First Comers

Under the original agreement with the “merchant adventurers”, those who came and worked as partners in the Plymouth venture would all benefit from the 1627 Division of the colony assets. While we tend to give the Mayflower passengers special consideration as “The Pilgrims” (a term they did not use to denote themselves that came into use at the end of the 18th century), the Plymouth colonists classified all those who arrived on the first four ships alike, and referred to them as the “Old Comers” or “First Comers” (which also included a few stragglers such as Phineas Pratt)

Our ancestors are indicated by  First LAST  such as  Elder William BREWSTER,

Elder William Brewster on US Capital Dome – The painting of William Brewster is part of a thematic representation in the President’s room of the Senate Wing, signifying Religion. The other themes are: Discovery (Christopher Columbus); History (Benjamin Franklin); and Exploration (Americus Vespucius).

The Speedwell

The Speedwell had a colorful history. Originally named Swiftsure, she was built in 1577 and took part in the English defeat of the Spanish Armada. She was renamed Speedwell in 1605. At sixty tons she was only a third the size of Mayflower.

The ships shown in this seascape are the approximate size of the Pilgrims’ ill-fated ship, the Speedwell. — Ships in Harbor (Dutch seascape) By Abraham VerWer (1585-1650).

The Congregation and the other colonists finally boarded the Speedwell in July 1620 in the Dutch port of Delfshaven. The Mayflower arrived in Southampton, England, to rendezvous with the Speedwell and to pick up supplies and additional passengers. Among the passengers to join the group in Southampton were many Pilgrims including Elder William BREWSTER, who had been in hiding for the better part of a year, and a group of passengers known to the Leiden congregation as “The Strangers”.

This group was largely made up of passengers recruited by the Merchant Adventurers to provide governance for the colony and additional hands to work for the colony’s ventures. Among the Strangers were Myles Standish, who would be the colony’s military leader, Christopher Martin, who had been designated by the Merchant Adventurers to act as Governor for the duration of the trans-Atlantic trip, and Stephen HOPKINS (wiki), a veteran of a failed colonial venture that may have been the inspiration for Shakespeare’s The Tempest.

The departure of the Mayflower and Speedwell for America was beset by delays. Further disagreements with the Merchant Adventurers held up the departure in Southampton. A total of 120 passengers, 90 on the Mayflower and 30 on the Speedwell, finally departed on August 15.   Leaving Southampton, the Speedwell experienced significant leakage, which required the ships to immediately put in at Dartmouth. After repairs were completed and a further delay ensued awaiting favorable winds, the two ships made it only two hundred miles beyond Land’s End before another major leak in the Speedwell forced the expedition to return again to England, this time to the port of Plymouth.

The Speedwell was determined to be unseaworthy; some passengers abandoned their attempt to emigrate, while others joined the Mayflower, crowding the already heavily burdened ship. Later, it was speculated that the master of the Speedwell had intentionally sabotaged his ship to avoid having to make the treacherous trans-Atlantic voyage.

William RING, Mary RING and Thomas BLOSSOM were  among the passengers who could not fit aboard the Mayflower when the Speedwell was deemed unseaworthy.

At Dartmouth, on August 17th, after leaks forced the ship into port, one of the separatist leaders,  agent Robert CUSHMAN wrote that “Poor William RING and myself do strive who shall be meat first for the fishes, but we look for a glorious resurection.” When the “Mayflower” set out alone on September 6th, neither William nor Mary were aboard.

William RING returned to Leiden and died there sometime between 1620 and 1629. Mary RING and were children including Susannah arrived in Plymouth in 1629 or 1630 most probably on the second Mayflower, which also brought Thomas BLOSSOM and his family,  sailing from Gravesend in March, and landed at Salem Mass on 15 May 1629.

The Mayflower

Mayflower Replica

The Mayflower, carrying 102 settlers, left Plymouth on September 6, 1620, without the Speedwell, and sailed for the New World with a land patent allowing them to settle specifically at the mouth of the Hudson River. The voyage took almost two months as it was drawn out by strong westerly winds and by the Gulf Stream. Turbulent seas and storms added to this delay.

John Howland was pitched overboard. Painting by Mike Haywood

In one such episode, John HOWLAND was thrown overboard, but managed to grab a topsail halyard that was trailing in the water and was hauled back aboard safely. Land was sighted on November 9 off the coast of Cape Cod. The Mayflower made an attempt to sail south to the designated landing site at the mouth of the Hudson but ran into trouble in the region of Pollack Rip, a shallow area of shoals between Cape Cod and Nantucket Island. With winter approaching and provisions running dangerously low, the passengers decided to return north and abandon their original landing plans.

The location in Cape Cod Bay settled by the Plymouth Colony was outside the territory of the London Company, which had granted its patent. The northern coastal territory had been granted to the Plymouth Company, but this patent fell into disuse after the failure of the Popham Colony. It was reorganized under a sea-to-sea charter under the Plymouth Council for New England. The actual Plymouth Colony would obtain land patents from the Plymouth Council in 1621 and in 1630, but it was governed independently from the Council under the Mayflower Compact.

MayflowerPassenger List

The Pilgrims — Leyden congregation and families The Strangers — Planters recruited by London merchants and Hired men
Isaac ALLERTON
* Mary NORRIS ALLERTON, wife (Newbury, Berkshire) died 25 Feb 1621, reportedly in childbirth, baby was stillborn.
Bartholomew, 7, son (Leiden)
Remember, 5, daughter (Leiden)
Mary ALLERTON CUSHMAN, 3, daughter (Leiden), the last survivor of the Mayflower company
* John Hooke, (probably Norwich, Norfolk) age 13, apprenticed to Isaac Allerton
.
William Bradford, (Austerfield, Yorkshire) (later married Alice Carpenter Southworth – daughter of Alexander CARPENTER)
* Dorothy (May) Bradford, wife (Wisbech, Cambridgeshire) Fell the side of the Mayflower and drowned.

Dorothy Bradford comes to America By Annie Bissett

Many historians, suggest that Dorothy may have committed suicide due to despair over her separation from her only son John and fear of settling in a dangerous wilderness.  John Bradford Jr. later immigrated and married Martha Bourne, daughter of  Thomas BOURNE
.
Elder William BREWSTER , (Doncaster, Yorkshire)
Mary LOVE BREWSTER, wife
Love/Truelove , 9, son (Leiden)
Jonathan, 7-8, (Scrooby, Nottinghamshire)
Wrestling , 6, son (Leiden)
Fear, daughter m. Isaac ALLERTON. as his second wife
Richard More, (Shipton, Shropshire), brother to Jasper and Mary More, age 6, indentured to William Brewster
* Mary More, (Shipton, Shropshire), sister to Jasper and Richard More, age 4, indentured to William Brewster, died during the first winter
.
* John Carver (Son of James CARVER) Died of sun stroke in April 1621
* Catherine (Leggett) (White) Carver, wife (Sturton-le-Steeple, Nottinghamshire) Died in May or June 1621
Dorothy [__?__], teenager, maidservant of John Carver.
John HOWLAND (Fenstanton, Huntingdonshire), age about 21, manservant for Governor John Carver
William Latham, age 11, servant/apprentice to the John Carver family
* Jasper More, (Shipton, Shropshire), brother to Richard and Mary More, age 7, indentured to John Carver, died in 1620 while the ship was still anchored at Cape Cod harbor
* Roger Wilder, age under 21, servant in the John Carver family
.
* James Chilton (Canterbury)
* Mrs. Susanna Chilton, wife
Mary , 13, daughter (Sandwich, Kent)
.
Francis COOKE
John , 13, son (Leiden, Netherlands)
.
* John Crackstone Sr., (Stratford St. Mary, Suffolk)
John Crackstone, son
Louise Crutcher, , wife
Jack Crutcher, son
.
* Moses Fletcher, (probably Canterbury, Kent)
.
* Edward Fuller, (Redenhall, Norfolk)
* Agnes Carpenter Fuller, wife (daughter of Alexander CARPENTER)
Samuel , 12, son
.
Samuel Fuller, (Redenhall, Norfolk), (brother to Edward)
* William Butten, age: “a youth”, servant of Samuel Fuller, only person who died during the voyage
.
* John Goodman
.
Desire Minter, (Norwich, Norfolk)
.
* Degory Priest
.
* Thomas Rogers, (Watford, Northamptonshire)
Joseph, 17, son
.
* Edward Tilley, (Henlow, Bedfordshire)
* Ann (Cooper) Tilley (Henlow, Bedfordshire) wife of Edward and aunt of Humilty Cooper and Henry Samson
Henry Samson, 16, (Henlow, Bedfordshire) child in company of his  aunt
Humility Cooper, 1, (probably Leiden,) baby daughter of Robert Cooper, in company of her aunt
.
* John TILLEY  (Henlow, Bedfordshire)
* Joan (HURST) (ROGERS) TILLEY, wife (Henlow)
Elizabeth TILLEY, 13, daughter (Henlow, Bedfordshire) Her parents had died the first winter and she had become the foster daughter of Governor Carver and his wife who were childless.  She married John HOWLAND
.
* Thomas Tinker
* Mrs. Thomas Tinker, wife
* boy Tinker, son,
.
* John Turner
* boy Turner, son,
* boy Turner, younger son.
.
* William White
Susanna White , wife widowed February 21, 1621, subsequently married Edward Winslow – first Plymouth wedding
Resolved White, 5, son, wife was Judith Vassal
Thomas, (Great Yarmouth, Norfolk)
Peregrine White first white child born in in New England. Married Sarah Bassett, daughter of William BASSET.
* William Holbeck, age likely under 21, servant to William White
* Edward Thompson, age under 21, in the care of the William White family, first passenger to die after the Mayflower reached Cape Cod.
.
Edward Winslow, (Droitwich, Worcestershire)
* Elizabeth (Barker) Winslow, wife
* Ellen More, (Elinor), (Shipton, Shropshire), sister, age 8, indentured to Edward Winslow
George Soule, 21-25, servant or employee of Edward Winslow
* Elias Story, age under 21, in the care of Edward Winslow

John Billington, (Spalding, Lincolnshire) [Our family relationship  to Billington isn’t especially close, he was Richard MARTIN’s  daughter-in-law’s grandfather, but the first Englishman to be convicted of murder in what would become the United States is a noteworthy black sheep.]
Eleanor Billington, wife
John Billington, 16, son
Francis Billington, 14, son
.
* Richard Britteridge,
.
Peter Browne, (Dorking, Surrey)
.
* Richard Clarke,
.
Francis Eaton, (Bristol, Avon )
* Sarah Eaton, wife
Samuel Eaton, 1
.
Richard Gardiner, (Harwich, Essex)
.
Stephen HOPKINS, (Upper Clatford, Hampshire)
Elizabeth (Fisher) Hopkins, wife
John Guild,  (Essex)
Constance HOPKINS, 14, daughter by first marriage (Hursley, Hampshire) She married Nicholas SNOW. Their son Mark married Jane Prence, daughter of Gov. Thomas PRENCE
Giles Hopkins, 12, son by first marriage
Damaris Hopkins, 1-2, daughter married Jacob Cooke, son of Francis COOKE
Oceanus Hopkins, born en route
Edward Doty, (Lincolnshire) age probably about 21, servant to Stephen Hopkins
Edward Leister, (Kensington), aged over 21, servant to Stephen Hopkins
.
* Edmund Margesson,
.
* Christoper Martin (Billericay, Essex)
* Mary (Prower) Martin, wife
* John Lancemore, (Shropshire or Worcestershire), age under 21, servant to the Christopher Martin
.
* William Mullins, (Dorking, Surrey)
* Alice Mullins, wife
Priscilla Mullins, 18, daughter
* Joseph Mullins, 14, son
* Robert Carter, teenager, servant or apprentice to William Mullins, shoemaker.
.
* Solomon Prower, (Billericay, Essex)
.
* John Rigsdale,
* Alice Rigsdale, wife
.
Myles Standish, (Chorley, Lancashire)
Rose Standish, wife
.
Richard Warren, (Hertford, England)
.
Gilbert Winslow, (Droitwich, Worcestershire), brother to “Pilgrim” Edward Winslow but not known to have lived in Leiden.
.
Men hired to stay one year
.
John Alden, (Harwich, Essex) – considered a ship’s crewman (he was the ship’s cooper) but joined settlers
.
* John Allerton, was listed as a hired man but was apparently related to  Isaac Allerton.
.
Richard Ely, hired as seaman,
.
William Trevore, hired as seaman
.
George Kerr – Carpenter
.
The Mayflower likely carried a crew of about 25 or 30. Unfortunately there was no list of the names of the crew members recorded, so only a few names are actually known.
.
MASTER: Christopher Jones
MASTER’S MATE: John CLARK
While the Pilgrims were exploring Cape Cod and Plymouth Harbor, the shallop was caught in a storm and Clark brought them safely ashore at an Island, which is to this day known as Clark’s Island.
MASTER’S MATE: Robert Coppin
SHIP SURGEON: Giles Heale
SHIP’S COOPER: John Alden
.
Animals
At least two dogs are known to have participated in the settling of Plymouth. In Mourt’s Relation Edward Winslow writes that a female mastiff and a small springer spaniel came ashore on the first explorations of what is now Provincetown.

* Died the first winter 1620/21

Other Deaths
Thomas English
Thomas Williams
Alice Closford, October 24

Four of the those listed as family servants were small children, given over by Samuel More of Shropshire into the care of senior Mayflower Pilgrims. This was all due to scandal involving the children’s mother and her husband Samuel’s effort to dispose of the children by sending them away to Virginia as indentured servants. Long ago, Richard More and his siblings were even thought to have even been parentless London street waifs, but in 1959 a 1622 document revealed the whole scandal and the reason behind the children being sent on the Mayflower.

The Mayflower was kept tied up there all through the first winter to provide shelter. Even then, half the pilgrims died during that first winter of exposure and starvation. Once the cold had gone, the Mayflower set sail for England with her holds empty. This did not make the company happy at all and produced the small relief effort on the Fortune.

One Congregation

 Pastor Robinson, who continued to shepherd the flock in Lieden until such time as the Society was able to send over to America others of the congregation.

Two such embarkations took place prior to the death of the pious old preacher in 1625, and the remaining members embarked in subsequent voyages about 1630. The ship “Fortune” in Nov 1621, brought over twenty-five members of the church besides children; and in Aug 1623, the “Ann” and “Little James” carried across sixty more church members in addition to children.

The Pilgrim church in Leyden and its transported membership at New Plymouth in America continued as one body. The branch in the New World never chose a pastor so long as Pastor Robinson was living. During the interim, Elder Brewster presided over the spiritual concerns of the struggling congregation at Cape Cod until 1629.

The Fortune

In Nov 1621, one year after the Pilgrims first set foot in New England, a second ship sent by the Merchant Adventurers arrived. The “Fortune,” a small ship carrying only 35 passengers, left England in July 1621 and didn’t arrive at Plymouth until November 10th of that year.  On arrival they found that half the “Mayflower” passengers had not made it through their first winter in Plymouth.   The Fortune was only 55 tons, compared to 350 tons for the Mayflower, too small to carry anything more than what was needed for the journey.   As the ship had arrived unexpectedly, and also without many supplies, the additional settlers put a strain on the resources of the colony. Among the passengers of the Fortune were several additional people of the original Leiden congregation, including Elder William BREWSTERs son Jonathan and Edward Winslow’s brother John.

Vessels – Fortune – 1. Captain’s Charthouse 2. Quarterdeck 3. Great Cabin 4. Steerage 5. Capstan 6. Main Deck 7. Fo’c’sle 8. The Tiller Flat 9. Beakhead 10. The Tween Decks 11. Anchor Windlass 12. Main Hold

The Fortune also carried a letter from the Merchant Adventurers chastising the colony for failure to return goods with the Mayflower that had been promised in return for their support.

The Fortune began its return to England laden with “cargo of good clapboard as full as she could stow, and two hogsheads of beaver and other skins” which showed the great potential for settling in America,  £500 worth of goods (£83,000 as of 2010), more than enough to keep the colonists on schedule for repayment of their debt.

On the crossing, the Fortune had been blown off course and found itself in French waters where the French navy captured the unarmed ship and held it and crew captive for several weeks, creating an even larger deficit for the colony. Once the French realized the English would never pay for their freedom, they took what cargo was aboard and allowed the ship and crew to continue the voyage to England

The Fortune carried only twenty-one passengers. These were not pilgrims themselves. In fact, the company had hired them specifically because they were adventurers. They had agreed to locate treasure and this they would share with the company. The company sent with them, instructions for the pilgrims to follow (which they did). The pilgrims were to house these men, and care for them.

This passenger list is based on the 1623 Division of Land, compiled by Charles Edward Banks in Planters of the Commonwealth, and by the information found in Eugene Aubrey Stratton’s Plymouth Colony: Its History and its People, 1620-1691.

Fortune Passenger List

John Adams
.
William BASSETT
Elizabeth BASSETT (Wife)
.
William Beale
.
Jonathan Brewster [son of Elder William BREWSTER]
.
Clement Briggs married Joan Allen, daughter of George ALLEN
.
Edward Bumpas
.
John Cannon
.
William Conner
.
Robert CUSHMAN |
Thomas  CUSHMAN, (Son)
.
Philipe de la Noye
.
Stephen Deane married Elizabeth Ring, daughter of William RING  Their daughter Miriam married John WING II as his second wife Their daughter Susannah married Nicholas SNOW‘s son Stephen
.
Thomas Flavell & Son
.
[__?__] Ford
Martha Ford (Wife)
Martha Ford (daughter)
John Ford (son)
.
Thomas Flavell & Son
Robert Hickes (his daughter Lydia Hicks married our ancestor Edward BANGS,though we descend from his second wife Rebecca HOBART)
.
William HILTON Sr.
.
Bennet Morgan
.
Thomas Morton [our ancestor Benjamin CRISPE was a servant of Edward Gibbons  at Morton’s  free-loving Merrymount in the 1620’s],
.
Austen Nicolas
.
William Palmer
William Palmer (son)
.
William Pitt
.
Gov. Thomas PRENCE
.
Moses Simonson
.
Hugh Statie
.
James Steward
.
William Tench
.
John Winslow
.
William Wright

Ann & Little James

In July 1623, two more ships arrived named the Anne, under the command of  Master, William Peirce, and the Little James  with her Captain, Emanuel Altham, and Master, John Bridges ten days later, carrying 96 new settlers, among them the wives and children that had been left behind and  Leideners,  including William Bradford‘s future wife, Alice Carpenter Southworth (daughter of Alexander CARPENTER)

Ann and Little James

Some of the passengers who arrived on the Ann were either unprepared for frontier life or undesirable additions to the colony and returned to England the next year. According to Gleason Archer,  “those who remained were not willing to join the colony under the terms of the agreement with the Merchand Adventureres. They had embarked for America upon an understanding with the Adventurers that they might settle in a community of their own, or at least be free from the bonds by which the Plymouth colonists were enslaved. A letter addressed to the colonists and signed by thirteen of the merchants recited these facts and urged acceptance of the new comers on the specified terms.” The new arrivals were alloted land in the area of the Eel River, known as Hobs Hole, which became Wellingsley, a mile south of Plymouth Rock.

Anthony Annabal, wife
Jane Annabal, and children: Sarah, Hannah
.
Edward BANGS “Edward Bangs, from Panfield, Essex Co., Shipwright.”
.
Robert Bartlett
.
Fear Brewster (married Isaac ALLERTON as his second wife)
Patience BREWSTER; (daughters of Elder WILLIAM BREWSTER)
.
Mary Bucket
.
Edward Burcher
.
Deacon Thomas CLARK
.
Christopher Conant
.
Hester COOKE (joined her husband and son, both Mayflower passengers), and children: Jane, Jacob, and Mary
.
Godbert Godbertson
Sarah (Priest) Godberston, and children: Marrah Priest, Sarah Priest , and Samuel.  Sarah and Digory Priest’s son John married Sarah Allerton, daughter of Isaac ALLERTON
.
Anthony Dix
.
John Faunce married 1633 to fellow passenger Patience Morton, daughter of George MORTON
.
Mr. Pierce’s two servants.
.
Joshua Pratt
.
James Rand
.
Robert Ratcliffe and his wife
.
Nicholas SNOW his son Mark married Jane Prence, daughter of Gov. Thomas PRENCE
.
Alice Carpenter (Daughter of Alexander CARPENTER) (m1. Edward Southworth) (m2. Gov. William Bradford)
.
Francis Sprague, and either his wife or daughter Anna, and daughter Mercy.  His son John married Ruth Bassett, daughter of William BASSETT.
Barbara — (Standish)
.
Thomas Tilden and wife
.
Stephen Tracy His son John Tracy married Mary Prence, daughter of Gov. Thomas PRENCE
.
Ralph Wallen and wife Joyce,  (After Ralph died, Joyce married Thomas LUMBERT as his fourth wife.)
.
Goodwife Flavell
.
Edmund Flood
.
Bridget Fuller
.
Timothy Hatherly
.
William Heard
.
Margaret Hickes and her children (wife of Robert Hickes, who came in the Fortune): Lydia, Phoebe, Samuel and Ephraim
.
William HILTON’s wife Mary [__?__] and children: William HILTON Jr., and Mary
.
Edward Holman.
.
John Jenny
.
Sarah Jenny, and children: Samuel,Abigail and Sarah
.
Manasseh Kempton [son of George KEMPTON] (2nd husband of Juliana CARPENTER  MORTON )
.
Robert Long
.
Experience Mitchell m. Jane Cooke, daughter of Francis COOKE
.
George MORTON,  and his wife Julianna CARPENTER MORTON KEMPTON, and children: Nathaniel, Patience, John, Sarah, and Lt. Ephraim MORTON
.
Thomas Morton, Jr.; son of Thomas Morton, who came in the Fortune
.
Ellen Newton
.
John Oldham and his sister, Lucretia.  Lucretia married Jonathan Brewster, son of Elder William BREWSTER
.
Frances Palmer; wife of William Palmer, who came in the Fortune
.
Christian Penn
.
Elizabeth Warren, wife of Richard (Mayflower), and children: Mary, Anna, Sarah (married John Cooke, son of Francis COOKE John was the last male survivor of the Mayflower passengers.) , Elizabeth, and Abigail

Ignatius Thompson’s “Genealogy of John Thompson” says he came to America in “the third embarkation,” a company under the patronage of Thomas Weston, a merchant of distinction in London. The company contained 60 or 70 men, some of them with families. Among them was John TOMSON, then 6 years old. They landed at Plymouth early in May 1622. However, there seems to be some errors in Ignatius’s account.

What is properly called the “third embarkation,” the “Little James and Anne,” actually arrived in Aug 1623 with 60 passengers. There were other other arrivals, the “Sparrow” in May 1622, with seven passengers, was indeed sent by Thomas Weston. Still another arrival was the “Charity and Swan” in Jul 1622, also sent out by Thomas Weston, with sixty colonists bound for Wessagusset or Weymouth, which stopped at Plymouth with letters from Mr. Weston stating that he had quit the “Adventurers.” John Thompson may have indeed arrived in May 1622 as Ingnatius Thompson said, but this was not termed the “third embarkation.”

In September 1623, another ship carrying settlers destined to refound the failed colony at Weymouth arrived and temporarily stayed at Plymouth. In March 1624, a ship bearing a few additional settlers and the first cattle arrived. A 1627 division of cattle lists 156 colonists divided into twelve lots of thirteen colonists each.  Another ship also named the Mayflower arrived in August 1629 with 35 additional members of the Leiden congregation. Ships arrived throughout the period between 1629 and 1630 carrying new settlers; though the exact number is unknown, contemporary documents claimed that by January 1630 the colony had almost 300 people.

In 1643 the colony had an estimated 600 males fit for military service, implying a total population of about 2,000. By 1690, on the eve of the dissolution of the colony, the estimated total population of Plymouth County, the most populous, was 3,055 people. It is estimated that the entire population of the colony at the point of its dissolution was around 7,000.  For comparison it is estimated that between 1630 and 1640, a period known as the Great Migration, over 20,000 settlers had arrived in Massachusetts Bay Colony alone, and by 1678 the English population of all of New England was estimated to be in the range of 60,000. Despite the fact that Plymouth was the first colony in the region, by the time of its annexation it was much smaller than Massachusetts Bay Colony.

Our ancestors or their close relatives had almost half the lots in early Plymouth – (George Soule was the grandfather of John TOMSON’s son-in-law, not close enough to get a #)

Our ancestors or their close relatives had almost half the lots in early Plymouth – (George Soule was the grandfather of John TOMSON’s son-in-law, not close enough to get a #)

Saints and Strangers

Besides the Pilgrims, or “Saints”, the rest of the Mayflower settlers were known as the “Strangers”. This group included the non-Pilgrim settlers placed on the Mayflower by the Merchant Adventurers, and later settlers who would come for other reasons throughout the history of the colony and who did not necessarily adhere to the Pilgrim religious ideals. A third group, known as the “Particulars”, consisted of a group of later settlers that paid their own “particular” way to America, and thus were not obliged to pay the colony’s debts.

The presence of outsiders such as the Strangers and the Particulars was a considerable annoyance to the Pilgrims. As early as 1623, a conflict between the Pilgrims and the Strangers broke out over the celebration of Christmas, a day of no particular significance to the Pilgrims. Furthermore, when a group of Strangers founded the nearby settlement of Wessagussett (later Weymouth), the Pilgrims were highly strained, both emotionally and in terms of resources, by their lack of discipline. They looked at the eventual failure of the Wessagussett settlement as Divine Providence against a sinful people.

Sources:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Mayflower_passengers

http://www.mayflowerhistory.com/Passengers/passengers.php

http://www.alden.org/documents/otherships.htm

http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~netlapm/Page31X.htm

http://www.smithsonianmag.com/people-places/pilgrimsprogress.html?c=y&page=2

http://www.packrat-pro.com/ships/fortune.htm

http://www.packrat-pro.com/ships/anne.htm

http://www.packrat-pro.com/ships/LJames.htm

http://www.mayflowerhistory.com/Genealogy/crew.php

About these ads
Posted in First Comer, History | 8 Comments

Everard “Greenleaf” Digby

Everard DIGBY Esquire (1414-1461)  was  Alex’s 17th Great Grandfather; in the Miner line.

Since our Digby ancestors really were knights, their coat of arms belongs on each of their pages.

Everard “Greenleaf” DIGBY was born 1415 in Stoke Dry, Rutland, England.  His parents were Simon DIGBY  and Joan BELER. He married Agnes CLARKE on 1439 in Stoke Dry, Rutland, England. Everard died 29 Mar 1461 at the Battle of Towton, West Riding, Yorkshire, England.

St Andrew’s Church Stoke Dry Rutlandshire contains several Digby effigies

Dating at least from the Norman period, Stoke Dry Church was largely rebuilt during the 13th (west tower) and 15th centuries. Although small, the church has many interesting features – a carved Norman arch, a 15th century oak rood screen and tombs belonging to the Digby family who once lived in Stoke Dry. Of special note are the splendid medieval wall paintings which show the martyrdom of St. Edmund.

Above the north porch is the priest’s room or parvise. Reached by a narrow staircase from the north aisle of the church, it is said to be where Everard Digby planned the failed Gunpowder Plot of 1605.  There is  little truth in this tale however. Although Sir Everard Digby was one of the plotters he did not live at Stoke Dry at that time.

Agnes Clarke was born 1419 in Stoke Dry, Rutland, England. Her parents were Francis Clarke and  Agnes Flore 1st husband was Richard Seddall. (Nichols says he was 2nd husband.)

Agnes Digby St Andrew’s Stoke Dry Rutland — c. 1479 Slab fragment of a lady wearing a steeple headdress -lost Inscription is recorded as
‘Hic jacent Ricardus Digbi & Agnes uxor ejus qui quidem Ricardus obiit xvii° die mensis Octobris & Agnes obiit penultimo die mensis Octobris A° Domini m . . . ccc . . . septuagesimo nono, quorum animabus propicietur Deus Amen’ 

Children of  Everard and Agnes:

Name Born Married Departed
1. Everard DIGBY Esq. 1440 in , Leicestershire, England. Jacquetta ELLIS
1463
Stoke Dry, Rutland
Feb 1509 in Tilton, Leicestershire, England.
2. Devorguila Digby
3. John Digby
4. Margaret Digby William Skeffington

Everard was High Sheriff of Rutland 1434

Everard Digby, in the reign of Edward IV, was killed, together with his three brothers, fighting for the house of Lancaster at the battle of Towton 29 March 1461. His seven sons fought for Henry VII at the battle of Bosworth Field 22 August 1485.

Manor of Stokes Dry

Stok (xi cent.); Stokes, Dristok, Drie Stok, Stokedreye (xiii cent.).

Stoke Dry Rutland

Stoke Dry borders on Leicestershire, and though mainly in Wrandike Hundred, a small portion known as Holy Oaks Liberty extends into Stockerston parish in Gartree Hundred (co. Leic.). The parish covers an area of 992 acres of rich loam and is nearly all under pasture. The land rises from the Eye Brook, which forms the county and parish boundary on the west, to over 500 ft. above the Ordnance datum in the north of the parish at Stoke Great Wood.   In 2007 it had a population of 39. With only 14 homes this is a quiet village with its mediaeval church dedicated to Saint Andrew.

The small village lies on the west side of the road from Uppingham to Kettering, and is prettily situated on the western slope of a ridge with a fringe of trees on its south side. The church is on the east side of the village street, with the rectory to the south of it. On the opposite side of the road is the Grange, which probably belonged to the Knights Hospitallers.

Stoke Dry was the ancient residence of the famous and ancient family of Digbys,  but nothing now exists of the house they formerly occupied. There remained until about 1871, behind some farm buildings south-east of the church, what appears to have been part of the stabling, or other outbuildings, of the Digby manor house. This consisted of an oblong stone building measuring internally about 48 ft. 6 in. by 16 ft. 6 in., and apparently of late 16th or early 17th century date. It had been long used as a farm store, and the internal partitions and dividing walls removed.

The tenants of Stoke Dry formerly had common rights in Beaumont Chase, which lies to the north-west of the parish, and they received compensation in lieu of them under the Inclosure Act for Liddington in 1798.

Much of Stoke Dry is now covered by Eyebrook Resevoir

STOKE (DRY) was entered in the Domesday Survey as pertaining, with Snelson and Caldecote, to the Bishop of Lincoln’s 2 hides in Liddington (q.v.). The bishops of Lincoln had as tenants at Stoke Dry in the 13th century a branch of the family of Neville. Gilbert de Neville, who held five knights’ fees of the Bishop of Lincoln in 1156 and 1166, was holding lands in Rutland in 1158.  He died before 1169, leaving a son Geoffrey who died in 1193 and was succeeded by his son Henry. At the death of Henry in 1227 without issue, his property went to his sister Isabel, wife of Robert Fitz Meldred, and so to the Nevilles of Raby. (Hasculf de Neville with Christine his wife, who held lands in Rutland in 1250,  probably belonged to a cadet branch of these Nevilles. Hasculf de Neville had four sons: Robert, Thomas, Peter and Stephen.  Robert sided with the Baronial party, and after the battle of Evesham in 1265 his lands in Stoke Dry were seized but restored to him in the same year.He settled his lands on his son Thomas and his heirs, with remainder to his brother Thomas.   His son Thomas was dealing with lands in Stoke Dry in 1297  and died in 1303.   One part of his property in Stoke Dry went to Theobald, son of Peter de Neville (d. c. 1276), brother of Thomas’s father Robert, and the other to John son of Stephen de Neville, another brother of Robert.   The Bishop of Lincoln claimed the land as an escheat on account of the outlawry of Peter, but Peter, before his outlawry in 1272, had enfeoffed his son Theobald, who was in the king’s service in Scotland. The Nevilles seem to have maintained their right to the property  and, probably for assurance of title, conveyed the two estates in 1304 to Walter de Langton, Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield.   In 1313 John de Neville granted the manor of Stoke Dry to Roger de Morwode and his wife Joan (probably John’s daughter) and their issue, with remainder to his own heirs. John de Neville of Stoke appears, however, in a commission of oyer and terminer in 1316. The Bishop of Lincoln and Roger de Morwode were in 1316 assessed to an Aid for Liddington, Stoke Dry, Snelson and Caldecote.

Roger de Morwode was succeeded by his son another Roger,   and in 1368 William, son of the latter Roger, recovered seisin against Thomas de Stanes, parson of the church of Upminster, and John le Rous of Howes,   to whom William de Burton and Eleanor his wife, probably the mother of William de Morwode, had previously conveyed the manor.  In 1379 William de Morwode and Lora his wife were dealing with lands here,   and in 1383 Nicholas de Morwode of Stoke Dry was killed by Richard, son of Richard, son of Robert of Stoke Dry.

William de Morwode, who had settled the manor on his wife Lora, died seised of it in 1386, leaving a son and heir William aged 18.  In 1391 Richard Salyng and Lora his wife, evidently the widow of the elder William de Morwode, levied a fine of the manor with John, Edmund, and Robert Morwode and others.  William Morwode of Stoke Dry appeared in a plea of debt in May 1398,   though in 1395 John Wakefield of London held the manor,   possibly as mortgagee. In 1419 it was held by Roger Flore of Oakham, several times Speaker of the House of Commons, and John Clarke of Whissendine, both of whom were executors of the will of William Dalby, founder of the hospital of St. John and St. Anne at Oakham.  Roger died in 1428, when John Clarke had sole possession. His son Francis married Agnes, daughter of Roger Flore.

Francis died in 1435 in his father’s lifetime,  leaving a son Francis who died in the following year, and a daughter Agnes who became his sole heir and married Simon, alias Everard DIGBY of Tilton;   thus the Digbys came to Stoke Dry, which they made their chief seat. Everard was killed at the battle of Towton in 1461 and was succeeded by his son Everard, who married Jacquetta ELLIS (d. 1496).  They had a son Everard, who succeeded to the property on his father’s death in 1509.   He married Margery, daughter of Sir John Heyton, kt., of Norfolk, and died in 1540, when his son Kenelm succeeded. Kenelm was dealing with the manor in 1553  and conveyed it in 1574 to his son Everard, charged with payments after his own death to Katherine, Elizabeth, Ursula and Bridget his daughters.  He settled the manor in 1588.  He died in 1590. His wife Anne, daughter of Sir Anthony Cope,  was still living at Stoke Dry at the death of their son Everard in 1592, who had settled on his wife Mary, daughter of Francis Neale of Keythorpe (co. Leic.), his manor of Tilton in that county.  Mary, too, survived Everard, who left a son and heir Everard, then in his fourteenth year.  The younger Everard’s wardship was bought by Roger Manners, lessee of the manor and of Holy Oaks,   who transferred it to Mary, Everard’s widow. Everard [the Gunpowder Plot Conspirator], who was knighted in 1603, married Mary, daughter of William Mulsho of Gayhurst or Gothurst (co. Bucks),  and was a prominent person at the court of James I, where he came under the influence of the Jesuit Gerrard. He settled the manor on his son Kenelm in 1604.  Being attainted and hanged for high treason for his share in the Gunpowder Plot in 1606, his lands were taken into the king’s hand.  Sir Everard’s wife survived him for a widowhood of nearly fifty years, and Holy Oaks in Stoke Dry, demised by her in 1645, was still under sequestration for her recusancy in 1653, by which date she was dead.

The manor passed under the above entail to Sir Everard’s son and heir Kenelm, aged two at his father’s death. He was dealing with it in 1624,  but his mother’s Gayhurst property, where he was born, became his principal seat. He was knighted in 1623, married a wife of extraordinary beauty, Venetia, daughter of Sir Edward Stanley of Shropshire, and was made Gentleman of the Bedchamber, Commissioner of the Navy, and Governor of Trinity House by Charles I. In 1628 he defeated the Venetians with a squadron equipped at his own expense.   His philosophical and scientific work brought him fame on the Continent and at home, and even, later, the friendship of Oliver Cromwell, though he was imprisoned and banished and his estates sequestered for his Royalist activities.

In 1639 he mortgaged the manors of Stoke Dry and Tilton to Daniel Harvey, Elias (or Eliab), Michael, and Matthew Harvey.  The transaction was allowed by the sequestrators in 1645, but after his banishment in 1649 it was the subject of petitions from 1650–1653 by claimants on his estate.  These petitioners included his mother, his father’s brother George Digby of Standon (co. Staffs), Eliab Harvey, who was guardian of the late mortgagee’s son Daniel, and his own son John Digby, who became his heir after the death of his eldest son Kenelm in 1649.  In 1655, with Daniel Harvey and his wife Elizabeth and Elias Harvey and his wife Mary, he conveyed the manor to John Morris for purposes of settlement.  Kenelm Digby died in 1665. His son John, who was buried at Gayhurst in 1673, left two daughters as co-heirs, Mary (or Margaret Maria), who married Sir John Conway, second and last bart. of Bodryddan (co. Flint), and Charlotte, who married the Conways’ kinsman, Richard Mostyn. Mary died in 1690, Charlotte in 1693–4. In 1704 Sir John Conway and Richard Mostyn obtained an Act of Parliament for the sale of the Digby estates.

The Battle of Towton was fought during the English Wars of the Roses on 29 March 1461, near the village of the same name in Yorkshire. It was the “largest and bloodiest battle ever fought on English soil”.  According to chroniclers, more than 50,000 soldiers from the Houses of York and Lancaster fought for hours amidst a snowstorm on that day, which was a Palm Sunday. A newsletter circulated a week after the battle reported that 28,000 died on the battlefield. The engagement brought about a monarchical change in England—Edward IV displaced Henry VI as King of England, driving the head of the Lancastrians and his key supporters out of the country.

The Battle of Towson by Richard Caton Woodville (1856–1927)

Henry was weak in character and mentally unsound. His ineffectual rule had encouraged the nobles’ schemes to establish control over him, and the situation deteriorated into a civil war between the supporters of his house and those of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York. After the Yorkists captured Henry in 1460, the English parliament passed an Act of Accord to let York and his line succeed Henry as king. Henry’s consort, Margaret of Anjou, refused to accept the dispossession of her son’s right to the throne and, along with fellow Lancastrian malcontents, raised an army. Richard of York was killed at the Battle of Wakefield and his titles, including the claim to the throne, passed to his eldest son Edward. Nobles, who were previously hesitant to support Richard’s claim to the throne, regarded the Lancastrians to have reneged on the Act—a legal agreement—and Edward found enough backing to denounce Henry and declare himself king. The Battle of Towton was to affirm the victor’s right to rule over England through force of arms.

On reaching the battlefield, the Yorkists found themselves heavily outnumbered. Part of their force under John de Mowbray, 3rd Duke of Norfolk, had yet to arrive. The Yorkist leader Lord Fauconberg turned the tables by ordering his archers to take advantage of the strong wind to outrange their enemies. The one-sided missile exchange—Lancastrian arrows fell short of the Yorkist ranks—provoked the Lancastrians into abandoning their defensive positions. The ensuing hand-to-hand combat lasted hours, exhausting the combatants. The arrival of Norfolk’s men reinvigorated the Yorkists and, encouraged by Edward, they routed their foes. Many Lancastrians were killed while fleeing; some trampled each other and others drowned in the rivers. Several who were taken as prisoners were executed.

The power of the House of Lancaster was severely reduced after this battle. Henry fled the country, and many of his most powerful followers were dead or in exile after the engagement, letting Edward rule England uninterrupted for nine years, before a brief restoration of Henry to the throne. Later generations remembered the battle as depicted in William Shakespeare‘s dramatic adaptation of Henry’s life—Henry VI, Part 3, Act 2, Scene 5. In 1929, the Towton Cross was erected on the battlefield to commemorate the event. Various archaeological remains and mass graves related to the battle were found in the area centuries after the engagement.

Children

1. Everard DIGBY (See his page)

4. Margaret Digby

Margaret’s husband Sir William Skeffington (c. 1465-1535), lord deputy of Ireland, belonged to a Leicestershire family and was sheriff of Leicestershire and Warwickshire under Henry VII. He was master of the ordnance and a a knight of the shire (Member of Parliament) for Leicestershire from 1529–1535 in the reign of Henry VIII., and in 1529 was appointed deputy in Ireland for Henry’s son, the duke of Richmond, the nominal lord lieutenant of that country.

Sir William was born in Skeffington, Leicestershire. His brother John was the patriarch of the Massareene family. He was appointed High Sheriff of Leicestershire and Warwickshire for 1508, 1515 and 1521 in the reign of Henry VII and was knighted by that king for his services. In 1523, he received from Henry VIII property near Tunbridge that had belonged to the executed traitor Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham.

He was appointed in 1529 deputy in Ireland to Henry’s son, the duke of Richmond, the nominal lord lieutenant of that country.  He crossed over in August 1529, but his power was so circumscribed by instructions from Henry that the head of the Fitzgeralds, Gerald, 9th earl of Kildare,, and not Skeffington, was the real governor of Ireland. This state of affairs lasted for three years and then in 1532 the deputy was recalled.

In 1534, Kildare being in prison in England and his son Thomas, afterwards the 10th earl, being in revolt, Skeffington was again appointed deputy , at approximately 70 years of age. After some delay he landed at Dublin in October 1534 and marched at once to relieve Drogheda, but further progress in the work of crushing the rebellion was seriously delayed by his illness. However, in the spring of 1535 he was again in the field. He took Maynooth Castle, killing and executing the entire garrison. The heavy artillery used by him on this occasion earning for him his surname of “The Gunner”; he forced some of Kildare’s allies to make peace and captured Dungarvan.

William died in Dublin on the 31st of December 1535, and was buried in St. Patrick’s Cathedral. He was succeeded by his eldest son Thomas.

He was last Roman Catholic to hold the office either of Lord Deputy or Lord Lieutenant, with the exception of the Duke of Tyrconnel in 1687-1689 and Lord Fitzalan in 1921-1922.

He first married Anne’s great aunt Margaret, daughter of Everard “Greenleaf” DIGBY William Skeffington was so fond of Digbys, that when she died, he married her great niece Anna, the daughter of Everard’s grandson John Digby of Kettleby.

William and Margaret had four sons, including Sir Leonard Skeffington, who would hold the post of Lieutenant of the Tower of London. Sir Leonard is credited with having invented the “Scavenger’s Daughter“, which was a torture device used in the Tower during Henry VIII’s reign Following Margaret’s death, William Skeffington married secondly, Anne Digby, a daughter of Sir John DIGBY of Kettleby and his wife, Katherine Giffin. This marriage produced two further sons and three daughters.

Sources:

http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~hwbradley/aqwg3007.htm#73844

http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=66239

http://www.rutnet.co.uk/pp/gold/viewGold.asp?IDType=Page&ID=13976

Posted in Artistic Representation, Line - Miner, Storied, Violent Death | Tagged , , | 5 Comments

Ezekiel Rogers

Ezekiel Rogers (1588-1661) (wiki) was an English nonconformist clergyman, and Puritan settler of Massachusetts. Of the 20 Yorkshire families that accompanied him from Rowley, Yorkshire and Rowley, Massachusetts, almost half were our direct ancestors.    We’re here in part because he didn’t like the Book of Sports.  What would he have thought of 10am start times for NFL football on the West Coast?

Ezekiel Rogers, St. Peter's Church Rowley, England -- The village of Rowley Yorkshire and town of Rowley Massachusetts enjoy close relations today. In 1994 the people of Rowley, Mass. gave to the church of St. Peter’s in Rowley Yorkshire. this stained glass window to honor the memory of their founder.

Ezekiel Rogers was born 5 Feb 1588 in Wethersfield, Essex, England .  His parents were Richard Rogers, who held the living of Wethersfield in Essex, and Barbara [__?__].  He was three times married: first, 1620 in Wethersfield to Joan Hartrop ; secondly, 1650 in Mass to Elizabeth Wilson, thirdly, 16 Jul 1651 to Mary, widow of Thomas Barker.  “That very night,” says Cotton Mather, “a fire burnt his dwelling house to the ground, with all the goods that he had under his roof.” His right arm was soon afterwards rendered useless by a fall from a horse; so that he was obliged to learn to write with his left hand. After a lingering illness, he died Jan. 23, 1660/61 in Rowley, Essex, Mass., aged 70 years. He gave the greater part of his lands and his house to the town and church of Rowley.

Wikipedia says he first married Sarah, widow of John Everard, but I can’t find confirmation elsewhere.

Sarah [__?__] was born xx.  She first married John Everard.

Joan Hartopp was born 1590 in Wethersfield, Essex, England. Joan died 8 May 1649 in Rowley, Essex, Mass.

Elizabeth Wilson was born 1623 in Windsor, Berkshire, England.  Her parents were  Rev. John Wilson, minister at First Church, Boston, and Elizabeth Mansfield, daughter of Sir John Mansfield.  Elizabeth died in Feb 1651 in Rowley, Essex, Mass. in child birth.

Mary [__?__] was born xx.  She first married Thomas Barker.

Ezekiel left no children

Ezekiel’s Father

Richard Rogers (1550-1618) was an English clergyman, a nonconformist under both Elizabeth I and James I.

Richard Rogers Unknown artist,print,1650

Richard  was born in 1551, son or grandson of Richard Rogers, steward to the earls of Warwick. He matriculated as a sizar of Christ’s College, Cambridge, in November 1565, and graduated B.A. 1571, M.A. 1574 He was appointed lecturer at Wethersfield, Essex, about 1577.

In 1583 he, with twenty-six others, petitioned the privy council against Archbishop John Whitgift‘s three articles, and against Bishop Aylmer‘s proceedings on them at his visitation. Whitgift suspended all the petitioners. After a suspension of eight months Rogers resumed his preaching, and was restored to his ministry through the intervention of Sir Robert Wroth.

Rogers espoused the presbyterian movement under Thomas Cartwright, and signed the Book of Discipline. He is mentioned by Richard Bancroft as one of a classis round Braintree side, together with Culverwell, Gifford, and others. In 1598 and 1603 he was accordingly again in trouble; on the former occasion before the ecclesiastical commission, and on the latter for refusing the oath ex officio. He owed his restoration to the influence of William Knollys, 1st Earl of Banbury. Under the episcopate of Richard Vaughan, bishop of London between 1604 and 1607, he enjoyed considerable freedom; but under Vaughan’s successor, Thomas Ravis, he was again in trouble.

Rogers died at Wethersfield on 21 April 1618, and was buried in the churchyard. Rogers was the father of Daniel Rogers and Ezekiel Rogers. He was succeeded at Wethersfield by Stephen Marshall.

Rogers wrote:

  • Seaven treatises containing such directions as is gathered out of the Holie Scriptures, 1603; 2nd edit. London, 1605, dedicated to King James; 4th edit. 1627, 2 parts; 5th edit. 1630. An abbreviated version, called The Practice of Christianity, is dated 1618, and was often reissued.
  • A garden of spirituall flowers, planted by R[ichard] R[ogers], W[ill] P[erkins], R[ichard] G[reenham], M. M., and G[eorge] W[ebbe], London, 1612, 1622, 1632, 1643 (2 parts), 1687 (2 parts).
  • Certaine Sermons, directly tending to these three ends, First, to bring any bad person (that hath not committed the same that is unpardonable) to true conversion; secondly, to establish and settle all such as are converted in faith and repentance; thirdly, to leade them forward (that are so settled) in the Christian life . . . whereunto are annexed divers . . . sermons of Samuel Wright, B.D., London, 1612.
  • A Commentary upon the whole book of Judges, preached first and delivered in sundrie lectures, London, 1615, dedicated to Sir Edward Coke.
  • Samuel’s encounter with Saul, 1 Sam. chap. xv, London, 1620.

Ezekiel’s Career

Ezekiel graduated M.A. from Christ’s College, Cambridge in 1604, and became chaplain in the family of Sir Francis Barrington in Essex. He was preferred by his patron to the living of Rowley in Yorkshire.

St. Peter's Church, Rowley, East Yorkshire

Rowley is a small village and civil parish in the East Riding of Yorkshire. It is situated 1 mile south of Little Weighton and approximately 6 miles south-west of Beverley town centre.  The civil parish is formed by the villages of Rowley and Little Weighton together with the hamlets of BentleyHigh HunsleyLow HunsleyRisby and part of the hamlet of Riplingham.  According to the 2001 UK census, Rowley parish had a population of 1,030.  The village of Rowley is now mostly depopulated, leaving only a few houses, and most of the population is now in Little Weighton.

In December 1638, after seventeen years of service, Rogers was discharged from his post as rector of Rowley, after he had refused to read The Book of Sports. Believing the future of Puritanism was at stake, he left for the New World with the members of twenty families of his congregation, including lots of our ancestors.

The “Book of Sports,” reprinted under Archbishop William Laud‘s direction, was conceived as a well-intentioned guide to permissible after-church leisure activities that people could engage in without violating rules of the Sabbath, it was seen by Puritans as a blasphemy. To them, the Sabbath was a day of worship, not of frivolities.

James I had first published the “Book of Sports” in the 1620’s, and now Charles I reissued it in 1633. The point of contention was that King Charles insisted that every pastor read it aloud to his congregation. Another of our Puritan ancestors Rev. Henry WHITFIELD, flatly refused to do so and was called before the Archbishop Laud’s Commission and censured.

Ezekiel’s brother Daniel Rogers was also a strict Calvinist minister and lecturer.   Daniel was especially morose. Firmin’s Real Christian was mainly written to counteract his gloom. Rogers’s stepbrother, John Ward, said of him that, although he “had grace enough for two men, he had not enough for himself..

Among the congregation were John BOYNTON, and his brother William.  Their cousin Sir Matthew Boynton (26 Jan 1591 – 12 Mar 1647), (Wikipedia)  helped finance the Rowley expedition.

They left Rowley in the summer of 1638 and travelled down into Hull where
they joined the ship John of London, lying in the Old Harbour on the River Hull. After
sailing out of the Humber, their ship called into London en route and there picked up
the Reverend Joseph Glover, a wealthy nonconformist minister, who brought with
him Stephen Daye, a printer, and also what is believed to be North America’s first
printing press.

Glover is thought to have first visited New England earlier in the 1630s and supported the foundation of Harvard College – which eventually became Harvard University, the oldest institute of higher education in the United States. Unfortunately, on the long and tortuous journey across the Atlantic, the Reverend Glover died before the vessel reached Salem Bay, Massachusetts in the December of 1638.  His widow later married the Rev. Henry Dunster first President of Harvard College.

Undoubtedly, Rev. Rogers kept records and a log during the voyage, but these, along with most of his belongings, were lost in the fire that destroyed his dwelling in Rowley, Mass. a few years after he and many of the group settled there.

Theophilus Eaton and John Davenport were then setting up their colony at New Haven; they tried to enlist Rogers, but without success.

George Lamberton took the settlers over to Boston where I believe he already had a house. There was some sort of dispute between him and the Rev. Ezekial Rogers. Lamberton, a seafarer trading down the eastern seaboard, wanted to join Davenport and go to New Haven (group of rich merchants, from London) He is listed on one of the best plots on the map of nine squares of New Haven. Just looking at the map, Rowley is slightly inland and would not have suited a sea captain. Edward Atwater in his History of the Colony of New Haven, mentions a minister of high standing in Yorkshire named Ezekiel Rogers who, having embarked at Hull on the Humber, with a company that personally knew him and desired to enjoy his ministry arrived in Boston late in the summer (in 1638). Rogers originally planned to join the colonists at Quinnipiac (New Haven) but something was not to his satisfaction (I don’t know what) and he remained in Massachusetts Bay Colony.   Rogers frequently corresponded with Winthrop, the governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony. In one of his letters, he speaks of the New Haven planters as follows:

“Sir: Mr. Lamberton did us much wrong. I expected his coming to the Bay: but it seems he sits down at Quinnipiac : yet he hath a house in Boston: I would humbly crave your advice to Mr. Will Bellingham about it, whether we might not enter an action against him and upon proof get help by that house.”

Atwater says, “This evidently refers to Rogers’ disappointment in not receiving back those of his flock who staid in New Haven, and reads as if Lamberton were to be counted among them.”

The migrants probably spent a long first winter in Salem but in spring 1639 Ezekiel Rogers and his followers moved on to land some six miles outside of Ipswich, Massachusetts. House lots and properties were laid out along the township’s brook, allowing each family access to fresh water. Here the new arrivals built many houses and, bringing spinning and weaving skills with them from the East Riding of Yorkshire, they were amongst the first to establish a clothing industry in New England. They called their little township, Rowley after their East Riding village

Early in the spring of 1639 he and most of these twenty families settled in the town of Rowley, Massachusetts. Rowley was incorporated on September 4, 1639. Rogers was the pastor at Rowley until his death on 23 January 1661,

Rogers published The Chief Grounds of the Christian Religion set down by way of catechising, gathered long since for the use of an honourable Family, London, 1642. Several of his letters to John Winthrop are published in the Massachusetts Historical Collection(4th ser. vii.)

Ezekiel  was an eloquent speaker, and preached the election sermon before the General Court, in 1643, in which he maintained that the same person should not hold the office of governor for two successive years.

Rowley Pioneers

Rowley was incorporated, Sept. 4, 1639, and then embraced what is now extended from the sea to the Merrimac River: Bradford, Groveland, Georgetown, and part of Boxford, which was for some time known as “Rowley Village.” It received its named from Rowley, a parish of East Riding, York, Eng., whence its first minister, Ezekiel Rogers, had come. The boundaries of the town are Newbury on the north, from which it is, in part, separated by Parker River and Mud Creek, the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Ipswich on the south, Boxford on the south-west, and Georgetown on the north-west.

The English, under the guidance of the Rev. Ezekiel Rogers, commenced a settlement here as early as 1638. The Act of incorporation is thus briefly expressed: “4th day of 7th month 1639, ordered that Mr. Ezekiel Rogers plantation be called Rowley.”

On the 13th of May, 1640, it was declared by the General Court “that Rowley bounds is to be eight miles from their meeting house in a straight line; and then a cross line diameter from Ipswich Ryver to Merrimack Ryver when it doth not prejudice any former grant.” In October of the same year the Court ordered “that the neck of land on Merrimack, near Corchitawick be added to Rowley.”

On the “tenth of the eleventh Anno Dni 1643, Thomas Nelson, Edward Carlton, Humphrey Reynon & Francis PARROT, made a survey of the town and a register of the several house lots of from 1 1/2 to 6 acres then laid out to the settlers. They were as follows: On Bradford Street, Thomas Ellethrop, John Dresser, Hugh CHAPLIN, Peter Cooper, Thomas Sumner, John Burbank, Thomas Palmer, William Wilde, William Jackson, Hugh Smith, Michael Hopkinson, John BOYNTON, William Boynton [John’s brother], Thomas Dickinson,  Maximilian JEWETT, Joseph Jewett, [Maximilian’s brother]  Jane GRANT, John Spofford, George Kilborne & Margaret Stanton whose lot contained only one acre. On Wethersfield street, John Remington, James Barker, William Stickney, William Scales, Matthew Boyes, Jane Brocklebank, Thomas Mighill, Margery Shove, Humphrey Reynor, & Ezekiel Rogers who had six acres. On Holmes street John Miller, John Jarrat, Francis PARROT, Edward Carleton, Henry Sands, Thomas Leaver, John Trumble, John Haseltine, Thomas Tenney, Robert Haseltine, Richard Swan, Thomas Lilforth, Richard Thorlay [Richard THURLOW], Frances Lambert, Robert Hunter, William Acy, Thomas Miller, William Harris, John Harris, Thomas Harris, John Newmarch, William Bellingham, Thomas Nelson, Thomas Barker, Sebastian Briggam, George Abbot, Edward Bridges, Robert CROSBY & Richard Nalam. Sixteen other lots were soon afterwards laid out to the following persons, viz.: John Smith, Mark Prime, William Tenney, Nicholas JACKSON, Richard Leighton, John PEARSON, Edward Sawer, James Bailey, Richard Holmes, Thomas Burkley, John Tillison, Samuel Bellingham, Thomas Sawer, Daniel Harris, William Law & John Hill.

In addition to the settlers above mentioned,

  • John PICKARD Jr. (1622 – 1683) married married Jane CROSBY on 29 Oct 1644 in Rowley, Mass.
  • Leonard HARRIMAN being sixteen years of age and his brother John came to America  under the guidance of Rev. Ezekiel Rogers. did not yet have property in the 1643 inventory. Leonard was admitted freeman of Rowley in 1647. In the same year he bought of John Todd the house lot laid out to John Spofford on Bradford street, now corner of Bradford and Common streets. He was a farmer and mechanic, being a maker of looms. His shop is supposed to have been on the nearby brook and to have been operated by water power.
  • Edward HAZEN Sr. (1614 – 1683)   emigrated between 1643 and 1647.  He married Hannah GRANT in Feb 1649/50 in Rowley, Mass.

Map of Rowley Ancestor Plots - 10 of our ancestor families underlined in red had plots in Rowley in this 1642 map.

x

The common lands of the town were assigned to the settlers in proportion to the extent of their respective house-lots. A military company was soon formed of which Sebastian Brigham was appointed captain. It was to be drilled eight days during the year, and the fine for absence was five shillings per day. The people early distinguished themselves for the manufacture of cotton, hemp and flax cloth. “Our supplies from England,” says Winthrop, in 1643, “failing much, men began to look about them and fell to a manufacture of cotton, whereof we had store from Barbadoes, and of hemp & flax wherein Rowley, to their great commendation, exceeded all other towns.”

Of the early settlers here, Edward Johnson, in his “Wonder-working Providence,” says: “They consisted of about three score families. Their people, being very industrious every way, soon built as many houses, and were the first people that set upon making cloth in this western world; for which end they built a fulling-mill, and caused their little ones to be very diligent in spinning cotton-wool, many of them having been clothiers in England.”

This fulling-mill was built in 1643 by John PEARSON, in the parish of Byfield, which then belonged to Rowley.

The first-recorded marriage in town was that of Robert and Anna Haseltine, in 1639; and the first-recorded birth was that of Robert Carleton, in the same year.

In the minds of the people, the church was the leading institution; the minister the chief guide in things temporal as well as spiritual. Hence a plain meeting-house was erected some time during the first year of the settlement; a church was organized Dec. 3, and the Rev. Ezekiel Rogers installed as pastor.

Samuel Mather (Harvard College, 1643) was some time an assistant of Mr. Rogers in Rowley “where the Zeal of the People to have him settled, was the Cause of his not settling there at all.”‘

The closing days of Mr. Rogers were far from tranquil. Late in life he married a third wife, but “that very night,” says Cotton Mather, “a fire burnt his dwelling house to the ground, with all the goods that he had under his roof.” His right arm was soon afterwards rendered useless by a fall from a horse; so that he was obliged to learn to write with his left hand. After a lingering illness, he died Jan. 23, 1661, aged 70 years. He gave the greater part of his lands and his house to the town and church of Rowley.

Our ancestor Maximilian JEWETT was chosen Deacon of the church, Dec. 13, 1639, in which place he served forty-five years and for two hundred and twenty years a descendant of him or his younger brother, a fellow passenger has been in that office or minister, the whole time except eight years.”  Maximilian was overseer of the will of Rev. Ezekiel Rogers, signed April 17, 1660, and ” In the year 1665, five years after the death of Rev. Ezekiel Rogers, his relative Ezekiel Rogers, son of the Rev. Nathaniel Rogers, of Ipswich, brought an action against the widow of his uncle which occasioned the following: The testimony of Maximilian Jewett saith that I heard our Mr. Rogers express himself very much dissatisfied with the carriage of Ezekiel Rogers, in particularly his familiarity with John Smith, his servent, the Scotchman, & that in some times going behind the meeting house, which bred fears & jealousies in his mind. He also objected to him because he wore long haire.” He was a clothier and with his brother Joseph was about the first, if not the first, to manufacture woolen cloth in America..

Ezekiel’s property subsequently reverted to the use of Harvard College.

The Rev. Samuel Phillips (Harvard College, 1650) was settled in June, 1651, as teacher of Mr. Rogers’ church, on a a salary varying from £50 to £90 per annum. During the sickness of the pastor, Mr. Phillips performed the whole duties of the ministry, for which service the selectmen ordered that £5 should be paid to him. After the decease of Mr. Rogers, his widow, and those in sympathy with her, continued to annoy Mr. Phillips for the space of eighteen years, on account of his reception of this money, to which they persistently claimed he had no legal right. The case was decided in favor of the widow by the Ipswich court; but the decision was overruled by the General Court, and by a church council held on the 19th of Nov., 1679, and the course of Mr. Phillips justified.

On the 15th of Nov., 1665, Samuel Shepard (Harvard College, 1658) was ordained pastor of the church, Mr. Phillips still acting as teacher. Mr. Shepard dying, April 7, 1668, Mr. Phillips was then ordained as pastor, in which office he continued until his death, which occurred, April 26, 1696, after a ministry, either as teacher or pastor, of forty-five years. During the last thirty years of his life, fifty-four were added to the church, and at his death the office of teacher in that church is supposed to have ceased.

Sources:

http://www.hull.ac.uk/mhsc/FarHorizons/Documents/EzekielRogers.pdf

http://homepages.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~kwc/boynton/rowley_hist.html

http://trees.ancestry.com/owt/person.aspx?pid=4620830

http://homepages.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~kwc/boynton/rowley_hist.html

Posted in Artistic Representation, College Graduate, Dissenter, Historical Church, Storied, Wikipedia Famous | Tagged , , | 25 Comments

Everard Digby (Tilton)

Everard DIGBY Esquire (1440-1510)  was  Alex’s 16th Great Grandfather; in the Miner line.

Since our Digby ancestors really were knights, their coat of arms belongs on each of their pages.

Everard DIGBY Esquire was born 1440 in Stoke Dry, Rutland, England. His parents were Everard “Greenleaf” DIGBY and Agnes CLARKE. He married  1463 in Stoke Dry, Rutland, England to Jacquetta ELLIS  Everard died Feb 1510 in Tilton, Stoke Dry, Rutland, England.

St Andrew's Stoke Dry Rutland -- Here lies Everard Digby, Lord of Tilton and Stoke Dry who died 21st January 1510. May God protect his soul

Jacquetta ELLIS was born 1445 in Combe Raleigh, Devon, England.  Her parents were Sir John ELLIS (1430 in Devon) and Eleanor RUSSELL (b: 1432). She died 1483 in Stoke Dry, Rutland, England.

St Andrew's Stoke Dry Rutland --- 1497 Jaquetta daughter of Str John Ellis with her 14 children, she was the wife of Everard Digby 1510 who is buried at Tilton

 

Incised slab to Jaquetta Digby (d. 1496), in the south aisle St Andrew's Stoke Dry, Rutlandshire


Children of  Everard and Jacquetta:

Name Born Married Departed
1. Sir John DIGBY 1464 in Stoke Dry, Rutland, England. Katherine GRIFFIN
1485
Eye Kettleby (Ab Kettleby),
Leicestershire,  England
.
Sancha Willoughby
24 Oct 1517 in Eye Kettleby
May 1533
Eye Kettleby,
Leicestershire, England
2. Sir Simon Digby Knight 1466
Stoke Dry, Rutland, England.
Alice Walleys
1492
Coleshill, Warwickshire, England
1519
Coleshill, Warwickshire, England
3. Agnes Digby 1468
Coleshill, Warwickshire, England.
Sir John Villiers  K.B.
1487
Brooksby, Leicestershire,  England.
4. Sir Everard Digby Knight 1470
Stoke Dry, Rutland, England.
Margery Heydon on 1509
Stoke Dry, Rutland, England
1540
Stoke Dry, Rutland, England.
5. Rowland Digby 1472
Stoke Dry, Rutland
Agnes Shilton [Sheldon?]
6. Sir Thomas Digby Knight 1474
Stoke Dry, Rutland, England.
1516
Olney, Bucks., England
7. Sir Libaeus Digby Knight  1476 in Stoke Dry, Rutland, England  [__?__] Hunt
8. Benjamin Digby 1479 in Stoke Dry, Rutland, England.

Everard and his six brothers fought for Henry VII at the battle of Bosworth 22 August 1485.  This time, the Digbys were on the winning side.

Tomb of Everard Digby -- Digby Chapel St Andrews Dry Stoke Rutland

The Battle of Bosworth Field  was the penultimate battle of the Wars of the Roses, the civil war between the House of Lancaster and the House of York that raged across England in the latter half of the 15th century. Fought on 22 August 1485, the battle was won by the Lancastrians. Their leader Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond, became the first English monarch of the Tudor dynasty by his victory and subsequent marriage to a Yorkist princess. His opponent Richard III, the last king of the House of York, was killed in the battle. Historians consider Bosworth Field to mark the end of the Plantagenet dynasty, making it one of the defining moments of English history.

A stained-glass window in St. James Church, Sutton Cheney, commemorates the Battle of Bosworth Field and the leaders of the combatants, Richard III (left) and Henry VII (right).

Richard’s reign began in 1483 when he seized the throne from his twelve-year-old nephew Edward V. The boy and his younger brother soon disappeared, to the distress of many, and Richard’s support was further eroded by rumours of his involvement in the death of his wife. Across the English Channel Henry Tudor, a descendant of the greatly diminished House of Lancaster, seized on Richard’s difficulties and laid claim to the throne. Henry’s first attempt to invade England in 1483 was frustrated by a storm, but his second arrived unopposed on 1 August 1485 on the southwest coast of Wales. Marching inland, Henry gathered support as he made for London. Richard hurriedly mustered his troops and intercepted Henry’s army south of the town of Market Bosworth in LeicestershireLord Thomas Stanley and Sir William Stanley also brought a force to the battlefield, but held back while they decided which side it would be more advantageous to support.

Richard divided his army, which outnumbered Henry’s, into three groups (or “battles”). One was assigned to the Duke of Norfolk and another to the Earl of Northumberland. Henry kept most of his force together and placed it under the command of the experienced Earl of Oxford. Richard’s vanguard, commanded by Norfolk, attacked but struggled against Oxford’s men, and some of Norfolk’s troops fled the field. Northumberland took no action when signalled to assist his king, so Richard decided to gamble everything on a charge across the battlefield to kill Henry and end the fight. Seeing the king’s knights separated from his army, the Stanleys intervened; Sir William led his men to Henry’s aid, surrounding and killing Richard. After the battle, Henry was crowned king on Crown Hill.

Henry hired chroniclers to portray his reign favourably; the Battle of Bosworth Field was popularised to represent his Tudor dynasty as the start of a new age. From the 15th to 18th centuries the battle was glamorised as a victory of good over evil, and as the climax of Shakespeare’s Richard III about Richard’s rise and fall, it provides a focal point for critics in later film adaptations. The exact site of the battle is disputed because of the lack of conclusive data, and memorials have been erected at different locations. The Bosworth Battlefield Heritage Centre was built, in 1974, on a site chosen based on a theory that has been challenged by several scholars and historians in the following years. In October 2009, a team of researchers, who had performed geological surveys and archaeological digs in the area from 2003, suggested a location two miles  southwest of Ambion Hill.

Children

1. Sir John DIGBY (See his page)

2. Sir Simon Digby Knight (Wiki)

Sir Simon’s wife Alice Walleys was born 1472 in Haddon, Devon, England.

Everard Digby Esq Family Tree from The Visitation of the County of Nottingham

Simon was Constable of Coleshill, in Warwickshire in the 15th century.

Simon de Montford was executed in 1495 for contributing to the fund of Perkin Warbeck, who was plotting to oust King Henry VII from the throne. During de Montford’s imprisonment in the Tower of London, the King granted his lands at Coleshill to Simon Digby as he was Constable. Descendants of Simon Digby (Wingfield-Digby) still hold the titles.

The oldest Digby tomb in Colehsill church, in the north-east corner, is to Simon Digby, died 27 February 1519 (1520), and Alice his wife (date not completed). The tomb and effigies are of alabaster. The man’s head rests on his helm, which has lost its crest. He wears full plate and mail armour of the period and a collar of S.S., a sword on his left, and the remains of his dagger on his right. His hands are in prayer; the gauntlets lie by his right leg. His feet rest against a lion. The woman, on his left, has her head resting on cushions with tiny angels, now headless, holding the corner tassels. She wears a veiled pedimental headdress, a chain necklace, a tight corsage below a sideless gown which has a full skirt. About her waist is a girdle with tasselled pendant cords and a medallion from which is suspended a chain and pomander sachet. At her feet are two tiny dogs. The sides of the tomb are panelled with foiled diamonds in squares enclosing shields. At the angles are twisted shafts painted black. The capping is moulded and has a frieze on which is carved the inscription in Latin. The moulded plinth is enriched with flower or foliage paterae. The shields are painted with the arms of Digby and Walleys.

Simon’s great grandson, John Digby first Earl of Bristol was an English diplomat and a moderate royalist during the English Civil War. See his cousin Everard DIGBY’s page for details

Simon died in 1520 Coleshill, Warwickshire, England and is buried in a tomb, made in his lifetime, bearing superb effigies of himself and his wife, in the sanctuary of Coleshill Church. Alice Walleys was born 1472 in Haddon, Devon, England.

Simon Digby was succeeded by his son Reginald Digby, whose mother Alice in her will of 1496 left a messuage [At one time messuage had a more extensive meaning than that conveyed by the words house or site, but such distinction no longer survives.]) valued at £1 10s. 8d. [a house and land worth only a pound and change?, Maybe that was the annual rent] and certain rents to be distributed on the following conditions:

Coleshill Church in Warwickshire

Every day in the year immediately after the Sacring of the High Mass in the Church of Colshill, and at the end of the same Altar, where the said Mass should so happen to be sung, to a Child, viz. male or female, whose parents are Householders dwelling within the Parish, and under the age of ix (9) years, that can and will, before the said sacring kneel down at the said Altar’s end, and say five Pater nosters (Our Fathers), five Aves (Hail Marys) and a Creede, for the soul of Simon Digby her late husband, hers, her Childrens’ and all Christen souls, a peny of silver sterling; beginning first at the House next to the Church, and so in order passing on from House to House till all be gone through: and to the Dean of the said Church, for the time being, yearly for his labour and diligence in seeing the said Prayers so performed; and himself also saying at the said time a Pater noster, an Ave, and a Creed for the souls abovesaid, the yearly summe of vis. Viiid (8 pence). And that the remainder shall be to maintain a solemn Obit in the said Church, for the souls abovesaid, with the number of three Priests, whereof the Vicar of Colshill to be one, and the Deacon and the Clerke besides; the said Vicar, in case he be present, to have viiid (8 pence). and to xii (12) poor people, the same time kneeling about the Herse and saying our Ladies Psalter, xiid (12 pence). To the Bell-ringers vd (5 pence). For Waxe and Torches, burnt then likewise, xiid (12 pence).

At the Reformation the land and revenues given to maintain the charity were confiscated, but the townspeople acquired the income to maintain the Grammar School and also made a distribution to a child that should come to the church at 10 each morning and repeat the Lord’s Prayer before the clerk, who for hearing the child and ringing the bell had a yearly allowance.

3. Agnes Digby

Agnes’ husband Sir John Villiers K.B. was born 1462 in Brooksby, Leicestershire, England.  His parents were John Villiers and Elizabeth Sothill. He died 2 Dec 1506 in Brooksby, Leicestershire, England.

Sir John was sheriff of Leicestershire and Warwickshire during 6, 10 and 15 of Henry VII and afterwards knighted at the marriage of Prince Arthur, the king’s son.

4. Sir Everard Digby Knight

Sir Everard’s wife Margery Heydon was born 1493 in Baconsthorpe, Norfolk, England. Her parents were Sir John Heydon K.B and Katherine Willoughby.

Tilton-on-the-Hill, Leics: Military effigy on tomb chest with shields,

Everard and Margery’s son  Kenelm Digby (Wiki) (c1518–1590) was an English MP and High Sheriff.  He was born in Stoke Dry  in Rutland, the eldest son of Sir Everard Digby and Margery (née Heydon) Digby and educated at Brasenose College, Oxford and the Middle Temple. He should not be confused with Sir Kenelm Digby (1603–1665), also son of a Sir Everard Digby (executed for taking part in the Gunpowder Plot), of Buckinghamshire.

He was first elected to parliament as MP for Stamford in 1539. He was then appointed High Sheriff of Rutland in 1541.  He was returned as MP for Rutland (as senior knight of the shire) in successive parliamentary elections in 1545, 1547, 1553 (March) and 1553 (October), 1555, 1558, 1559, 1571, 1572 and 1584. He was also appointed High Sheriff of Rutland a further six times in 1549, 1553, 1561, 1567, 1575 and 1585. He was custos rotulorum for Rutland from c.1559 until his death.

He died in 1590 at the age of 70 plus and was buried in the church at Stoke Dry where his effigy lies. He had married Anna Cope, the daughter of Sir Anthony Cope; they had three sons and six daughters.

His great grandson Sir Everard Digby  was was a member of the group of provincial English Catholics who planned the failed Gunpowder Plot of 1605. Although he was raised in a Protestant household, and married a Protestant, Digby and his wife were converted to Catholicism by the Jesuit priest John Gerard. In the autumn of 1605 he was part of a Catholic pilgrimage to the shrine of St Winefride’s Well in Holywell. About this time he met Robert Catesby, a religious fanatic who planned to blow up the House of Lords with gunpowder, killing James I. Catesby then planned to incite a popular revolt, during which a Catholic monarch would be restored to the English throne.  See his cousin Everard DIGBY’s page for details

Sources:

http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~hwbradley/aqwg3007.htm#73800

http://archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com/th/read/GEN-MEDIEVAL/2003-08/1060118688

http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=ancestorsearch&id=I3594

http://archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com/th/read/GEN-MEDIEVAL/2004-05/1084738134

The visitations of the county of Nottingham in the years 1569 and 1614

Posted in Artistic Representation, Line - Miner, Storied | Tagged | 6 Comments

Sir John Digby Knight

Sir John DIGBY Knight (1464-1533)  was  Alex’s 15th Great Grandfather; in the Miner line.

Since our Digby ancestors really were knights, their coat of arms belongs on each of their pages.

Sir John Digby Knight was born 1464 in Stoke Dry, Rutland, England. His parents were Everard DIGBY Esquire and Jacquetta ELLIS. He married  Katherine GRIFFIN on 1485 in Eye Kettleby (Ab Kettleby), Leicestershire, England.  After Catherine died, he married 24 Oct 1517 in Eye Kettleby  to Sancha Willoughby.  Sir John died May 1533 in Eye Kettleby, Leicestershire, England.

Stoke Dry Village

Katherine Griffin was born 1463 in Braybrooke, Northamptonshire, England. Her parents were Nicholas GRIFFIN Lord Latimer and Marina BELERS. Catherine first married 1475 in Braybrooke, Northamptonshire, England  to John Belers Esquire.   Katherine died 1516 in Eye Kettleby, Leicestershire, England.

John Belers was born in 1459 in Eye Kettleby, Leicestershire, England.  John died 27 Jan 1476 in Eye Kettleby, Leicestershire, England.)

Annuitates concessea per Johannem Bellers Ar.

Item it is agreed that during the life of Katherine Digby late the wife of John Bellers Esq’ John Villiers shall pay yearly to Dame Marine Greene in recompence for Kettleby & Sistonby viij  xij  ix  [£8 7s 9d]  to be made sure thereof.

Item Jasper Roskin shall in likewise pay to the same Dame Marine in like recompence yearely to the sayd Dame Marme during the life of the sajd Digby xivj* viij** [14s 8d] and the sayd Jasper other xxvj” vij** [25s 7d].

Item it is agreed that in as goodly hast as can be thought by the aduice of good substantiall the states of the land according to the partitions be ingrossed togeather with the state that shalbe made to the sayd Katherine Digby &c, that is to say to each of the part to them assigned in taile & fault of issue the remainder to be either of the copartners of the Moietie of the same entayle

The Griffin family’s roots can be traced back  to Henry I King of France  (See his page).

Sancha Willoughby was born 1457 in Wollaton, Nottinghamshire, England. Her parents were Sir Robert Willoughby Knight and Margaret Griffith. Sancha first married 1477 in Strelley, Nottinghamshire, England. to John Strelley Esquire (b. 1448 in Strelley, Nottinghamshire, England. – d. 2 Jan 1502 in Strelley, Nottinghamshire, England). Sancha died May 1533 in Eye Kettleby, Leicestershire, England.

Demise by Sanche, late the wife of John Strelley, esquire, to Simon Digby, esquire, of the manor of Trowell and all lands therein during the nonage of John Strelley, son and heir to her siad husband, ‘the remainder thereof after the full age of the said John the son to the same John Strelley the son for term of forty years; which manor was assigned to her as parcel of her dower by Sir Henry Willughby, Sir Gervas Clyfton, knights, and other cofeoffees of her husband according to the award of Sir Thomas Lovell: [Notts. Date: 4 May, 18 Henry VII [1503]

John Markham, knight, and Anne, his wife, daughter of John Strelley, esquire, deceased, and of Sanche, his wife and executrix. v. Simon and Roland, sons and executors of John Digby, knight, second husband of the said Sanche.: Legacy of the said John Strelley, who died possessed of the manors of Strelley, Radcliffe-on-Trent, Chilwell, Wheatley, Oxton, Shipley, and North and South Leverton. Date: 1538-1544 .

Children of  John and Katherine:

Name Born Married Departed
1. Elizabeth Digby 1486
Eye Kettleby, Leicestershire, England
Humphrey Hercy Esquire
1504
Grove, Nottinghamshire, England.
2. William DIGBY Esquire 1495 in Ketteby Luffenham, Rutland, England   [Ab Ketterby is about 25 miles NW of Luffenham,
I’m not sure which is meant by the above combination
Rose PRESTWICH 1518 in England.
.
Ellen Roper
1522
Eye Kettleby, Leicestershire, England
1558
3. Simon Digby 1490
Eye Kettleby
4. Anne Digby 1492
Eye Kettleby
Sir William Skeffington
5. Alice Digby 1494
Eye Kettleby
 George Ashby
6. Rowland Digby 1497
Eye Kettleby
7. Everard Digby 1500
Eye Kettleby
8. Dorothy Digby 1503
Eye Kettleby

Sir John sheriff of Rutlandshire in 1485; also member of Parliament,. Sir John was knighted at the Battle of Bosworth Field fighting for Henry VII [where he defeated Richard III].  John’s father and five uncles also took part in the Battle of Bosworth.  He might have been related to Sir Simon Digby about whom Giles St. Aubyn in his book, “The Year of Three Kings, 1483″ says he joined Henry in his march through Wales to Bosworth.

Battle of Bosworth Field Reenactment

The Battle of Bosworth Field (or the Battle of Bosworth) was the penultimate battle of the Wars of the Roses, the civil war between theHouse of Lancaster and the House of York that raged across England in the latter half of the 15th century. Fought on 22 August 1485, the battle was won by the Lancastrians. Their leader Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond, became the first English monarch of the Tudor dynasty by his victory and subsequent marriage to a Yorkist princess. His opponent Richard III, the last king of the House of York, was killed in the battle. Historians consider Bosworth Field to mark the end of the Plantagenet dynasty, making it one of the defining moments of English history.

Children

1. Elizabeth Digby

Elizabeth’s husband Humphrey Hercy Esquire was born 1482 in Grove, Nottinghamshire, England. His parents were Humphrey Hercye (b: 1437 in Grove, Nottingham) and   Joan Stanhope (b: 1455 in Shelford, Nottingham).  Humphrey died 9 Oct 1520 in Grove, Nottingham, England.

Humphrey Hercye Family Tree Source:The visitations of the county of Nottingham in the years 1569 and 1614

2. William DIGBY Esquire (See his page)

4. Anne Digby

Anne’s husband  Sir William Skeffington (c. 1465-1535), lord deputy of Ireland, belonged to a Leicestershire family and was sheriff of Leicestershire and Warwickshire under Henry VII. He was master of the ordnance and a a knight of the shire (Member of Parliament) for Leicestershire from 1529–1535 in the reign of Henry VIII., and in 1529 was appointed deputy in Ireland for Henry’s son, the duke of Richmond, the nominal lord lieutenant of that country.

Sir William was born in Skeffington, Leicestershire. His brother John was the patriarch of the Massareene family. He was appointed High Sheriff of Leicestershire and Warwickshire for 1508, 1515 and 1521 in the reign of Henry VII and was knighted by that king for his services. In 1523, he received from Henry VIII property near Tunbridge that had belonged to the executed traitor Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham.

He was appointed in 1529 deputy in Ireland to Henry’s son, the duke of Richmond, the nominal lord lieutenant of that country.  He crossed over in August 1529, but his power was so circumscribed by instructions from Henry that the head of the Fitzgeralds, Gerald, 9th earl of Kildare,, and not Skeffington, was the real governor of Ireland. This state of affairs lasted for three years and then in 1532 the deputy was recalled.

In 1534, Kildare being in prison in England and his son Thomas, afterwards the 10th earl, being in revolt, Skeffington was again appointed deputy , at approximately 70 years of age. After some delay he landed at Dublin in October 1534 and marched at once to relieve Drogheda, but further progress in the work of crushing the rebellion was seriously delayed by his illness. However, in the spring of 1535 he was again in the field. He took Maynooth Castle, killing and executing the entire garrison. The heavy artillery used by him on this occasion earning for him his surname of “The Gunner”; he forced some of Kildare’s allies to make peace and captured Dungarvan.

William died in Dublin on the 31st of December 1535, and was buried in St. Patrick’s Cathedral. He was succeeded by his eldest son Thomas.

He was last Roman Catholic to hold the office either of Lord Deputy or Lord Lieutenant, with the exception of the Duke of Tyrconnel in 1687-1689 and Lord Fitzalan in 1921-1922.

He first married Anne’s great aunt Margaret, daughter of Everard “Greenleaf” DIGBY William Skeffington was so fond of Digbys, that when she died, he married her great niece Anna, the daughter of Everard’s grandson John Digby of Kettleby.

William and Margaret had four sons, including Sir Leonard Skeffington, who would hold the post of Lieutenant of the Tower of London. Sir Leonard is credited with having invented the “Scavenger’s Daughter“, which was a torture device used in the Tower during Henry VIII’s reign Following Margaret’s death, William Skeffington married secondly, Anne Digby, a daughter of Sir John Digby of Kettleby and his wife, Katherine Giffin. This marriage produced two further sons and three daughters.

5. Alice Digby

The will (at Nat. Archives) of John Digby d. 1533 of Eye Kettleby asks for masses for the souls of John Bellers and Parnell Ashby (as well as others known to be his close kin) John Bellars was the first husband of the Katherine Griffin who was the first wife of John Digby. John Digby and Katherine Griffin’s daughter Alice married George Ashby so presumably Parnell was a daughter of George and Alice.  Parnell is a female first name – Petronilla in Latin.

Sources:

http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~hwbradley/aqwg2899.htm#73802

http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=12896&id=I37857

The visitations of the county of Nottingham in the years 1569 and 1614

http://archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com/th/read/GEN-MEDIEVAL/2006-07/1152918462

http://archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com/th/read/GEN-MEDIEVAL/2004-04/1081382806

Posted in Line - Miner, Storied | Tagged | 7 Comments

William Digby

William DIGBY (1495 – 1558)  was  Alex’s 14th Great Grandfather; in the Miner line.

Since our Digby ancestors really were knights, their coat of arms belongs on each of their pages.

William DIGBY  was born in 1495 in Ketteby Luffenham, Rutland, England   [Ab Ketterby is about 25 miles NW of Luffenham, I’m not sure which is meant by the above combination.  His parents were Sir John DIGBY and Katherine GRIFFIN.  He married  Rose PRESTWICH 1518 in England.  After Rose died, he married 1522 in Eye Kettleby, Leicestershire, England to Ellen Roper.   William died 1558.

Rose PERWICHE was born 1492 in Brixworth, Northamptonshire, England. Rose died 1517 in Eye Kettleby, Leicestershire, England.

Ellen Roper  was born 1503 in Eltham, Kent, England. She died May 1563 in Weekley, Northamptonshire, England Her parents were John  Roper Esquire and Jane Fineux.   She first married John Morton Esquire on 1520 in Ashby Folville, Leicestershire, England. She last married Sir Edward Montagu Knight on 1530 in Boughton, Northamptonshire, England. Ellen was  buried 7 May 1563 in Weekley, Northamptonshire, England.

Children of William and Rose

Name Born Married Departed
1. Sir John Digby Knight 1513
Eye Kettleby, Leicestershire, England.
Anne Parr
1533
Eye Kettleby, Leicestershire
2. Simon DIGBY Esquire 1520 Bedale, North Yorkshire, England. Anne GREY on 3 Jun 1539 in St. Pancras Soper Lane, Middlesex, England. 28 Mar 1570  hanged, beheaded, quartered to the four gates of the York for his participation in the Rising of the North.

William’s life wasn’t as dramatic as our other Digbys, so I’m including some interesting wall paintings from the family church St Andrews Stoke Dry, Rutlandshire,

St Andrews Dry Stoke Rutland Wall Paintings - Some think this is proof that Norman era Europeans met Native Americans.

St Edmund at Dry Stoke

 St Edmund (died 20 Nov 869) was a king of East Anglia, an Anglo-Saxon kingdom which today includes the English counties of Norfolk and Suffolk and perhaps the eastern part of the Fens. Almost nothing is known of Edmund: contemporary evidence for him is largely confined to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle and his coinage.

The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, which generally described few matters relating to the East Angles and their rulers, is the only source for a description of the events for the year 869 that led to the defeat of Edmund’s army at the hands of the Danes. It relates that “Her rad se here ofer Mierce innan East Engle and wiñt setl namon. æt Đeodforda. And þy wint’ Eadmund cying him wiþ feaht. and þa Deniscan sige naman þone cyning ofslogon. and þæt lond all ge eodon.” – ‘here the army rode across Mercia into East Anglia, and took winter-quarters at Thetford; and that winter King Edmund fought against them, and the Danish took the victory, and killed the king and conquered all that land’.  By tradition the leaders who slew the king were Hingwar and his brother Hubba.

Children

1. Sir John DIGBY Knight

John’s wife Anne Parr  was born 1512 in Horton, Northamptonshire, England. Her parents were  Sir William Parr Lord Parr of Horton and Mary Salisbury

2. Simon DIGBY Esquire (See his page)
Sources

http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~hwbradley/aqwg3008.htm#73807

Posted in Line - Miner, Storied | Tagged | 4 Comments

Simeon Digby

Simeon DIGBY (1520- 1570)  was  Alex’s 13th Great Grandfather; in the Miner line.

Since our Digby ancestors really were knights, their coat of arms belongs on each of their pages.

Simeon DIGBY was born 1520 Bedale, North Yorkshire, England. His parents were William DIGBY and Rose PRESTWICH. He married Anne GREY on 3 Jun 1539 in St. Pancras Soper Lane, Middlesex, England.   In March 1570, he was executed for High Treason;  hanged, beheaded, quartered to the four gates of the city in classic Braveheart fashion for his participation in the Rising of the North.

Simon Digby was imprisoned in York Castle Clifford's Tower before he was executed

Anne Grey was born 1511 in Kempston, Bedfordshire, England. Her parents were Regnold GREY and Elizabeth ISAAC.  Her grandparents were Thomas GREY and Bennet LAUNCELYN. She first married on 1531 in London, Middlesex, England to William Stockell (b. 1507 in London – d. 1538 in London) Anne died 28 Mar 1570 in England.

William Stockwell was born 1507 in London, Middlesex, England. He died 1538 in London, Middlesex, England

Children of Simeon and Anne:

Name Born Married Departed
1. Rowland Digby 1540
Bedale,
North Riding Yorkshire
2. Everard DIGBY betw. 1540 and 1545 in Stoke Dry, Rutlandshire or
Bedale, North Riding  Yorkshire
Katherine STOCKBRIDGE de Vandershaff Theobor [Theodore] de Newkirk
1581
London, England.
 24 Jan 1592.

The Rising of the North of 1569, also called the Revolt of the Northern Earls or Northern Rebellion, was an unsuccessful attempt by Catholic nobles from Northern England to depose Queen Elizabeth I of England and replace her with Mary, Queen of Scots.

When Elizabeth I succeeded her sister Mary as Queen of England in 1558, her accession was disputed due to the disputed legitimacy of the marriage of the Queen’s parents – Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn. Opponents of Elizabeth turned to Mary, Queen of Scots, as the descendant of Henry’s sister Margaret Tudor. The claims were initially put forward by Mary’s father-in-law, King Henry II of France, but Mary upheld them after her return to Scotland in 1561.

Many English Catholics, then a significant portion of the population, increasingly supported Mary’s claim as a means of relief for their situation of religious persecution. This position was especially strong in Northern England, where several powerful nobles were Catholics; there had been similar risings against Henry VIII, the Pilgrimage of Grace of 1536 [Fans of the Tudors on Showtime will remember that bloody episode].  and Bigod’s Rebellion of 1537. Supporters of Mary hoped for aid from France and possibly Spain. Mary’s position was strengthened by the birth of her son, James, in 1566 but weakened again when she was deposed in July 1567.

Charles Neville, 6th Earl of Westmorland was a leader of the Northern Rebellion

The rebellion was led by Charles Neville, 6th Earl of Westmorland and Thomas Percy, 7th Earl of Northumberland, who in November 1569 occupied Durham and celebrated Mass, in Durham Cathedral. Such public Catholic worship had been prohibited by the Protestant Queen Elizabeth. Westmorland’s wife, Jane Howard, played an active part in the rebellion, hoping to arrange a marriage between her brother Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk and the prospective Queen Mary.

Thomas Percy, 7th Earl of Northumberland was the other principal leader

From Durham, the rebels marched south to Bramham Moor, while Elizabeth struggled to raise forces sufficient to confront them. But, hearing of a large force being raised by the Earl of Sussex, the rebels abandoned plans to besiege York, and captured Barnard Castle instead.

They then advanced to Clifford Moor, near Wetherby, where they found their troops consisted of 4000 foot and 600 horse only. Disappointed in the support they expected both in men and money, Westmorland began so visibly to despond that many of his men shrunk away, though Northumberland still kept resolute and was master of the field till the 13 Dec when Essex, been reinforced, marched out of York at the head of 7,000 men followed by a still larger army of another 12,000 under the Earl Of Warwick and the Lord Admiral Baron Clinton.

On Dec 17, on Croft Bridge, Sir George Bowes met the Queen’s leader, the Earl of Sussex and Sir Ralph Sadler. The rebels retreated northward first to Raby then to Auckland and Hexham and lastly to Naworth Castle, where the wily Dacre gave them but short shelter; he was in no mood to compromise himself.

Naworth Castle was the last hold out of Digby and the Northern Rebels

They disbanded their forces, and with a number of attendants fled to Liddisdale, Scotland. Most of the insurgents were killed or captured in flight. Among the prisoners were Simon Digby of Aiskew, and John Fulthorpe of Iselbeck, Esquires, Robert Pennyman of Stokesley and Thomas Bishop of Pocklington, gentlemen, who were imprisoned in York Castle, and afterwards hanged, headed, and quartered; and, according to the barbarous custom of that age, their heads were set up on the four principal gates of the city. Altogether, 600 supporters of Mary were executed, while many others fled into exile.

Aiskew is a village and civil parish in the Hambleton district of North YorkshireEngland. The village is situated to the immediate north-east of Bedale.  Due to expansion of Aiskew and Bedale, the two have essentially merged, the defining line being Bedale Beck.

In March 1570, Simeon was executed for High Treason;  hanged, beheaded, quartered to the four gates of  York in classic Braveheart fashion for his participation in the Rising of the North

The walls of York are punctuated by four main gatehouses, or ‘bars’, (Bootham Bar, Monk Bar, Walmgate Bar and Micklegate Bar). These restricted traffic in medieval times, and were used to extract tolls, as well as being defensive positions in times of war and were convenient sites for quarters.

Bootham Gate York - the north western gate of Eboracum.

Micklegate Bar Gates - York's Southern Gate

Monk Bar from Monk Gate York

Walmgate Bar - York

Sources:

http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~hwbradley/aqwg3008.htm#73809

Posted in Line - Miner, Storied, Violent Death | Tagged | 4 Comments