First Comers

Under the original agreement with the “merchant adventurers”, those who came and worked as partners in the Plymouth venture would all benefit from the 1627 Division of the colony assets. While we tend to give the Mayflower passengers special consideration as “The Pilgrims” (a term they did not use to denote themselves that came into use at the end of the 18th century), the Plymouth colonists classified all those who arrived on the first four ships alike, and referred to them as the “Old Comers” or “First Comers” (which also included a few stragglers such as Phineas Pratt)

Our ancestors are indicated by  First LAST  such as  Elder William BREWSTER,

Elder William Brewster on US Capital Dome – The painting of William Brewster is part of a thematic representation in the President’s room of the Senate Wing, signifying Religion. The other themes are: Discovery (Christopher Columbus); History (Benjamin Franklin); and Exploration (Americus Vespucius).

The Speedwell

The Speedwell had a colorful history. Originally named Swiftsure, she was built in 1577 and took part in the English defeat of the Spanish Armada. She was renamed Speedwell in 1605. At sixty tons she was only a third the size of Mayflower.

The ships shown in this seascape are the approximate size of the Pilgrims’ ill-fated ship, the Speedwell. — Ships in Harbor (Dutch seascape) By Abraham VerWer (1585-1650).

The Congregation and the other colonists finally boarded the Speedwell in July 1620 in the Dutch port of Delfshaven. The Mayflower arrived in Southampton, England, to rendezvous with the Speedwell and to pick up supplies and additional passengers. Among the passengers to join the group in Southampton were many Pilgrims including Elder William BREWSTER, who had been in hiding for the better part of a year, and a group of passengers known to the Leiden congregation as “The Strangers”.

This group was largely made up of passengers recruited by the Merchant Adventurers to provide governance for the colony and additional hands to work for the colony’s ventures. Among the Strangers were Myles Standish, who would be the colony’s military leader, Christopher Martin, who had been designated by the Merchant Adventurers to act as Governor for the duration of the trans-Atlantic trip, and Stephen HOPKINS (wiki), a veteran of a failed colonial venture that may have been the inspiration for Shakespeare’s The Tempest.

The departure of the Mayflower and Speedwell for America was beset by delays. Further disagreements with the Merchant Adventurers held up the departure in Southampton. A total of 120 passengers, 90 on the Mayflower and 30 on the Speedwell, finally departed on August 15.   Leaving Southampton, the Speedwell experienced significant leakage, which required the ships to immediately put in at Dartmouth. After repairs were completed and a further delay ensued awaiting favorable winds, the two ships made it only two hundred miles beyond Land’s End before another major leak in the Speedwell forced the expedition to return again to England, this time to the port of Plymouth.

The Speedwell was determined to be unseaworthy; some passengers abandoned their attempt to emigrate, while others joined the Mayflower, crowding the already heavily burdened ship. Later, it was speculated that the master of the Speedwell had intentionally sabotaged his ship to avoid having to make the treacherous trans-Atlantic voyage.

William RING, Mary RING and Thomas BLOSSOM were  among the passengers who could not fit aboard the Mayflower when the Speedwell was deemed unseaworthy.

At Dartmouth, on August 17th, after leaks forced the ship into port, one of the separatist leaders,  agent Robert CUSHMAN wrote that “Poor William RING and myself do strive who shall be meat first for the fishes, but we look for a glorious resurection.” When the “Mayflower” set out alone on September 6th, neither William nor Mary were aboard.

William RING returned to Leiden and died there sometime between 1620 and 1629. Mary RING and were children including Susannah arrived in Plymouth in 1629 or 1630 most probably on the second Mayflower, which also brought Thomas BLOSSOM and his family,  sailing from Gravesend in March, and landed at Salem Mass on 15 May 1629.

The Mayflower

Mayflower Replica

The Mayflower, carrying 102 settlers, left Plymouth on September 6, 1620, without the Speedwell, and sailed for the New World with a land patent allowing them to settle specifically at the mouth of the Hudson River. The voyage took almost two months as it was drawn out by strong westerly winds and by the Gulf Stream. Turbulent seas and storms added to this delay.

John Howland was pitched overboard. Painting by Mike Haywood

In one such episode, John HOWLAND was thrown overboard, but managed to grab a topsail halyard that was trailing in the water and was hauled back aboard safely. Land was sighted on November 9 off the coast of Cape Cod. The Mayflower made an attempt to sail south to the designated landing site at the mouth of the Hudson but ran into trouble in the region of Pollack Rip, a shallow area of shoals between Cape Cod and Nantucket Island. With winter approaching and provisions running dangerously low, the passengers decided to return north and abandon their original landing plans.

The location in Cape Cod Bay settled by the Plymouth Colony was outside the territory of the London Company, which had granted its patent. The northern coastal territory had been granted to the Plymouth Company, but this patent fell into disuse after the failure of the Popham Colony. It was reorganized under a sea-to-sea charter under the Plymouth Council for New England. The actual Plymouth Colony would obtain land patents from the Plymouth Council in 1621 and in 1630, but it was governed independently from the Council under the Mayflower Compact.

MayflowerPassenger List

The Pilgrims — Leyden congregation and families The Strangers — Planters recruited by London merchants and Hired men
Isaac ALLERTON
* Mary NORRIS ALLERTON, wife (Newbury, Berkshire) died 25 Feb 1621, reportedly in childbirth, baby was stillborn.
Bartholomew, 7, son (Leiden)
Remember, 5, daughter (Leiden)
Mary ALLERTON CUSHMAN, 3, daughter (Leiden), the last survivor of the Mayflower company
* John Hooke, (probably Norwich, Norfolk) age 13, apprenticed to Isaac Allerton
.
William Bradford, (Austerfield, Yorkshire) (later married Alice Carpenter Southworth - daughter of Alexander CARPENTER)
* Dorothy (May) Bradford, wife (Wisbech, Cambridgeshire) Fell the side of the Mayflower and drowned.

Dorothy Bradford comes to America By Annie Bissett

Many historians, suggest that Dorothy may have committed suicide due to despair over her separation from her only son John and fear of settling in a dangerous wilderness.  John Bradford Jr. later immigrated and married Martha Bourne, daughter of  Thomas BOURNE
.
Elder William BREWSTER , (Doncaster, Yorkshire)
Mary LOVE BREWSTER, wife
Love/Truelove , 9, son (Leiden)
Jonathan, 7-8, (Scrooby, Nottinghamshire)
Wrestling , 6, son (Leiden)
Fear, daughter m. Isaac ALLERTON. as his second wife
Richard More, (Shipton, Shropshire), brother to Jasper and Mary More, age 6, indentured to William Brewster
* Mary More, (Shipton, Shropshire), sister to Jasper and Richard More, age 4, indentured to William Brewster, died during the first winter
.
* John Carver (Son of James CARVER) Died of sun stroke in April 1621
* Catherine (Leggett) (White) Carver, wife (Sturton-le-Steeple, Nottinghamshire) Died in May or June 1621
Dorothy [__?__], teenager, maidservant of John Carver.
John HOWLAND (Fenstanton, Huntingdonshire), age about 21, manservant for Governor John Carver
William Latham, age 11, servant/apprentice to the John Carver family
* Jasper More, (Shipton, Shropshire), brother to Richard and Mary More, age 7, indentured to John Carver, died in 1620 while the ship was still anchored at Cape Cod harbor
* Roger Wilder, age under 21, servant in the John Carver family
.
* James Chilton (Canterbury)
* Mrs. Susanna Chilton, wife
Mary , 13, daughter (Sandwich, Kent)
.
Francis COOKE
John , 13, son (Leiden, Netherlands)
.
* John Crackstone Sr., (Stratford St. Mary, Suffolk)
John Crackstone, son
Louise Crutcher, , wife
Jack Crutcher, son
.
* Moses Fletcher, (probably Canterbury, Kent)
.
* Edward Fuller, (Redenhall, Norfolk)
* Agnes Carpenter Fuller, wife (daughter of Alexander CARPENTER)
Samuel , 12, son
.
Samuel Fuller, (Redenhall, Norfolk), (brother to Edward)
* William Butten, age: “a youth”, servant of Samuel Fuller, only person who died during the voyage
.
* John Goodman
.
Desire Minter, (Norwich, Norfolk)
.
* Degory Priest
.
* Thomas Rogers, (Watford, Northamptonshire)
Joseph, 17, son
.
* Edward Tilley, (Henlow, Bedfordshire)
* Ann (Cooper) Tilley (Henlow, Bedfordshire) wife of Edward and aunt of Humilty Cooper and Henry Samson
Henry Samson, 16, (Henlow, Bedfordshire) child in company of his  aunt
Humility Cooper, 1, (probably Leiden,) baby daughter of Robert Cooper, in company of her aunt
.
* John TILLEY  (Henlow, Bedfordshire)
* Joan (HURST) (ROGERS) TILLEY, wife (Henlow)
Elizabeth TILLEY, 13, daughter (Henlow, Bedfordshire) Her parents had died the first winter and she had become the foster daughter of Governor Carver and his wife who were childless.  She married John HOWLAND
.
* Thomas Tinker
* Mrs. Thomas Tinker, wife
* boy Tinker, son,
.
* John Turner
* boy Turner, son,
* boy Turner, younger son.
.
* William White
Susanna White , wife widowed February 21, 1621, subsequently married Edward Winslow – first Plymouth wedding
Resolved White, 5, son, wife was Judith Vassal
Thomas, (Great Yarmouth, Norfolk)
Peregrine White first white child born in in New England. Married Sarah Bassett, daughter of William BASSET.
* William Holbeck, age likely under 21, servant to William White
* Edward Thompson, age under 21, in the care of the William White family, first passenger to die after the Mayflower reached Cape Cod.
.
Edward Winslow, (Droitwich, Worcestershire)
* Elizabeth (Barker) Winslow, wife
* Ellen More, (Elinor), (Shipton, Shropshire), sister, age 8, indentured to Edward Winslow
George Soule, 21-25, servant or employee of Edward Winslow
* Elias Story, age under 21, in the care of Edward Winslow

John Billington, (Spalding, Lincolnshire) [Our family relationship  to Billington isn’t especially close, he was Richard MARTIN's  daughter-in-law’s grandfather, but the first Englishman to be convicted of murder in what would become the United States is a noteworthy black sheep.]
Eleanor Billington, wife
John Billington, 16, son
Francis Billington, 14, son
.
* Richard Britteridge,
.
Peter Browne, (Dorking, Surrey)
.
* Richard Clarke,
.
Francis Eaton, (Bristol, Avon )
* Sarah Eaton, wife
Samuel Eaton, 1
.
Richard Gardiner, (Harwich, Essex)
.
Stephen HOPKINS, (Upper Clatford, Hampshire)
Elizabeth (Fisher) Hopkins, wife
John Guild,  (Essex)
Constance HOPKINS, 14, daughter by first marriage (Hursley, Hampshire) She married Nicholas SNOW. Their son Mark married Jane Prence, daughter of Gov. Thomas PRENCE
Giles Hopkins, 12, son by first marriage
Damaris Hopkins, 1-2, daughter married Jacob Cooke, son of Francis COOKE
Oceanus Hopkins, born en route
Edward Doty, (Lincolnshire) age probably about 21, servant to Stephen Hopkins
Edward Leister, (Kensington), aged over 21, servant to Stephen Hopkins
.
* Edmund Margesson,
.
* Christoper Martin (Billericay, Essex)
* Mary (Prower) Martin, wife
* John Lancemore, (Shropshire or Worcestershire), age under 21, servant to the Christopher Martin
.
* William Mullins, (Dorking, Surrey)
* Alice Mullins, wife
Priscilla Mullins, 18, daughter
* Joseph Mullins, 14, son
* Robert Carter, teenager, servant or apprentice to William Mullins, shoemaker.
.
* Solomon Prower, (Billericay, Essex)
.
* John Rigsdale,
* Alice Rigsdale, wife
.
Myles Standish, (Chorley, Lancashire)
Rose Standish, wife
.
Richard Warren, (Hertford, England)
.
Gilbert Winslow, (Droitwich, Worcestershire), brother to “Pilgrim” Edward Winslow but not known to have lived in Leiden.
.
Men hired to stay one year
.
John Alden, (Harwich, Essex) – considered a ship’s crewman (he was the ship’s cooper) but joined settlers
.
* John Allerton, was listed as a hired man but was apparently related to  Isaac Allerton.
.
Richard Ely, hired as seaman,
.
William Trevore, hired as seaman
.
George Kerr – Carpenter
.
The Mayflower likely carried a crew of about 25 or 30. Unfortunately there was no list of the names of the crew members recorded, so only a few names are actually known.
.
MASTER: Christopher Jones
MASTER’S MATE: John CLARK
While the Pilgrims were exploring Cape Cod and Plymouth Harbor, the shallop was caught in a storm and Clark brought them safely ashore at an Island, which is to this day known as Clark’s Island.
MASTER’S MATE: Robert Coppin
SHIP SURGEON: Giles Heale
SHIP’S COOPER: John Alden
.
Animals
At least two dogs are known to have participated in the settling of Plymouth. In Mourt’s Relation Edward Winslow writes that a female mastiff and a small springer spaniel came ashore on the first explorations of what is now Provincetown.

* Died the first winter 1620/21

Other Deaths
Thomas English
Thomas Williams
Alice Closford, October 24

Four of the those listed as family servants were small children, given over by Samuel More of Shropshire into the care of senior Mayflower Pilgrims. This was all due to scandal involving the children’s mother and her husband Samuel’s effort to dispose of the children by sending them away to Virginia as indentured servants. Long ago, Richard More and his siblings were even thought to have even been parentless London street waifs, but in 1959 a 1622 document revealed the whole scandal and the reason behind the children being sent on the Mayflower.

The Mayflower was kept tied up there all through the first winter to provide shelter. Even then, half the pilgrims died during that first winter of exposure and starvation. Once the cold had gone, the Mayflower set sail for England with her holds empty. This did not make the company happy at all and produced the small relief effort on the Fortune.

One Congregation

 Pastor Robinson, who continued to shepherd the flock in Lieden until such time as the Society was able to send over to America others of the congregation.

Two such embarkations took place prior to the death of the pious old preacher in 1625, and the remaining members embarked in subsequent voyages about 1630. The ship “Fortune” in Nov 1621, brought over twenty-five members of the church besides children; and in Aug 1623, the “Ann” and “Little James” carried across sixty more church members in addition to children.

The Pilgrim church in Leyden and its transported membership at New Plymouth in America continued as one body. The branch in the New World never chose a pastor so long as Pastor Robinson was living. During the interim, Elder Brewster presided over the spiritual concerns of the struggling congregation at Cape Cod until 1629.

The Fortune

In Nov 1621, one year after the Pilgrims first set foot in New England, a second ship sent by the Merchant Adventurers arrived. The “Fortune,” a small ship carrying only 35 passengers, left England in July 1621 and didn’t arrive at Plymouth until November 10th of that year.  On arrival they found that half the “Mayflower” passengers had not made it through their first winter in Plymouth.   The Fortune was only 55 tons, compared to 350 tons for the Mayflower, too small to carry anything more than what was needed for the journey.   As the ship had arrived unexpectedly, and also without many supplies, the additional settlers put a strain on the resources of the colony. Among the passengers of the Fortune were several additional people of the original Leiden congregation, including Elder William BREWSTERs son Jonathan and Edward Winslow’s brother John.

Vessels – Fortune – 1. Captain’s Charthouse 2. Quarterdeck 3. Great Cabin 4. Steerage 5. Capstan 6. Main Deck 7. Fo’c’sle 8. The Tiller Flat 9. Beakhead 10. The Tween Decks 11. Anchor Windlass 12. Main Hold

The Fortune also carried a letter from the Merchant Adventurers chastising the colony for failure to return goods with the Mayflower that had been promised in return for their support.

The Fortune began its return to England laden with “cargo of good clapboard as full as she could stow, and two hogsheads of beaver and other skins” which showed the great potential for settling in America,  £500 worth of goods (£83,000 as of 2010), more than enough to keep the colonists on schedule for repayment of their debt.

On the crossing, the Fortune had been blown off course and found itself in French waters where the French navy captured the unarmed ship and held it and crew captive for several weeks, creating an even larger deficit for the colony. Once the French realized the English would never pay for their freedom, they took what cargo was aboard and allowed the ship and crew to continue the voyage to England

The Fortune carried only twenty-one passengers. These were not pilgrims themselves. In fact, the company had hired them specifically because they were adventurers. They had agreed to locate treasure and this they would share with the company. The company sent with them, instructions for the pilgrims to follow (which they did). The pilgrims were to house these men, and care for them.

This passenger list is based on the 1623 Division of Land, compiled by Charles Edward Banks in Planters of the Commonwealth, and by the information found in Eugene Aubrey Stratton’s Plymouth Colony: Its History and its People, 1620-1691.

Fortune Passenger List

John Adams
.
William BASSETT
Elizabeth BASSETT (Wife)
.
William Beale
.
Jonathan Brewster [son of Elder William BREWSTER]
.
Clement Briggs married Joan Allen, daughter of George ALLEN
.
Edward Bumpas
.
John Cannon
.
William Conner
.
Robert CUSHMAN |
Thomas  CUSHMAN, (Son)
.
Philipe de la Noye
.
Stephen Deane married Elizabeth Ring, daughter of William RING  Their daughter Miriam married John WING II as his second wife Their daughter Susannah married Nicholas SNOW‘s son Stephen
.
Thomas Flavell & Son
.
[__?__] Ford
Martha Ford (Wife)
Martha Ford (daughter)
John Ford (son)
.
Thomas Flavell & Son
Robert Hickes (his daughter Lydia Hicks married our ancestor Edward BANGS,though we descend from his second wife Rebecca HOBART)
.
William HILTON Sr.
.
Bennet Morgan
.
Thomas Morton [our ancestor Benjamin CRISPE was a servant of Edward Gibbons  at Morton's  free-loving Merrymount in the 1620's],
.
Austen Nicolas
.
William Palmer
William Palmer (son)
.
William Pitt
.
Gov. Thomas PRENCE
.
Moses Simonson
.
Hugh Statie
.
James Steward
.
William Tench
.
John Winslow
.
William Wright

Ann & Little James

In July 1623, two more ships arrived named the Anne, under the command of  Master, William Peirce, and the Little James  with her Captain, Emanuel Altham, and Master, John Bridges ten days later, carrying 96 new settlers, among them the wives and children that had been left behind and  Leideners,  including William Bradford‘s future wife, Alice Carpenter Southworth (daughter of Alexander CARPENTER)

Ann and Little James

Some of the passengers who arrived on the Ann were either unprepared for frontier life or undesirable additions to the colony and returned to England the next year. According to Gleason Archer,  “those who remained were not willing to join the colony under the terms of the agreement with the Merchand Adventureres. They had embarked for America upon an understanding with the Adventurers that they might settle in a community of their own, or at least be free from the bonds by which the Plymouth colonists were enslaved. A letter addressed to the colonists and signed by thirteen of the merchants recited these facts and urged acceptance of the new comers on the specified terms.” The new arrivals were alloted land in the area of the Eel River, known as Hobs Hole, which became Wellingsley, a mile south of Plymouth Rock.

Anthony Annabal, wife
Jane Annabal, and children: Sarah, Hannah
.
Edward BANGS “Edward Bangs, from Panfield, Essex Co., Shipwright.”
.
Robert Bartlett
.
Fear Brewster (married Isaac ALLERTON as his second wife)
Patience BREWSTER; (daughters of Elder WILLIAM BREWSTER)
.
Mary Bucket
.
Edward Burcher
.
Deacon Thomas CLARK
.
Christopher Conant
.
Hester COOKE (joined her husband and son, both Mayflower passengers), and children: Jane, Jacob, and Mary
.
Godbert Godbertson
Sarah (Priest) Godberston, and children: Marrah Priest, Sarah Priest , and Samuel.  Sarah and Digory Priest’s son John married Sarah Allerton, daughter of Isaac ALLERTON
.
Anthony Dix
.
John Faunce married 1633 to fellow passenger Patience Morton, daughter of George MORTON
.
Mr. Pierce’s two servants.
.
Joshua Pratt
.
James Rand
.
Robert Ratcliffe and his wife
.
Nicholas SNOW his son Mark married Jane Prence, daughter of Gov. Thomas PRENCE
.
Alice Carpenter (Daughter of Alexander CARPENTER) (m1. Edward Southworth) (m2. Gov. William Bradford)
.
Francis Sprague, and either his wife or daughter Anna, and daughter Mercy.  His son John married Ruth Bassett, daughter of William BASSETT.
Barbara — (Standish)
.
Thomas Tilden and wife
.
Stephen Tracy His son John Tracy married Mary Prence, daughter of Gov. Thomas PRENCE
.
Ralph Wallen and wife Joyce,  (After Ralph died, Joyce married Thomas LUMBERT as his fourth wife.)
.
Goodwife Flavell
.
Edmund Flood
.
Bridget Fuller
.
Timothy Hatherly
.
William Heard
.
Margaret Hickes and her children (wife of Robert Hickes, who came in the Fortune): Lydia, Phoebe, Samuel and Ephraim
.
William HILTON’s wife Mary [__?__] and children: William HILTON Jr., and Mary
.
Edward Holman.
.
John Jenny
.
Sarah Jenny, and children: Samuel,Abigail and Sarah
.
Manasseh Kempton [son of George KEMPTON] (2nd husband of Juliana CARPENTER  MORTON )
.
Robert Long
.
Experience Mitchell m. Jane Cooke, daughter of Francis COOKE
.
George MORTON,  and his wife Julianna CARPENTER MORTON KEMPTON, and children: Nathaniel, Patience, John, Sarah, and Lt. Ephraim MORTON
.
Thomas Morton, Jr.; son of Thomas Morton, who came in the Fortune
.
Ellen Newton
.
John Oldham and his sister, Lucretia.  Lucretia married Jonathan Brewster, son of Elder William BREWSTER
.
Frances Palmer; wife of William Palmer, who came in the Fortune
.
Christian Penn
.
Elizabeth Warren, wife of Richard (Mayflower), and children: Mary, Anna, Sarah (married John Cooke, son of Francis COOKE John was the last male survivor of the Mayflower passengers.) , Elizabeth, and Abigail

Ignatius Thompson’s “Genealogy of John Thompson” says he came to America in “the third embarkation,” a company under the patronage of Thomas Weston, a merchant of distinction in London. The company contained 60 or 70 men, some of them with families. Among them was John TOMSON, then 6 years old. They landed at Plymouth early in May 1622. However, there seems to be some errors in Ignatius’s account.

What is properly called the “third embarkation,” the “Little James and Anne,” actually arrived in Aug 1623 with 60 passengers. There were other other arrivals, the “Sparrow” in May 1622, with seven passengers, was indeed sent by Thomas Weston. Still another arrival was the “Charity and Swan” in Jul 1622, also sent out by Thomas Weston, with sixty colonists bound for Wessagusset or Weymouth, which stopped at Plymouth with letters from Mr. Weston stating that he had quit the “Adventurers.” John Thompson may have indeed arrived in May 1622 as Ingnatius Thompson said, but this was not termed the “third embarkation.”

In September 1623, another ship carrying settlers destined to refound the failed colony at Weymouth arrived and temporarily stayed at Plymouth. In March 1624, a ship bearing a few additional settlers and the first cattle arrived. A 1627 division of cattle lists 156 colonists divided into twelve lots of thirteen colonists each.  Another ship also named the Mayflower arrived in August 1629 with 35 additional members of the Leiden congregation. Ships arrived throughout the period between 1629 and 1630 carrying new settlers; though the exact number is unknown, contemporary documents claimed that by January 1630 the colony had almost 300 people.

In 1643 the colony had an estimated 600 males fit for military service, implying a total population of about 2,000. By 1690, on the eve of the dissolution of the colony, the estimated total population of Plymouth County, the most populous, was 3,055 people. It is estimated that the entire population of the colony at the point of its dissolution was around 7,000.  For comparison it is estimated that between 1630 and 1640, a period known as the Great Migration, over 20,000 settlers had arrived in Massachusetts Bay Colony alone, and by 1678 the English population of all of New England was estimated to be in the range of 60,000. Despite the fact that Plymouth was the first colony in the region, by the time of its annexation it was much smaller than Massachusetts Bay Colony.

Our ancestors or their close relatives had almost half the lots in early Plymouth – (George Soule was the grandfather of John TOMSON’s son-in-law, not close enough to get a #)

Our ancestors or their close relatives had almost half the lots in early Plymouth – (George Soule was the grandfather of John TOMSON’s son-in-law, not close enough to get a #)

Saints and Strangers

Besides the Pilgrims, or “Saints”, the rest of the Mayflower settlers were known as the “Strangers”. This group included the non-Pilgrim settlers placed on the Mayflower by the Merchant Adventurers, and later settlers who would come for other reasons throughout the history of the colony and who did not necessarily adhere to the Pilgrim religious ideals. A third group, known as the “Particulars”, consisted of a group of later settlers that paid their own “particular” way to America, and thus were not obliged to pay the colony’s debts.

The presence of outsiders such as the Strangers and the Particulars was a considerable annoyance to the Pilgrims. As early as 1623, a conflict between the Pilgrims and the Strangers broke out over the celebration of Christmas, a day of no particular significance to the Pilgrims. Furthermore, when a group of Strangers founded the nearby settlement of Wessagussett (later Weymouth), the Pilgrims were highly strained, both emotionally and in terms of resources, by their lack of discipline. They looked at the eventual failure of the Wessagussett settlement as Divine Providence against a sinful people.

Sources:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Mayflower_passengers

http://www.mayflowerhistory.com/Passengers/passengers.php

http://www.alden.org/documents/otherships.htm

http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~netlapm/Page31X.htm

http://www.smithsonianmag.com/people-places/pilgrimsprogress.html?c=y&page=2

http://www.packrat-pro.com/ships/fortune.htm

http://www.packrat-pro.com/ships/anne.htm

http://www.packrat-pro.com/ships/LJames.htm

http://www.mayflowerhistory.com/Genealogy/crew.php

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8 Responses to First Comers

  1. Beverly Cross says:

    Are you sure Captain Anthony Dike was the captain of the Ann? There is some confusion between Anthony Dix and Anthony Dike in other Genealogies. What do you reference?

  2. Pingback: Favorite Posts 2012 | Miner Descent

  3. Kathleen Ulrich says:

    What an outstanding job you have done. I am tracing the Parker line and there are a lot of them! My great X3 grandfather was William Parker, Sr., born 1755, Foster, Rhode Island, died 12/31/1833 in Virgil, Cortland, New York. According to Leon Clark Hills Cape Code Series Vol. I, History and Genealogy of the Mayflower Planters and First Comers to Ye Olde Colonie, Genealogocial Publishing Co., Inc., Baltimore 1981, originally published Washington, D.C., 1936, 1941 page 24: “Repairs to the Mayflower were hurried, and a crew assembled, consisting of Capt. Christopher Jones, Master Mates John Clarke, Robert Coppin, Andrew Wiliamson and John Parker, Surgeon Doctor Giles Heale, Four quartermasters, a carpenter, cook, boatswain and gunners.” The departure of the Mayflower followed on Saturday, July 15, 1620 (O.S.). On page 26, discussing the division of the original colony of “Virginia”, New England fell in the “second colony”, it states: “…and the persons named in this grant were Thomas Hanham, Raleigh Gilbert, William Parker and George Popham.” There is considerable information in this book about the Shaws: James, John, Jonathan, and Mary.

    This was a two volume set rolled into one book by Leon Clark Hills, the author of both. Volume 2, written August 21, 1941, list “Thomas Parker, mayor of Bristol, Certificate for sailing of the ship “Supply,” Sept. 18, 1620.” This ship is described as being very similar to the Mayflower. It sailed from the port of Bristol directly to Jamestown. The Shaws listed in this volume, in addition to those listed above, where George, Hannah and Lydia.

    This brings me to my great question. Was John Parker Jr. a master mate on the Mayflower and then returned to England until after he married and produced a family before returning? I have not been able to verify this one way or the other. I would be interested in your assessment.

    Thanks again for the great job.

    Kathleen Ulrich, Phoenix, Arizona

    • markeminer says:

      Hi Kathleen,

      I don’t have any special information on John Parker, Mayflower Mate, but I am descendant from an even earlier seafaring mate John Parker.

      My John Parker was a mate on the 1607 voyage to found the Popham Colony, a short-lived English colonial settlement located in the present-day town of Phippsburg, Maine, making him our first ancestor to arrive in North America.

      For a long time historians believed John Parker came over to New England as mate on the Mayflower. But here one of our earliest historians was guilty of a false assumption that has been so often repeated by later writers that it has assumed the quality of being factual. He based this on a deposition found in the Mass. Superior Court files. It was sworn to by John Phillips 3rd of Charlestown on Nov. 20, 1750 stating that John Parker, his father’s uncle “was mate of the first ship that came from England with Plymouth people. “That historian concluded that “Plymouth People” were the Pilgrims and the first ship was the Mayflower. But it actually was referring to the town of Plymouth in England and the Plymouth Company ships in 1607.

      See my post http://minerdescent.com/2011/03/30/john-parker-sr/

      Cheers!,

      Mark

  4. Kathleen Ulrich says:

    Thank you so much! I believe you have given me that correct answer. The Cape Code Series also in passing mentioned William Parker, but with little detail, but may have also picked him up as well. Fascinating history. My husband has read quite a bit about the American pirates and it sounds like the Parkers were among them. I will pass this on to him. I would like to return to your website as it is truly a treasure. Thanks again for sharing it with me.
    Kathy Ulrich

  5. Pingback: Favorite Posts 2013 | Miner Descent

  6. Paul Clark says:

    Your list of Mayflower passengers,includes a “John Guild (Essex)” in the household of Stephen Hopkins. Other lists, like that of the Mayflower Society, do not have him as a passenger. Sites that include him make no comment about him, but he always appears with the Hopkins family. There must be some controversy about this but I can find no discussion of it anywhere. Who was he and why is he included on your list and not on many others?
    Thanks,
    Paul. .

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