrick 29 Aug 1736
Chatham, Barnstable, Mass
Elkanah Smith
17 Nov 1753 in Harwich, Barnstable, Mass
Sambro, Nova Scotia, Canada
3. John Kendrick 
Harwich, Barnstable, Mass
Huldah Pease
28 Dec 1767
Edgartown, Dukes, Mass.
12 Dec 1793
Honolulu Harbor, Hawaii
4. Eunice Kendrick 1744 Rueben Cahoon 24 Feb 1777
Barrington, Nova Scotia, Canada
5. Benjamin Kendrick 13 Aug 1751
Harwich, Barnstable, Mass
Jedidah Nickerson
Clarks Harbour, Shelburne, Nova Scotia, Canada
6. Joseph Kendrick 1755
Barrington, Nova Scotia, Canada
Hannah Horner

1770 census of Barrington, Solomon indicates that he is living just with his wife and that they are Protestant Americans.
Solomon was engaged primarily in the Whale Fishery at “the passage”. His descendants settled mainly at “the passage”, where his namesake, Solomon, son of John, continued the whaling voyages until the mid 1850s.


1. Solomon Kendrick

Solomon’s wife Martha Godfrey’s origins are not known.

Solomon was a mariner and went with his father’s family to Barrington, Nova Scotia where he was a propriater in 1768.  He married twice, but no record of his first wife has been found.

2. Elizabeth Kendrick

Elizabeth’s husband Elkanah Smith was born 6 Dec 1729 in Chatham, Barnstable, Mass.  His parents were David Smith (1691 – ) and Sarah Higgins (1699 – 1795)Elkanah died 25 Jun 1731 in Sambro, Nova Scotia, Canada

3. John Kendrick  (wiki)

John’s wife Huldah Pease was born 29 Apr 1744 in Edgartown, Dukes, Mass.  Her parents were Theophilus Pease (1705 – 1783) and Jedidah Butler (1711 – ).  Huldah died Jan 1824 in Rochester, Plymouth, Mass

John Kendrick (wiki)  (c. 1740–1794) was the first ship master who went on a voyage to the Northwest coast of the United States and discovered the Columbia River. Kendrick Bay on Prince of Wales Island near the southern tip of the Alaskan panhandle and Kendrick Islands, at the mouth of the bay are named for John Kendrick.

[This story is  a little much for a 2nd cousin, but it’s a rousing adventure tale  and he is our cousin two different ways, so I’m including the long version]  Here’s video biography

Kendrick was born about 1740 in what was then part of the Town of Harwich, Massachusetts (now Orleans, Massachusetts), according to official town records in Orleans, his last name was originally Kenrick, but later adopted the “d”. John Kendrick came from a long family line of seamen. Solomon Kenrick, his father, was a humble seaman and this fact gave young John the ambition of becoming a sea captain. He had a common education, like most people at the time. At age 20, he joined a whaling crew, working on a schooner owned by Captain Bangs.

John Kendrick later joined Captain Jabez Snow’s company during the French and Indian War in 1762. Like most Cape Codders of the time, he served for only eight months and did not re-enlist. All that is known about him between 1762 and the 1770s is that he owned a few merchant ships and married Huldah Pease of Edgartown on Martha’s Vineyard.

Kendrick was reputed to have participated in the Boston Tea Party on December 16, 1773. He was an ardent Patriot, going on to serve as commander of the privateer Fanny, the first ship of what became the Continental Navy during the American Revolution. He was commissioned May 26, 1777.

The Fanny had 18 guns and a crew of 100 as she captured a few British ships, gaining some money on the side and taking possession of items needed by the Americans defending themselves from the British. Some items also helped build Kendrick’s house in Wareham, Massachusetts. HMS Brutus and HMS Little Brutus captured Kendrick in November, 1779. He was soon traded in a prisoner exchange. Upon release, he commanded a sixteen-gun-armed, hundred-man-crewed brigantine named the Count d’Estang in 1780. Then, he commanded another brigantine called the Marianne later that same year.

When the war ended in 1783, Kendrick returned to whaling and coastal shipping until he became commander of the first American ship the discovery.

Not much is known about what happened to John Kendrick between the Revolution’s end and his voyage to the Pacific Northwest. A syndicate led by Boston merchant Joseph Barrell financed the Columbia Expedition in 1787. The vessels included were the ship Columbia Rediviva and the sloop Lady Washington.

The command of the larger Columbia was given to Captain Kendrick, then 47 years old, and 32-year-old one-eyed Robert Gray was given Washington. Overall command of expedition was given to Kendrick.  The combined crews of the two ships numbered about 40 men, one of them being 19-year-old Robert Haswell, the only one in the crew who kept an account of the voyage that survives today and who came to dislike Kendrick. Second Officer of Columbia was 25-year-old Joseph Ingraham, a veteran of the Massachusetts State Navy and POW during the Revolution, later captain of the Hope that sailed in 1790 to compete in the fur trade, and admirer of Kendrick. The oldest man on the voyage was Simeon Woodruff, who had sailed with James Cook aboard the HMS Resolution on his famous third voyage around the world.

The Columbia Expedition set sail from Boston Harbor on the morning of October 1, 1787, after a brief party with family and friends. The vessels reached the Cape Verde Islands on November 9, where Simeon Woodruff, after a fight with Kendrick, left the Columbia and went onto the islands with all his baggage. A Spanish captain passing by the islands offered to take Woodruff to Madeira and the old man, bitter at Kendrick’s treatment of him, accepted. He eventually returned to America and lived in Connecticut most of the remainder of his life.

Kendrick continued the journey on December 21 and reached Brett’s Harbor on the western side of the Falkland Islands on Feb 16 1788. While at sea, an argument between Kendrick and Haswell, the 2nd Officer, a friend of the dismissed Woodruff, had arisen over the disciplining of a seaman. He was apparently demoted, but attributed it to Kendrick’s wish to hasten the ascent of his own son, John Kendrick, Jr., who was serving as Fourth Officer of Columbia. Haswell also claimed that Captain Kendrick gave the young man permission to take passage on a European- or American-bound ship at the Falklands. But finding none there, Haswell agreed to transfer to the Washington. Kendrick considered wintering in the Atlantic, but was convinced to leave the islands on February 28, heading around Cape Horn instead of through the Strait of Magellan, and into the Pacific Ocean.   On April 1, after Kendrick gave the order to at last turn Columbia from a southwesterly course toward Antarctica and to the north, signaling a successful passage around the Horn, the two vessels lost sight of each other, to the relief of Captain Gray.

Kendrick survived the storm and stopped at the Juan Fernández Islands with two men dead and some others sick with scurvy. The Columbia continued sailing north and eventually settled down at Friendly Cove in Nootka Sound. The Washington had arrived at Nootka Sound a few weeks before Kendrick. Gray found himself again under Kendrick’s command. The Americans found two British ships anchored in Nootka Sound. They were part of a fur trading venture under John Meares—the Iphigenia, under William Douglas, and the North West America, under Robert Funter. Meares had left with his command ship, the Felice Adventurer, after Gray had arrived but before Kendrick had. On October 26, 1788, the British ships left for Hawaii and China.

Once they were gone Kendrick announced that he had decided the expedition would spend the winter in Nootka Sound. They would befriend the native Nuu-chah-nulth people and gain an advantage in the fur trade over the competing British ships.  During the winter Kendrick met and established friendly relations with the Nuu-chah-nulth chiefs Maquinna and Wickaninnish.

Kendrick sent the Washington under Gray out on a short trading voyage on March 16, 1789. Gray was to visit Wickaninnish in Clayoquot Sound and cruise south to look for the Strait of Juan de Fuca. He collected many sea otter pelts in Clayoquot Sound and found the entrance of the Strait of Juan de Fuca before returning to Nootka Sound on April 22. Gray found the Iphigenia under William Douglas anchored at Friendly Cove. Kendrick had moved the Columbia to a cove known as Mawina (today called Kendrick Inlet), six miles deeper into Nootka Sound. He had built a fortified a small island and built an outpost on it, with a house, gun battery, blacksmith forge, and outbuildings. Kendrick called it Fort Washington. He had decided that the Columbia was too unwieldy for close sailing on the Pacific Northwest coast. The smaller, more maneuverable  Washington was better suited for trading.

Immediately upon arrival the Washington was readied for another voyage. On May 2, days after the British ship Iphigeniaset off northward to trade for furs, Gray took the Washington north as well. On the way out of Nootka Sound Gray encountered the Princesa, under Spanish naval officer Esteban José Martínez, who had come to take possession of Nootka Sound for Spain. Martínez informed the officers of the Washington that they were trespassing in Spanish waters and demanded to know their business. Gray and his officers showed him a passport and made weak excuses for being on the Northwest Coast. Martínez knew they were dissembling but let them go, knowing that the command ship Columbia was trapped in Nootka Sound.

Gray returned to Nootka Sound on June 17 to find the Spanish in control, Fort San Miguel built, and the British ships Iphigenia and North West America captured. Martínez had let the Iphigenia leave but kept the North West America. A third British ship, the Princess Royal had arrived and was being detained by the Spanish. The British command shipArgonaut under James Colnett would soon arrive, triggering the Nootka Crisis. The situation on the Northwest Coast was changing rapidly.

On July 15 the Columbia and Washington, under Kendrick and Gray, left Nootka Sound. They sailed south to Clayoquot Sound, where they stayed for two weeks. There, switching vessels, Kendrick ordered Gray to take the Columbia to China, and Kendrick would take the Washington north. Kendrick recognized that with the British driven off out of the trade due to the Nootka Crisis the Americans had a window of opportunity on the Northwest Coast. All the furs in the Washington were transferred to the  Columbia  and the crews were divided so Kendrick would have a full complement of experienced sailors on the Washington. On July 30 Gray sailed the Columbia out of Clayoquot Sound, making for Hawaii and China.

The reason for this exchange of ships remains unknown, but one reason could be that Kenrick thought the Washington was easier to handle because she was smaller. Whatever the reason, Gray returned to Boston via Canton, later taking a second expedition in the Columbia that would enter the Columbia River on the modern Washington-Oregon border, and result in its naming for the ship.

Kendrick sailed up the coast of Vancouver Island at the end of June. He traded with the Haida and their chief, Coyah, on the Queen Charlotte Islands. One day, some clothes were stolen from the ship. Kendrick had Coyah locked up until the clothes were returned. Coyah was released at the stolen clothes’ return, but he was deeply bitter about the incident. This incident has been cited as the basis for the hatred of the Haida of the “Boston Men” as all American traders were then called. An account of the incident has it that Kendrick had clamped two chiefs to the base of a cannon and threatened to kill them both unless the Indians let him have all of their skins for the price that Kenrick set on the pretext that laundry had been stolen.

Two years later, when Kendrick returned, the Haida had not forgotten this treatment and a battle ensued. The natives captured the arms chest of the Washington. Kendrick and his crew had to retreat below decks. He and his officers fought off the attack. Kendrick, seeking revenge, killed a native woman who had encouraged the attack in the water after her arm had been severed by a cutlass and killed many other natives with cannon and small arms fire as they retreated.

Kendrick went to the Sandwich Islands (now Hawaii) and then he reached Macau in January, 1790. He eventually left Macau in March, 1791, along with William Douglas, formerly captain of theIphigenia but now of an American ship called Grace. Kendrick and Douglas reached Japan on May 6, probably becoming the first official Americans to meet the Japanese. The next day a typhoon came and forced Kendrick’s ship northeast to Kashinoura Harbor. Kendrick soon ran into trouble with the Japanese, who kept some samurai to make sure things did not get out of hand. Kendrick finally left on May 17. He and Douglas parted ways at a group of islands that they called the Water Islands.

Kendrick landed on the shores of the Haida village, Ce-uda’o Inagai, again on June 13. Kendrick began trading with about 50 Haida aboard his ship, half of whom were women, and another 100 in canoes alongside the Washington. It was when Kenrick had a fight with a crew member that Coyah’s grudge against Kenrick that had smoldered for two years was revealed.

The Haida seized the arms chests and overran the decks of the ship. One of Coyah’s men held a fierce-looking weapon at Kendrick’s face, ready to kill when the order was given. As the men were taken to the hold, they quietly and secretly grabbed any weapons left in unnoticeable places. Kendrick found an iron bar and when Coyah came into sight, he leaped on top of the Haida chief, who non-fatally slashed the captain’s belly with his knife. The chief fled when he saw the other Americans armed as well. Kendrick and his men charged the Haida, shooting at them and grabbing whatever weapons were around. One Haida woman tried to urge the fight on, even though she had lost an arm and had a few other wounds. She was the last one to retreat, jumping into the water and trying to swim away. A crewman shot her as she swam towards the shore. About 40 Haida were killed that day, including Coyah’s wife and two children. Coyah was wounded as well as his two brothers and another chief named Schulkinanse.

Coyah was soon removed from chief to ahliko. The Haida decreased in numbers and they became dirty, their faces painted black and their hair cut short. They would, in later months or years, have some successful ship captures along with human slaughters.

Kendrick left immediately and arrived in Marvinas Bay on July 12.  Kendrick built a small fort called Fort Washington in Clayoquot Sound in late August. By this time Gray had returned to the Northwest Coast, and built his own winter quarters on the sound, Fort Defiance. He continued trading furs, returning to Macau in December. The Chinese refused to buy his furs that year because of a quarrel with the Russians. Kenrick eventually found someone who would buy his furs in March 1792. Problems with the weather forced him to remain in Macau until the Spring of 1793. He sailed back and forth between the Sandwich Islands and Clayoquot Sound until October, 1794, after a brief reunion with his son John Kendrick, Jr., who commanded a Spanish ship called the Aranzazú.

Kendrick arrived in Honolulu (then called Fair Haven) on December 3, 1794. There were also two other British vessels: the Jackal under Captain William Brown and the Prince Lee Boo under a Captain Gordon.

This was coincidentally when a Kaeokulani, the chief of Kauai, invaded Oahu, meeting little resistance from his nephew Kalanikūpule. Brown sent eight men and a mate to aid Kalanikūpule’s forces. Kendrick also probably sent some of his men to help the Hawaiian chief in what was later called the Battle of Kalauao. The muskets of the sailors drove Kaeo’s warriors into some hills that overshadowed Honolulu. They finally retreated into a little ravine. Kaeo tried to escape, but Brown’s men and Kenrick’s men saw his ʻahuʻula, his feather cloak, and fired at the enemy chief from their boats in the harbor to show his position to Kalanikūpule’s men. The Oahu warriors killed Kaeo along with his wives and chiefs. The battle ended with Kalanikūpule as the victor.

At 10:00 the next morning, December 12, 1794, Kendrick’s brig fired a thirteen-gun salute, to which the Jackal answered with a salute back. One of the cannons was loaded with real grapeshot, though, and the shot smashed into the Washington, killing Captain Kenrick at his table on deck along with several other men. Kendrick’s body and the bodies of his dead men were taken ashore and buried on the beach in a hidden grove of palm trees. John Howel, Kendrick’s clerk, read the ship’s prayer book for the captain’s funeral.

4. Eunice Kendrick

Eunice’s husband Reuben Cahoon was born in 1738 in Chatham, Barnstable, Mass

5. Benjamin Kendrick

Benjamin’s wife Jedidah Nickerson was born 13 Aug 1751 in Chatham, Barnstable, Mass.  Her parents were Nathan Nickerson (1739 – 1793) and Abigail Eldredge (1728 – 1761)  Jedidah died in  Clarks Harbour, Shelburne, Nova Scotia, Canada

6. Joseph Kendrick

Joseph’s wife Hannah Horner was born in 1755.


Posted in Line - Miller, Line - Shaw, Place Names, Sea Captain | 4 Comments

Brig. Gen. Silas Newcomb

Brig Gen. Silas Newcomb. (1723 – 1779) was Alex’s first cousin, eight times removed in the Miller line. Silas had such an interesting career as a Greenwich, New Jersey tea partier and a general under General Washington that I made him his own page

Brig. Gen. Silas Newcomb  was born 17 Apr 1723 Edgartown, Dukes, Mass.  His parents were Capt. Joseph Newcomb and Joyce Butler.  His grandparents were Lt. Andrew NEWCOMB Jr. and and his second wife Anna Bayes.    He married in 1745 in Fairfield, Cumberland, New Jersey to Bathsheba Dayton.   Silas died  17 Jan 1779 in “New England Cross”, Farifield, Cumberland, New Jersey.

Bathsheba Dayton was born in 1725.   Bathsheba died in 1781 in Fairfield, Cumberland, New Jersey.

Children of Silas and Bathsheba

Name Born Married Departed
1. Mary Newcomb 6 May 1749 Fairfield, Cumberland, New Jersey Capt. John Daniels
30 Jun 1770
Cumberland, Cumberland, New Jersey
6 Jul 1788  Swedesboro, Gloucester, New Jersey
2. Dayton Newcomb 1753
Fairfield, Cumberland, New Jersey
23 Mar 1809
Fairfield, Cumberland, New Jersey
3. Silas Newcomb 1756
Fairfield, Cumberland, New Jersey
4. Dr. Ephraim Newcomb 4 May 1757
Fairfield, Cumberland, New Jersey
Bathsheba Preston
Cumberland, Cumberland, NJ
21 Aug 1795 Cedarville, Cumberland, New Jersey
5. Webster Newcomb 4 May 1757 Fairfield, Cumberland, New Jersey Abigail Powell
18 Sep 1781
Fairfield, Cumberland, New Jersey
16 Dec 1792
Fairfield, Cumberland, New Jersey

Both General Newcomb and his wife were baptized at Fairfield in 1759 and in the record he is called “Captain.”  He resided near his brother William.

Silas Newcomb served as Lieutenant in the Quebec Campaign of the French War, 1758-1759.

28 Mar 1759 – Appointed by the governor as one of the officers to command a regiment at Perth Amboy, N.J.,

1760 – Elected sheriff of Cumberland County

Dec 22, 1774 – Greenwich, New Jersey was  one of the five tea-party towns in America, the others being Charleston, Annapolis, Princeton, and Boston. Greenwich’s was the last tea party before war broke out. In 1908 the monument seen above was erected in the old market place on Ye Greate Street. It lists the names of the known participants including Silas Newcomb and his son Ephraim.

Greenwich Teaparty Monument

Greenwich Tea Party Monument

In the autumn of 1774, a year after the tea party in Boston, a British ship, the “Greyhound”, that was denied entry into Philadelphia, tried to sell its cargo in Greenwich, Cumberland Co., NJ. She was loaded with a cargo of tea sent out by the East India Tea Company, and was undoubtedly under the impression that the conservative feelings and principles of the people of New Jersey would induce them to submit quietly to a small tax.

Having found a Tory, or English sympathizer, one Daniel Bowen, the Greyhound’s crew secretly stored the cargo of tea in the cellar of his house. However, this unusual procedure was noted by the citizens.

News of the Boston Tea Party had already reached Greenwich and that defiant example was regarded by many of the local settlers as worthy of their own contempt for the British. Fate now presented them with a ready-made opportunity to duplicate the act.

A company of about forty young patriots, including Silas Newcomb and his son Ephraim, disguised as Indians, entered the cellar of Bowen’s house. They took all the cargo from the cellar into an adjoining field and set it on fire.

After the “Indians” had destroyed the tea, a county-wide committee met the next day. It piously resolved: “first that we entirely disapprove of the destroying of the tea, it being entirely contrary to our resolves; second, that we will not conceal nor protect from justice any of the perpetrators of the above act.”

Quite a few tongues must have been in quite a few cheeks when the vote was taken on that resolution. There on the committee sat at least two of the tea burners: Silas Newcomb and Joel Fiftian.

Two legal efforts were launched to punish the tea burners. Neither was successful.

One was a suit brought by the East India Company’s Philadelphia agents, against alleged members of the group, including the two Newcomb boys.Twelve hundred pounds’ damages were demanded. But a public subscription raised funds for the defense, eminent counsel were engaged, and trial was stalled off until the Revolution ended the royal judicial authority in Cumberland County. The other legal move was a grand jury investigation.This was ordered by Chief Justice Frederick Smyth.

Judge Smith gave very Large Charge to the Grand Jury concerning the times, and the burning of the tea the fall before.But the Jury came in without doing anything, and Court broke up.

Judge Smith sent a Jury out a second time, but the Sheriff had packed this jury with Patriots. So again no action was taken.

14 Jun 1776 –  Colonel of the First Battalion of Cumberland Co., New Jersey Militia,

28 Aug 1776 – Commanded a battalion of General Heard’s Brigade, New Jersey Militia, at the Battle of Long Island

28 Nov 1776 – Promoted to Colonel of the First Battalion, Second Establishment, New Jersey Continental Line

15 Mar  1777 – Commissioned Brigadier-General of the New Jersey Militia, .

10 Aug 1777 –  Brigadier-General Silas Newcomb writes General Washington at Neshaminy Camp, Penn., that he is assembling his militia.

In Pursuance of an Order from His Excellency Govr Livingston of the 27th of last month,1 I have assembled here a Detachment of my Brigade of Militia; and expect in a Day or two to have about 500 Men.

I wait for Orders from Your Excellency; and Am, with most dutiful Respect, Your Excellency’s Most Obedient Humble Servt

11 Aug  1777 –  General Washington, then near the Cross Roads, writes Brigadier-General Newcomb, New Jersey, requesting militia for Red Bank.

To BRIGADIER GENERAL SILAS NEWCOMB Head Qurs., near the Cross Roads, August 11, 1777. [Note:Cross Roads later became Hartsville, Pa. ]

Sir: Your favour of Yesterday from Woodbury I have this Moment received. As you have got so many of the Militia collected, I would think it highly impolitic to discharge them until we can with some degree of precision, explain the late extraordinary Movements of the Enemy, and determine the object of them. In the interim my desire is that you order your Men to Red Bank to assist in completeing the Works there [and at Fort Island]. The Officer Commanding will take orders from General De Coudray or whoever he has left there to Superintend them. The disagreeable Suspense we are now kept in, cannot possibly be of long duration, during which, your Corps will be doing a Service to their Country, at least equal to the pay they draw, which I am satisfied will be more agreeable to them than to remain idle. I am etc

20 Aug 1777 – Brigadier-General Silas Newcomb writes General George Washington at Neshaminy Camp, requesting permission to march his detachment home; he at that time was at Woodbury, N.J.

10 Oct 1777 –  Alexander Hamilton writes to Brigadier-General Silas Newcomb, requesting militia for Red Bank.

15 Oct. 1777 – General Washington write Brigadier-General Newcomb and orders him to reinforce Red Bank and hold the place to the last extremity.

22 Oct 1777 –  General Washington writes Brigadier-General Silas Newcomb regarding operations against Fort Mifflin and Red Bank, reinforcements of militia, supplies, etc.

To BRIGADIER GENERAL SILAS NEWCOMB Head Qurs., October 22, 1777.

“Sir: The Enemy seem determined to possess themselves, if possible, of the Forts on the River. Their operations against Fort Mifflin have been carried on for several days with unremitted attention, and from various accounts they mean to storm Red Bank or to invest it. For this purpose, it is confidently said, that a pretty considerable Detachment crossed the River Yesterday morning. It is of infinite importance to us, to prevent them from effecting these objects. I therefore request you to give every aid in your power to that end. If they have or attempt to invest the Fort, I hope you will be able to fall on their Rear with such a respectable number of Militia, as to make them decline the project, and if that should not be the case, it may be the means of further Detachments being sent from the City to their support, which will afford us perhaps a favourable opportunity of striking a successful blow. I will not enlarge upon the Subject. You are sufficiently impressed with the importance of it, and I trust you will exert yourself to render every service you can. The earliest aid should be given, delay may bring on a loss extremely interesting in its nature and irreparable. I am &ca.

P.S. I cannot forbear observing to you, and the Inhabitants of Jersey, the dreadful consequences that must follow should the Enemy keep possession of Philadelphia, and that if they get Red Bank into their hands, a considerable force must consequently be kept there by them, to the distress and terror of those within their reach, this I hope will stimulate the Militia to a speedy and vigorous opposition.

I must request that you do every thing in your power to throw in supplies of provision to Fort Mifflin and Red Bank, this I concieve to be a matter of the utmost importance, as the Enemy may intend to starve them out.”

29 Oct. 1777 –  David Forman, near Red Bank, N.J., writes General Washington at Whiteplain of his attempt to assemble militia, “weather and Brigadier-General Silas Newcomb’s obstinacy retarding.”

General Silas Newcomb was in command of a force detailed to guard Delaware Bay and to prevent any landing of English forces there. Their services were commemorated and their names perpetuated by the state of New Jersey through the efforts of the Daughters of the American Revolution. A beautiful granite and marble tablet, with the names of Brigadier-General Silas Newcomb, Colonel Isaac Preston, and other officers that were in command of the colonial forces, marks the historic spot.

4 Dec 1777 –  General Newcomb resigned his commission


Washington, George, 1732-1799. The writings of George Washington from the original manuscript sources: Volume 9 Electronic Text Center, University of Virginia Library

Smugglers’ Woods, Jaunts and Journeys in Colonial and Revolutionary New Jersey by Arthur D. Pierce

Posted in Historical Monument, Line - Miller, Veteran | Tagged , | 4 Comments

Gorgonio S. Rangel

Gorgonio Sarimiento RANGEL was born 9 Sep 1910 in Malasiqui, Pangasinan, Philippines. His parents were Ponciano RANGEL and Susana RANGEL. (I doubt her maiden name was also Rangel, but that’s what the death certificate says).  He married Susanna ENRIQUEZ. Gorgonio died 5 Feb 1983.

Susanna Enriquez was born in


Name Born Married
1. Ernie Rangel
2. Aida Rangel [__?__] Roque
3. Angelita RANGEL   Rudolfo LOPEZ
4. Araceli (Cely) Rangel [__?__] de Lara
5. Mely Rangel
6. Jun Rangel

Gorgonio was a businessman who operated a printing business. See my post G. Rangel & Sons.

Malasiqui is a first class municipality in the province of Pangasinan, Philippines. According to the 2010 census, it has a population of 123,566 people with an area of 123.78 sq. km.

It is mainly an agricultural municipality with rice, corn and tropical lowland vegetables as main crops. It is also famous for its mango fruits having one of the largest concentration of mango tree population in the Philippines.

The word Malasiqui originates from the Pangasinan root word lasi meaning lightning. With prefix ma indicating high degree and suffix qui indicating place – Malasiqui means “place full of lightning”.

The municipality traces its origins during the middle of 17th century when Spanish friars opened a mission intended to convert the native population to Catholicism. The most probable founding year was 1671 when Spanish civil authorities in Manila gave the license for the creation of the town. There were no organized communities in the area before the Spaniards arrived. Attempts to group families into a settlement may have started as early as 1665. The present site was then heavily forested with small family groups scattered along banks of small rivers and creeks. The socio-political history of the municipality parallels that of the Pangasinan province and the country in general. The population participated heavily in some of the bloodiest rebellions during the Spanish period. Ethnically, it is one of the few places in the province of Pangasinan which did not experience in-migration from other regions of the country. Consequently, Pangasinanse is the dominant ethnic group with almost no other ethnic groups mixing into the locality.



Posted in -3rd Generation, Socorro | 1 Comment

William Heath

William A. HEATH (1550 – 1623)  was Alex’s 12th Great Grandfather; one of 8,192 in this generation of the Miller line.

Heath Family Coat of Arms

William A Heath was born in 1550 in Ware, Hertford, England. His parents were Edward HEATH (1525 – 1592) and Alice [__?__] (1529 – 1593). He married Alice CHENEY 9 Jun 1580 in Ware, Hertfordshire, England .  William died 7 Jan 1623 in Ware, Hertford, England.

Alice Cheney was born 1552 in St Martins, Wiltshire, England. Her parents were Robert CHENEY  and Joan HARRISON. Alice died 24 Dec 1593 in Ware, Hertfordshire, England.

Children of William and Alice:

Name Born Married Departed
1. John HEATH 15 Aug 1574  Salisbury St Martins, Wiltshire, England. Alis BARTHOLOMEW
12 Feb 1599
St Martin, Wiltshire, England
1644 in England
2. William Heath 5 Aug 1581
Ware, Hertfordshire, England
Mary Cramphorn
10 Feb 1616/17 – Great Amwell, Hertfordshire, England
Mary Perry
29 Jan 1622/23 in Gilston, Hertfordshire
29 May 1652 in Roxbury, Suffolk, Mass.
3. Alice Heath bapt.
23 Dec 1583
Ware, Hertfordshire, England
Nathaniel Larke
19 Sep 1614 Great Amwell, Hertfordshire, England
10 Oct 1640 Ware, Hertfordshire, England
4. Elder Isaac Heath  ~1585 Elizabeth Miller
14 Jan 1628/29 Ware, Hertfordshire, England
21 Jan 1660/61
5. George Heath 4 Aug 1588 Ware, Herts, England
6. Mary Heath 24 Mar 1594  Ware, Hertfordshire,  England John Johnson of Roxbury
21 Sep 1613 – Ware, Hertfordshire, England
15 May 1629 Ware, Hertfordshire,  England
7. Prudence Heath 6 Nov 1597 – Hertfordshire, England Edward Morrison (Morris)
25 Oct 1622 – St. Mary Mounthaw, London, England
22 Jan 1631 – Great Amwell, Hertfordshire, England
8. Thomas Heath  ~1603 Oct 1603
9. Thomas Heath 30 Sep 1604 Ware, Herts, England Elizabeth Mumford
9 Apr 1627 Great Amwell, Herts, England


William’s father Edward Heath was born 1525 in Ware, Hertfordshire, England. His father was Robert HEATH (1500 – 1575). Edward died 8 Mar 1592 in Ware, Hertfordshire, England.

William’s mother Alice Carter was born 24 Dec 1529 in Ware, Hertfordshire, England. Alice died 24 Dec 1593 in Ware, Hertfordshire, England

Alice’s father Robert Cheney was born about 1520.  His father was  Robert CHENEY  (~1490 – ~1542), whose will was written 26 Oct 1542, naming son Robert and daughter Agnes/Annes Donne, and requesting burial in the churchyard of Saint Lawrence, Waltham.  Robert, son of Robert, was grandson of yet another Robert CHENEY (b. ~1460), a resident of Waltham Abbey, Essex in 1494.   Robert’s will was made 1 Oct. 1567 and proved 13 Mar 1567/68 in Waltham Abbey, Essex, and names his children, his step-father Mr. Bryttayne, his sister Donne , his wife’s brother William Harrison, and her brother-in-law Christopher Goldinge .

Alice’s mother Joan Harrison was born about 1525, Waltham Abbey, Essex.  Her parents were John HARRISON and Agnes [__?__].  She was named in her father’s will dated 4 Jan. 1549/50 as Johanne Cheyney. Married second in 1568 to John Hanford (bur. 7 Feb. 1610/11, Waltham Abbey, Essex). John was married second 12 Dec. 1597, at Waltham Abbey to Alice Wicksted.   Joan was buried 14 May 1597 in Waltham Abbey, Essex.


That William, and not either of his brothers Robert or John, was the father of the next generation of Heaths in Ware is strongly suggested by the fact that he inherited his father’s house there, to the exclusion of his brothers. He was probably well established there already. Although the Ware parish registers do not include the name of the father of children baptized there in the period 1581-1604, the spacing of the baptisms strongly implies that there was only one Heath family having children in the parish in the 1580s and 1590s. Beginning in 1604, the baptismal registers include the father’s name, and that year William’s son Thomas was baptized there.

Chronology suggests that this was William Heath’s last child. Significantly, no further children for this William appear in the registers of either Ware or Great Amwell.

2. William Heath

William’s first wife Mary Cramphorne was bapt. 12 Jan 1591/92 in Sawbridgeworth, Hertfordshire, England.  Her parents were Thomas Crampthorne and Mary Lyndesell. Mary was buried at Great Amwell 24 November 1621, as “the wife of William Heath of Ware End.”

William’s second wife Mary Perry was born in Sawbridgeworth. Mary died 15 Dec 1659 in Roxbury, Suffolk, Mass.

William is said to have come from Nazeing, Essex, England but his parents resided in Ware, Herfordshire, England.

Model of the ship, Lyon, located in the lobby of City Hall, Braintree, UK. The Braintree Company and Stephen Hart and family sailed to New England on her in 1632.

Model of the ship, Lyon, located in the lobby of City Hall, Braintree, UK. The Braintree Company and Stephen Hart and family sailed to New England on her in 1632.

William and his second wife immigrated in 1632 from Little Amwell, Hertfordshire, bound for Roxbury on the Lyon bringing 5 children, Mary, Isaac, Mary, Peleg, Hannah. The Lyon #4: Sailed from London June 22, 1632, arriving in Boston September 14/16, 1632. The master, William Pierce, brought 123 passengers whereof fifty children, all in health. They had been twelve weeks aboard and eight weeks from Land’s End.

William and Mary soon joined the Roxbury Church.

Great Migration Begins:

FREEMAN: 4 Mar 1632/33

EDUCATION: Signed his name as witness to the will of John Grave [SPR Case #38], but made his mark to his own will.

OFFICES: Deputy to General Court for Roxbury, 14 May 1634, 18 Apr 1637, 17 May 1637, 13 Mar 1638/39, 22 May 1639, 4 Sep 1639, 13 May 1640, 7 Oct 1640, 7 Oct 1641, 8 Sep 1642. Magistrate for particular court, 25 May 1636

Committee to “consider of the act of Mr. Endicott, in defacing the colors,” 6 May 1635
Committee to distribute “land & meadow at Conihasset,” 13 May 1640
Committee to value livestock, 13 May 1640
Committee to “settle things between Hingham & the plantation to be settled at Nantasket [Hull],” 2 Jun 1641
Committee to “levy & proportion a rate of £800,” 14 Jun 1642
Committee to “consider whether in trial of causes to retain or dismiss juries,” 27 Sep 1642
Committee “to consider of the order for the burning of grounds,” 14 May 1645

On 22 May 1651 at “the request of William Heath, of Roxbury, being above sixty years of age, this Court thinks meet he should be exempted from all trainings”

ESTATE: William Heath died at Roxbury just before the land inventory was taken there. The fourth entry in this land inventory, immediately after that of Rev. John Eliot, is for Isaac Heath, son of William. As there is a later, shorter, entry for Isaac Heath, as well as one for his younger brother Peleg Heath, this early entry would contain the lands which had been granted to the immigrant. At the time of the Roxbury land inventory William Heath’s widow would have held a life interest in these lands, which were at her death to be divided between the two sons. Thus, before his death William Heath held twelve parcels of land, nine by grant from the town and three by purchase: “dwelling house, barn, orchard and houselot, three acres”; “fourteen acres of salt marsh”; “six acres of upland in the calve’s pasture”; “six acres of salt marsh in Gravelly point”; “four acres of upland at Stoney River”; “four and twenty acres not far from Gamblin’s End”; “sixteen acres at the Great Pond”; “six acres … lately bought of Mr. William Perkins”; “in the second allotment of the last division being the eleventh lot … ninety-four acres, three quarters and thirty pole”; “in the four thousand acres two-hundred fifty and six acres”; “three roods of swamp land lately the land of John Stow”; and “four acres … lately the land of Richard Pepper, lying in the upper calve’s pasture”

In his will, dated 28 May 1652 and proved 21 October 1652, “Will[ia]m Heath of Roxbury” bequeathed to “my loving wife” the new end of my house that I now dwell in both above and below and half the great barn and half the barn yard, also all my arable land and meadow, also my cattle and moveables, on condition that she pay all debts, and pay “my daughter Mary Spere” £10 and “my daughter Hannah” £10; “my son Isaac” presently to possess the old end of my dwelling house with convenient yard room for his wood, also half the great barn and barnyard during my wife’s life; “my two sons” to have all my houses and lands, “my son Isaac being my eldest son” a double portion and “my son Pelig” a single portion; to “my daughter Mary that I had by my first wife 40s. a year out of all my lands to be paid by both my sons” and “I do entreat my wife in the mean season to have a motherly care over her and see that she want nothing that is convenient for her”; “my three friends … my dear brother Elder Heath, John Rugles, & Phillip Elliott” overseers.

Children of William and Mary Cramphorne

i. Mary Heath, bapt. Great Amwell 10 May 1618; living unmarried 28 May 1652, the date of her father’s will, and from the wording of the bequest, she was probably incapable of caring for herself.

ii. Isaac Hearth bapt. Great Amwell 21 May 1621; d. 29 Dec 1694 in Roxbury, Suffolk, Mass; m. 16 Dec 1650 in Roxbury to Mary Davis.

Children of William and Mary Perry

iii Stillborn daughter, bur. Ware 27 Nov 1623.

iv. Peleg Heath, bapt. Nazeing 30 Jan 1624/25; m. by 1652 Susanna [__?__] (In her 14 June 1652 will, widow Dorothy King bequeathed to “my daughter Susanna Heath one little flockbed” ; Dorothy King was three times a widow and Susanna was daughter of her first husband, who may have been a Barker [Weymouth Hist 3:22, 312, 349-50].)

v. Mary Heath bapt. Nazeing 2 Sep 1627; m. by 1644 George Spear (called “Mary Spere” in her father’s will; child bp. 21 April 1644

vi. Hannah Heath bapt. Nazeing 5 Nov 1629; m. by 1658 as his first wife Isaac Jones (daughter Hannah b. Dorchester 20 Nov 1658 and bp. there 21 Nov 1658 ; Elizabeth (Miller) Heath, widow of Isaac Heath, uncle of this Hannah Heath, made a bequest on 1 Jan 1664/65 of 15s. to “Isaack Jones his daughter that he had by Hannah Heath” , leading to the conclusion that the Hannah Jones who died at Dorchester on 28 Nove 1658 was the wife of Isaac and not the daughter .

BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTE: For many years the best treatment in print of William Heath was that published by Walter Goodwin Davis in 1945 [Annis Spear Anc 29-34]. In 1978 Peter Walne found a few additional items, mostly relating to the marriages of William Heath [NEHGR 132:20-21]. In 1992 Douglas Richardson published an article which detailed the English origin of William Heath and his brother Isaac Heath, as well as others as noted above [NEHGR 146:261-78]; unless otherwise noted, the parish register entries above are from this article. In 1995 Richardson published an article supplementing that of 1992, solidifying the evidence that the immigrants William and Isaac Heath were sons of William of Ware, and identifying their mother [NEHGR 149:173-86].

The ancestry of Annis Spear, 1775-1858, of Litchfield, Maine  By Walter Goodwin Davis

The ancestry of Annis Spear, 1775-1858, of Litchfield, Maine
By Walter Goodwin Davis

William Heath 2

William Heath 3

3. Alice Heath

Alice’s husband Nathaniel Larke was born 1595 in Little Amwell Ware, Hertfordshire, England. Nathaniel died 24 Feb 1649 in Great Amwell, Hertfordshire, England

Children of Alice and Nathaniel:

i. Elizabeth Larke b. 23 Jul 1615 in Great Amwell, Hertfordshire, England

ii. John Larke b. 2 Nov 1617 in Great Amwell, Hertfordshire, England

iii. Mary Larke b. 2 Apr 1620 in Great Amwell, Hertfordshire, England

iv. Benjamin Larke b. 20 Oct 1623 in Great Amwell, Hertfordshire, England

v. Joseph Larke b. 20 Oct 1623 in Great Amwell, Hertfordshire, England

vi. Susan Larke b. 1 Jun 1625 in Great Amwell, Hertfordshire, England

vii. Nathaniel Larke b. 15 Sep 1626 in Great Amwell, Hertfordshire, England

4. Isaac Heath

Isaac’s wife Elizabeth Miller was baptized 3 Mar 1593/94 in Bishops Stortford, Hertfordshire, England. Her parents were Thomas Miller, gentleman, and Agnes [__?__]. Bishops Stortford, Hertfordshire is located about 26 miles North Northeast of London, and about 10 miles Northeast of Ware.

Elizabeth was a sister of Agnes, wife of Robert Bernath, sister of Joseph Miller and sister of Margaret, wife of Thomas Waterman. (all on arrival to Roxbury, Colony of Massachusetts on 22 Dec 1630.)

Isaac immigrated about September in 1635 on the Hopewell, Captain Babb commanding, on its second trip of the year to Massachusetts. His nephew, Isaac Morris/Morrison had come to Massachusetts in the Hopewell on its first trip. Coming with Isaac Heath were his wife Elizabeth, one child, and a cousin, Martha Heath. The record shows:

Isaac aged 50, harnis maker (harness maker)

w. Elizabeth 40

d. Eliz 5 and

Martha 30 ( daughter of Thomas and Agnes Heath and future wife of George Brandied)

William Lyon 14 (William Lyon, orphan child of William and Anne (Carter) Lyon, placed in care of Isaac on the “Hopewell” )

Upon landing the family proceeded to what is now Roxbury, Boston, Suffolk County, Massachusetts where brother William Heath was already settled. His house was west of the road that led from Boston to the Meeting House. Isaac was one of the chief men of the town.

Time Line

24 Jun 1634 – Isaac appears on the role of the Court of High Commissioners to answer certain charges brought against him.

25 May 1636 – Isaac was made a Freeman in Roxbury.

1637 & 1638 – Isaac represented Roxbury in the General Court in 1637 in 1638.

1637 – Chosen Ruling Elder of the Roxbury church, and held that position until his death.

1645 – Isaac was one of the founders of the Roxbury Free School in 1645.

1659 – John Johnson in his will, proved in 1659 called Elder Isaac Heath “my loving brother,” and named him overseer of the will. (8:261)

21 Jan 1661 – Isaac died in what is now Roxbury, Boston, Suffolk County, Massachusetts, aged about 75 years. He left a will dated 19 Jan 1660/61, two days before his death, and proved 31 January 1660/61 referred to three kin:

first cousin Martha (Heath) Brand, wife of George Brand of Roxbury

niece Mary Mory (John Johnson’s daughter),

nephew and niece Edward Morris and his Elizabeth (Morris) Cartwright children of Isaac’s sister Prudence Heath.

Besides John, Elizabeth, and Mary, children of John Bowles who married his only surviving child, Elizabeth Heath, and he gave the larger portion to his son-in-law John Bowles.

The ancestry of Annis Spear, 1775-1858, of Litchfield, Maine
By Walter Goodwin Davis

Isaac Heath 2

Isaac Heath 3

6. Mary Heath

Mary’s husband John Johnson was born in 1588 in Canterbury, Kent, England. He came to New England probably with Winthrop’s fleet in 1630. He was chosen by the General Court as Constable of Roxbury, Mass., in that year. Mary and John had ten children born between 1614 and 1628, five of whom immigrated to New England.

His second wife, married by 1633, was possibly Margery Scudder, born England, buried 9 June 1655 in Roxbury, daughter of William, died 1607, and Margery Scudder of Darenth, Kent. John married third in 1655 or later Grace Negus, died 19 Dec 1671, widow of Barnabas Fawer, and sister of Jonathan and Benjamin Negus. John died 30 Sep 1659 in Roxbury, Suffolk, Mass.

John was made a freeman on 18 May 1631. He subsequently served the town and colony in many capacities, including Constable (first on 19 Oct 1630), Surveyor General, Town Clerk, Deputy to the House of Deputies, and Clerk of the Military Company of Massachusetts. The position as Surveyor General of Arms and Ammunitions of the Colonies made Capt. Johnson responsible for the acquisition, maintenance and distribution of the primary means of protection. Gov. John Winthrop wrote in his Journal under the date of 6 February 1645:

“John Johnson, the Surveyor General of Arms and Ammunition, a very industrious and faithful man in his place, having built a fair house in the midst of the town, with divers barns and outhouses, it fell on fire in the day time, no man knowing by what occasion, and there being in it seventeen barrels of the country’s powder, and many arms, all was suddenly burnt and blown up, to the value of four or five hundred pounds, wherein a special providence of God appeared, for, he, being from home, the people came together to help and many were in the house, no man thinking of the powder till one of the company put them in mind of it, whereupon they all withdrew, and soon after the powder took fire and blew up all about it, and shook the houses in Boston and Cambridge, so that men thought it had been an earthquake, and carried great pieces of timber a great way off, and some rags and such light things beyond Boston meeting house, there being then a stiff gale south, it drove the fire from the other houses in the town (for this was the most northerly) otherwise it had endangered the greatest part of the town.”

John was one of the founders of the town and church at Roxbury and, together with his sons Isaac and Humphrey, was an original donor to the Free School in Roxbury.

Children of Mary and John

i. Sarah Johnson b. 12 Nov 1624 in Ware, Hertfordshire, England; d. 5 Jan 1683 in Roxbury, Suffolk, Mass; m. 1657 Lynn, Essex, Mass to William Bartram (1625 – 1690)

7. Prudence Heath

Edward Morris (Morrison) was born about 1595 in England. Edward died 22 Jun 1631 in Great Amwell, Hertfordshire, England

Children of Prudence and Edward:

i. Elizabeth Morris b. 11 Feb 1624 in Great Amwell, Hertfordshire, England

ii. Isaac Morris b. 3 Feb 1626 in Ware, Hertfordshire, England

iii. Mary Morrison b. 10 Dec 1629 in Great Amwell, Hertfordshire, England

iv. Edward Morris b. 22 Jan 1632 in Great Amwell, Hertfordshire, England; d. 27 Oct 1690
Woodstock, CT; m. Grace Bott


Bartholomew Heath 1 — Source: Ancestry of Charles Stinson Pillsbury and John Sargent Pillsbury (1938)

Bartholomew Heath 2


Hudson-Mohawk genealogical and family memoirs:  Volume 2 By Cuyler Reynolds 1911

Ancestry of Charles Stinson Pillsbury and John Sargent Pillsbury (1938) By Holman, Mary Lovering, 1868-1947; Pillsbury, Helen Pendleton Winston, 1878-1957

Posted in 14th Generation, Line - Miller | 3 Comments

John Heath

John HEATH (1573 – 1644)  was Alex’s 11th Great Grandfather; one of 4,096 in this generation of the Miller line.

Heath Family Coat of Arms

John Heath was born in 15 Aug 1574  in Salisbury St Martins, Wiltshire, England.  His parents were William HEATH and Alice CHENEY.   He married Alis BARTHOLOMEW 12 Feb 1599 in St Martin, Wiltshire, England.   John died in 1644 in England

Alis Bartholomew was born 1574 in St Martins, Wiltshire, England. Her parents were Thomas BARTELMEW and Alys CORDRAY.   Alise died in Salisbury, Wiltshire, England.   Many genealogies say Alis died 12 Feb 1599, but this was the date of her wedding and too soon for any of the children to be born.

Children of Bartholomew and Hannah:

Name Born Married Departed
1. John Heath Salisbury St Martins, Wiltshire, England Will, dated 28 Dec 1674, proved 10 Apr 1675.
2. Bartholomew HEATH 1615  Salisbury St Martins, Wiltshire, England Hannah MOYCE
~1640  Newbury, Mass
15 Jan 1681 Haverhill, Essex, Mass.


Alis’ father Thomas BARTELMEW was born in 1530 in Salisbury, Wiltshire, England. Thomas died 1596 in Wiltshire, England

Alis’ mother Alys CORDAY was born in 1543 in Chute, Wiltshire, England. Her parents were Thomas CORDEROY (1490 – 1581) and Jane MORRIS (1523 – 1598). Alis died in 1599 in Chute, Wiltshire, England.



1.  John Heath

17 Jan 1675 – Bartholomew’s brother, John Heath, left bequests to Bartholomew’s children, but named in his will no family of his own. He also lived in Haverhill. No ship records could be found where John Heath was a passenger to New England, but he left a Will, dated December 28, 1674, proved April 10, 1675.  John Heath apparently left no children of his own, and at this time lived with a nephew whom he calls “Cousin” as was the old tradition. John Heath willed that first, all expenses (In the language of that time)

“I have ben att sence I have ben in my Cousin John Heath’s house to be paid out of my  estate,”  and then gave 40 shillings  to Haverhill Church; 40 s. to “the College at Cambridge”; 40s. toward procuring a minister for the Church at  Haverhill after Mr. Ward’s decease; 5 pounds to “my couzen Matha which was my couzen Joseph Heath’s wife, which is now wife to Joseph Page;  Couzen  John Heath’s Son Bartholomew a two yerling Cote”; to “Couzen Joseph Heath ten pounds if he come to age of twenty one yere”; to “Josias Heath’s son Josias a little colt”; to “Sias Heath, five acrese of Land in the plaine,”  etc. to “Couzen John Heath the east meadow, all the rest of real Estate to Brother Bartholl Heath for hee to dispose as he shall see Cause”; to “Couzen Sarah, John Heath’s wife”, to “sias Heath” “Brother Barolomew to be Executor.” (Essex County, Probate Records, 2: 43).

2. Bartholomew HEATH (See his page)


Bartholomew Heath 1 — Source: Ancestry of Charles Stinson Pillsbury and John Sargent Pillsbury (1938)

Bartholomew Heath 2


Hudson-Mohawk genealogical and family memoirs:  Volume 2 By Cuyler Reynolds 1911

Ancestry of Charles Stinson Pillsbury and John Sargent Pillsbury (1938) By Holman, Mary Lovering, 1868-1947; Pillsbury, Helen Pendleton Winston, 1878-1957

Posted in 13th Generation, Line - Miller | 2 Comments

Early New England Public Offices

It seems that every other immigrant to New England in the 17th C. held public office.    I’ve tagged over 150 of my ancestors with the category “Public Office” because they held one of these public offices.  With annual terms for selectman, constable, fence viewer, grand jury, general court, etc. everyone who wanted to had a chance to participate.  I think this participation is one of the most important sources of the American identity.  Here are definitions of a few of the terms.

Freeman =  those persons who were not under legal restraint – usually for the payment of an outstanding debt, because they had recently relocated, or because they were idle and had no way in which they could continue the justification of their stay within the colony.

“Freedom” was earned after an allotted time, or until the person demanding “payment” was satisfied – this was known as indentured servitude, and was not originally intended as a stigma or embarrassment for the person involved since many of the sons and daughters of the wealthy and famous of the time found themselves forced into such temporary servitudes. It was a sort of debtor’s prison without the walls, torture, or meager subsistence.

Initially, anyone first entering into a colony, or just recently having become a member of one of the local churches, was formally not free. Such persons were never forced to work for another individual, per se, but their movements were carefully observed, and if they veered from the Puritanical ideal, they were asked to leave the colony. If they stayed or later returned to the colony, they were put to death.There was an unstated probationary period that the prospective “freeman” needed to go through, and if he did pass this probationary period of time – usually one to two years – he was allowed his freedom.

Initially, all persons seeking to be free needed to take the Oath of a Freeman, in which they vowed to defend the Commonwealth and not to conspire to overthrow the government. The first handwritten version of the “Freeman’s Oath” was made in 1634; it was printed by Stephen Daye in 1639 in the form of a broadside or single sheet of paper intended for posting in public placesA Freeman was said to be free of all debt, owing nothing to anyone except God Himself.

To be considered a freeman, adult males had to be sponsored by an existing freeman and accepted by the General Court. Later restrictions established a one-year waiting period between nominating and granting of freeman status and also placed religious restrictions on the colony’s citizens, specifically preventing Quakers from becoming freemen.

However, as time wore on, the name “freeman” somehow became associated with the servitude of slavery, and many of those who had thought that their servitude was only temporary, soon found out that their master was asking them to work a little bit too hard, or that he was taking a little bit too long in setting them free.

As a result, many “servants” began escaping and eventually the entire system of “freemen” was officially eliminated by 1691, though parts of the system did still remain through the 18th century.

Captain- Each town, named in the several counties, contained a company of soldiers. The soldiers of each town chose their own Captain and subalterns by a majority vote. The officers, when chosen, were installed into their place by the Major of the regiment.  The Court order, that all the souldiers belonging to the twenty-six bands in the Mattachusetts government, shall be exercised and drilled eight daies in a yeare, and whosoever should absent himself, except it were upon unavoidable occasions, should pay 5s. for every daie’s neglect.  Each regiment is to be exercised once a year.

Constables – were elected by town officials to serve the writs and processes described in section ninety-two of the General Court and warrants and processes in criminal cases, where their town, parish, religious society or district is a party or interested. They shall have the powers of sheriffs to require aid in the execution of their duties. They shall take due notice of and prosecute all violations of law respecting the observance of the Lord’s day, profane swearing and gaming. They shall serve all warrants and other processes directed to them by the selectmen of their town for notifying town meetings or for other purposes. They may serve by copy, attested by them, demands, notices and citations, and their returns of service thereof shall be prima facie evidence; but this provision shall not exclude the service thereof by other persons.

Among other popular activities, Constables collected taxes.  Since there was very little cash in those days they were required to accept payment in produce at rates set by the town council. The handling of such produce made the collection of taxes an arduous task.

Deacon –  The role of deacon in Protestant denominations varies greatly from denomination to denomination.   In Presbyterianism, the office of deacon is geared toward the care of members, their families, and the surrounding community.  Generally, a deacon is a member of the laity who may undergo some training. He or she may work part time, helping out a minister or pastor with various church tasks, often with a team of deacons who work together to distribute their duties. Because a deacon is not ordained, he or she cannot give sermons, but deacons may offer religious counseling, handle church records, and help organize meetings, events, and church outreach.

The position of a deacon is a position of service to the church and the lay community. He or she may be entitled to wear certain vestments and perform various tasks, depending on the branch of Christianity which the deacon serves. Many deacons establish close personal relationships with the people in the communities which they serve, and they also tend to become close with the church officials that they work with.

Puritans felt that they were chosen by God for a special purpose and that they must live every moment in a God-fearing manner. Every man, woman, and child was expected to attend the meeting on the Sabbath without question. Puritans were required to read the Bible which showed their religious discipline. If they didn’t read the Bible, it was thought that they were worshiping the devil.

Preparatons for the Sabbath began the day before. All of the food had to be cooked and clothes ready. No labor, not even sewing, could be done on the Sabbath. The Sabbath began at sundown the night before, and the evening was spent in prayer and Bible study.

The church was usually a small bare building. Upon entering people would take their appropriate places. The men sat on one side, the women sat on the other, and the boys did not sit with their parents, but sat together in a designated pew where they were expected to sit in complete silence. The deacons sat in the front row just below the pulpit because everyone agreed the first pew was the one of highest dignity. The servants and slaves crowded near the door and rushed to a loft or balcony.

The service began with a prayer given by the minister that usually lasted around an hour. Puritans did not like music in their services. They also felt that music and celebrating were not appropriate in the church meeting house. It was many years before any musical instruments were allowed in the church

Elder – The office of elder is another distinctive mark of Presbyterianism: these are specially ordained non-clergy who take part in local pastoral care and decision-making at all levels.  An elder in Christianity is a person valued for his wisdom who accordingly holds a particular position of responsibility in a Christian group. In some Christian traditions (e.g., Eastern Orthodoxy, Roman Catholicism, Anglicanism, Methodism) an elder is a clergy person who usually serves a local church or churches and who has been ordained to a ministry of Word, Sacrament and Order, filling the preaching and pastoral offices. In other Christian traditions (e.g.Presbyterianism, Redeemer, Baptists), an elder may be a lay person charged with serving as an administrator in a local church, or be ordained to such an office.

Church governance is generally organised in one of three main types:

  • Episcopal polity, in which churches are governed in a heirarchical fashion, with the role of elders being fulfilled by external bishops. It is common in Anglican, Orthodox, Methodist, Lutheran and Roman Catholic churches.
  • Presbyterian polity, in which churches are governed on a denominational, geographical basis by committees of elders.
  • Congregational polity, in which each church is responsible for its own governance. Churches employing this method include Baptist, Congregational and Plymouth Brethren churches. Some churches are led by a pastor; some maintain a plurality of elders.

Fence Viewer – A town or city official who administers fence laws by inspecting new fence and settlement of disputes arising from trespass by livestock that have escaped enclosure.

The office of Fence Viewer is one of the oldest appointments in New England. The office emigrated along with New England pioneers to the Midwest as well, where the office still exists.

New England farmers clearing their land during the 17th century were confronted with boulders and stones left by retreating glaciers. They cleared their fields of the boulders with horses and built stone walls along the edges of their fields, frequently at the property boundary. Many of these walls still exist.

A Fence Viewer was needed on those occasions when walls were eroded, moved, or modified illegally. This was a serious offense.

Upon request of any citizen, the Fence Viewer: views fences to see that they are in good repair and in case of disputes between neighbors, works to resolve their differences. Problems such as size, condition, and distance from property lines are complaints that still arise between neighbors.

Early Fence Viewers, armed with wall measurements, were able to arbitrate and/or prosecute such crimes by adjoining farmers. Trespassing by livestock was illegal. Boundaries and fences had to be maintained. If a farmer neglected his fence, his neighbor could do the repairs and charge his nonperforming neighbor twice the cost. If the negligent neighbor didn’t come up with the money, he had to pay 12% interest until payment was made.

In Massachusetts, this position was first established in 1693 by a statute which was amended in 1785 and again in 1836. Early Fence Viewers, armed with wall measurements, were able to arbitrate and/or prosecute such crimes by adjoining farmers. Trespassing by livestock was illegal. Boundaries and fences had to be maintained. If a farmer neglected his fence, his neighbor could do the repairs and charge his nonperforming neighbor twice the cost. If the negligent neighbor didn’t come up with the money, he had to pay 12% interest until payment was made.

Today, the Fence Viewer advises lot owners prior to constructing a fence. The height of the fence can be no higher than six feet except near intersections. Lot owners at intersections cannot erect a fence nor shrubbery closer than five feet to allow good visibility. A fence or shrub near there must be no higher than three feet.

Spite fences erected to annoy neighbors are illegal. The Fence Viewer has the power to order such fences changed to be inoffensive. If hostilities escalate, the building inspector is asked to become involved. His word is final. The Commonwealth of Massachusetts General Laws chapter 49 describe in detail the obligations of lot owners

Today, the Fence Viewer advises lot owners prior to constructing a fence

Free Holder = One who by grant, purchase or inheritance was entitled to a share of the “Commons,” or undivided lands. The freeman alone could vote in the nomination of magistrates and deputies to the General Court. A freeholder need not be a freeman or vice versa. He might he neither, yet be qualified to vote in all town affairs. All inhabitants could vote on any question involving raising money. If a free holder was deemed legally incompetent, didn’t pass his probationary period, or again lost his freedom through some irresponsibility of his own, he would have had his land and property confiscated from him and redistributed amongst the remaining freemen even if the inheritor was a well respected citizen.

General Court of Plymouth Colony – Both the chief legislative and judicial body of the colony. It was elected by the freemen from among their own number and met regularly in Plymouth, the capital town of the colony. As part of its judicial duties, it would periodically call a “Grand Enquest”, which was a grand jury of sorts, elected from the freemen, who would hear complaints and swear out indictments for credible accusations. The General Court, and later lesser town and county courts, would preside over trials of accused criminals and over civil matters, but the ultimate decisions were made by a jury of freemen

Grand Inquest / Grand Jury – . As part of its judicial duties, the  General Court of Plymouthwould periodically call a “Grand Enquest”, which was a grand jury of sorts, elected from the freemen, who would hear complaints and swear out indictments for credible accusations. The General Court, and later lesser town and county courts, would preside over trials of accused criminals and over civil matters, but the ultimate decisions were made by a jury of freemen

Pindar – The person in charge of impounding stray cattle.

Selectmen – In most New England towns, the adult voting population gathered annually in a town meeting to act as the local legislature, approving budgets and laws. Day-to-day operations were originally left to individual oversight, but when towns became too large for individuals to handle such work loads, they would elect an executive board of, literally, select(ed) men to run things for them.  These men had charge of the day-to-day operations; selectmen were important in legislating policies central to a community’s police force, highway supervisors, poundkeepers, field drivers, and other officials.

Surveyor of Highways – “By 1638 the General Court, the Colony’s legislative body, ordered that roads be laid out, and in 1640, that roads between the early towns be maintained. Soon thereafter, the construction, care and maintenance of highways was formally placed on the towns by the General Court, primarily to ensure the care of the routes in the Massachusetts Bay Colony in Cambridge, Massachusetts. In 1643, the Court ordered each Municipality to appoint two officials, known as surveyors, who were given the power to “call out every Teeme and person fitt for labour, in their course, one day every yeare, to mend said highwayes wherein they are to have a spetiall to those Common wayes which are betwixt Towne and Towne.” This compulsory labor statute was enlarged in the 1650 Code of Laws, which authorized financial penalties on those men who failed to meet their annual road work obligation of two days work a year: “if any refuse or neglect to attend the service in any manner aforesaid He shall forefeit for every dayes neglect of a mans worke two shillings sixpence, and of a Teame, sixe shillings . . .” This act formalized a custom that dated at least from medieval England. It would continue to remain in effect until the nineteenth century, providing the main source of workers for road and bridge construction.  Bridges were also under the jurisdiction of the General Court.  Throughout the seventeenth century, the Court ordered that bridges be built in a variety of locations.

The Surveyor of the Highways also monitored conditions, and arranged and supervised the work parties.   It wasn’t easy to compel neighbors to spend several days a year doing hard labor on local roads—even if it was the law.  Refusing to accept the post could result in a fine, which goes to show the unpaid post was unpopular.

Tithingmen – “By 1638 the General Court, the Colony’s legislative body, ordered that roads be laid out, and in 1640, that roads between the early towns be maintained. Soon thereafter, the construction, care and maintenance of highways was formally placed on the towns by the General Court, primarily to ensure the care of the routes in the Massachusetts Bay Colony in Cambridge, Massachusetts. In 1643, the Court ordered each Municipality to appoint two officials, known as surveyors, who were given the power to “call out every Teeme and person fitt for labour, in their course, one day every yeare, to mend said highwayes wherein they are to have a spetiall to those Common wayes which are betwixt Towne and Towne.” This compulsory labor statute was enlarged in the 1650 Code of Laws, which authorized financial penalties on those men who failed to meet their annual road work obligation of two days work a year: “if any refuse or neglect to attend the service in any manner aforesaid He shall forefeit for every dayes neglect of a mans worke two shillings sixpence, and of a Teame, sixe shillings . . .” This act formalized a custom that dated at least from medieval England. It would continue to remain in effect until the nineteenth century, providing the main source of workers for road and bridge construction.

Townsmen –  As terms of elective office in early New England, townsman and selectman are generally  regarded as synonymous. There are instances, however, in which treating them as such is inappropriate. In Rehoboth from 1644 through 1686, a townsman was someone elected to a board of usually seven men to manage the town’s affairs. From 1666 through 1686, a Rehoboth selectman was someone (usually also a townsman) chosen to sit on a “select court” of three (1666–1684) or five (1685–1686) local magistrates to adjudicate minor civil disputes. The Plymouth Colony General Court had in 1665 expanded the powers of a town’s “select men” (town councilmen) to include this judicial function. In contrast to the town of Plymouth, for example, which chose a single set of officers (selectmen) during this period, Rehoboth (and adjacent Swansea) elected its governing board (townsmen) and local magistrates (selectmen) separately. The 1685 edition of colony laws (distributed in mid-1686) reaffirms that both roles belong to the single office of selectman.

Trainbands – Companies of militia, first organized in the 16th century and dissolved in the 18th. In the early American colonies the trainband was the most basic tactical unit. However, no standard company size ever existed and variations were wide. As population grew these companies were organized into regiments to allow better management. But trainbands were not combat units. Generally, upon reaching a certain age a man was required to join the local trainband in which he received periodic training for the next couple of decades. In wartime military forces were formed by selecting men from trainbands on an individual basis and then forming them into a fighting

The exact derivation and usage is not clear.   The issue is whether the men “received training” in the modern sense, or whether they were “in the train” or retinue or were otherwise organized around a military “train” as in horse-drawn artillery.

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